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Full text of "The University Monthly"

Library 

OF THE 

University of NortK Carolina 

This book was presented by the family 
of the late 

KEMP PLUMMER BATTLE, '49 

President of the University of North Carolina 
from 1876 to 1890 



C378 

U-C2* rvu 



c.3 



This book must not 
be taken from the 
Library building. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/universitymonthl1882unse 



Voll. 



Chapel Hill, N. C, February, 1882. 



No. 1. 



I^netny. 



Tlie Valley of Silence. 



I walk down the Yallev of Silence— 
Down the dim, voiceless vallev— alone ! 

And l hear not the fall of a footstep 
Around me, save God's and mv own; 

And the hush of my heart is as holy 
As hovers where angels have flown ! 



In the- hush *of the Yallev of Silence 
I dream all the songs that I sing: 

And the music floats down the dim Yallev, 
Till each finds a word for a win?, 

That to hearts, like the Dove of the Deluge, 
A message of Pea^e they may bring. 

But fir on the deen there are hillows 
That never shall break on the Veaeh ; 

And I' have heard sonsrs in the Silence, 
That never shall float into speech ; 

And I have had dreams in the Yalley, 
Too lofty for language to reach. 

Ani I have seen Thoughts in the Valley— 
Ah ! me. how mv spirit was stirred ! 

And thev wear holy veils on their faces, 
Their footsteps ^an s-ar^elv be heard : 

Thev pass through the Yallev like Yirgins, 
Too pure for the touch of a word ! 

Do von ask me the pla^e of the Yalley, 
Ye hearts that are harrowed by Care ? 

It lieth afar between mountains. 
And God and His angels are there: 

And one is the dark mount of Sorrow, 
And one the bright mountain of Prayer ! 

— Father Byan. 



Contrifiuticns. 



AX OLD TIME WORTHY. 



Benjamin Smith, Soldier, Statesman, 
Philanthropist. 



Xear the mouth of the beautiful Cape 
F ar River, on its ri c -ht bank, is a pleasant 
little town. It is fanned by the delicious 
sea breezes ; huge live oaks gratefully shade 



its streets. In its sombre cemetery repose 
the bodies of many excellent people. Its 
harbor is good. It is on the main channel 
of the river. From its wharves can be seen 
not far away the thin white line of waves 
as they break on the sandy beach. But the 
ships to and from its neighbor, Wilmington, 
pay little tribute as they pass and repass. 
Its chief fame is that it contains the court- 
house of the county of Brunswick. Its 
name is Smithville. 

Opposite this good old town is a desert 
island, gently undulating here and there in- 
to sand hills, with occasional green flats and 
dwarfed pines to relieve the general monot- 
ony. It is exposed to the full fury of the 
Atlantic storms. New Inlet once poured a 
rapid stream between the island and the 
mainland. But daring and industrious 
man seeks to force by walls of stone the im- 
petuous floods through the i i rer channel to the 
west and thus float larger ships up the river 
to the port of Wilmington. Its southern 
end forms the dangerous cape which Mr. 
George Davis so eloquently describes : 

" A naked, bleak elbow of sand jutting 
far out into the ocean. Immediately in its 
front are the Frying Pan Shoals, pushing 
out still further twenty miles to sea. To- 
gether they stand for warning and for wo ; 
and together they catch the long majestic 
roll of the Atlantic as it sweeps through a 
thousand miles of grandeur and power, from 
the Arctic toward the Gulf. It is the play- 
ground of billows and tempests, the kind- 
dom of silence and awe, disturbed by no 
sound save the sea-gull's shriek and the 
I breakers' roar. * * * There it stands 
! bleak and threatening and pitiless as it 
| stood three hundred years ago, when Green- 
i ville and White came nigh unto death upon 



4 



UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



its sands. And there it will stand bleak 
and threatening and pitiless, until the earth 
and sea shall give up their dead. - And -as 
its nature, so its name, is * * * the Cape 
of Fear." 

The name of the sandy reach which I 
have described, so desolate, yet so full of 
interest, is Smith Island. 

Tbe University of North Carolina has 
amid its group of buildings, one, in its 
shape and portico and columns, imitating a 
Greek temple. Its basement was until re- 
cently the home of the State Agricultural 
Experiment Station, which has done so 
much to protect our farmers from frauds, 
but now is the laboratory of the professor of 
chemistry. Above is a long and lofty room 
containing the iibrary of the University. 
On its shelves are many anci nt b^oks of 
great value but vacant spaces plead piteous- 
ly for new books in all the departments of 
literature and science. The name of this 
building is "Smith Hall." 

What member of the widely spread fami- 
ly of Smiths has thus given his familiar 
name to a county town, an island and a Un- 
versity Hall? His christian name was 
Benjamin. He was an active officer of the 
Revolution and a Governor of our State, 
and the first benefactor of the University. 
Governor Smith had many vicissitudes of 
fortune. In his youth he was aid-de-camp 
of Washington in the dangerous but mas- 
terly retreat from Long Island after the de- 
feat uf the American forces. He behaved 
with conspicuous gallantry in the brilliant 
action in which Moultrie drove the British 
from Port Royal Island and checked for a 
time the invasion of South Carolina. A 
Charleston paper of 1794 says, "he gave 
on many occasions such various proofs of 
activity and distinguished bravery as to 
merit the approbation of his impartial coun- 
try." After the strong Union superseded 
the nerveless Confederacy, when there was 
danger of war with France or England, he 
was made General of militia and when later, 
on account of insults and injuries of France 
our government made preparations for ac 



[Feb., 

tive hostilities, the entire militia of Bruns- 
wick county, officers and men roused to en- 
thusiasm by an address from him full of en- 
ergy and fire, volunteered to follow his lead 
in the legionary corps raised for service 
against the enemy. The confidence of his 
countrymen in his wisdom and integrity was 
shown by their fifteen times electing him to 
the Senate of the State. From this post he 
was chosen by the General Assembly as our 
Chief Executive in 1810, when war with 
England was constantly expected and by 
large numbers earnestly desired. The char- 
ter of the University was granted in 1789. 
The trustees were the great men of that day 
— the leaders in war and in peace. The 
first named and chairman was Samuel John- 
ston, the chairman of the Provincial Coun- 
cil in 1775, and therefore the" first de facto 
Governor of Revolutionary North Carolina. 
There were James Iredell, appointed by 
Washington Judge of the Supreme Court of 
the United States, and Alfred Moore his 
successor. There was the first Federal Dis- 
trict Judge, Colonel John Stokes and John 
Sitgreaves his successor. There was Hugh 
Williamson, the historian, and the first three 
Judges under the Constitution of 1776. 
Samuel Spencer, John Williams, and Sam- 
uel Ashe, soon to be Governor and whose 
great-grandson, Thomas Samuel Ashe, we 
find exactly one hundred years afterwards 
on th& Supreme Court Bench, as one of the 
three Judges under the Constitution of 1876, 
There was the "Father of the University," 
William Richardson Davie, and also Rich- 
ard Dobbs Spaight, and Benjamin Williams 
all three ere long to become Governors of 
their State. We find likewise military men 
who had been conspicuous fighters in the 
Revolution ; General Joseph Graham, scar- 
red with wounds in the defense of Charlotte 
under Davie, General Thomas Person, whose 
liberality to the University is commemo- 
rated by " Person Hall." There were Col. 
William Lenoir and Joseph McDowell who 
aided in the capture of Ferguson at King's \ 
Mountain. Of others distinguished in our \ 
history, there were Archibald McLaine and 
Willie Jones, bold and active patriots. Ste- 



1882.] 



UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



phen Cabarrus, the popular Speaker of the 
House of Commons, John Haywood, the 
widely beloved State Treasurer. Of the 
National Huuse of Representatives, then 
and after were Charles Johnston, Joseph 
Dixon, Jamss Holland and Alexander Meb- 
ane, father and grand-father of the Speak- 
ers of the Senate, James Mebane*" and his 
son, Giles Mebane. 

Of this band of eminent men, Benjamin 
Smith was a worthy member. He is enti- 
tled to the signal honor of being the first 
benefactor of the infant institution, the lead- 
er of the small corps of liberal supporters of 
education in North Caiolina. For that 
reason alone his name should be revered by 
all the long line of students who call the 
University their Alma Mater — by every 
one who desires the enlightenment of our 
people. 

The Trustees met, for organizsti^n, in 
Fayetteville on November 15th, 1790, choos- 
ing as their chairman, QA. William Linfir, 
the Speaker of the Senate. General 
Smith gladdened these hearts by the mag- 
nificent donation of patents for twenty thous- 
and acres of lands in western Tennessee. A 
large portion of them was a gift to him for 
his gallant services during the dark hours 
of the Revolution. They were the price of 
liberty. They were the earnings of patriot- 
ism. They were the offering of a generous 
heart and a wise head, which knew well 
that liberty could not be preserved without 
education — that ignorance must be slain or 
vice will be the ruler of our land. 

Generation after generation grew up 
and passed away. Year after year young 
men, their mental armor supplied and 
and burnished through his wisdom and 
liberality, went from the University walls 
to become sources of good influence in all 
our land, from the Potomac to the Rio 
Grande. The institution he loved so well 
after many vicissitudes of trials and suffer- 
ings had become wealthy and prosperous. 
Nearly five hundred matriculates every 
year entered their names on its roll to par- 
take of its instruction. The revered donor 



had drunk to its dregs the cup of bitterness. 
His too generous disposition and misplaced 
confidence in others had deprived him of 
his wealth. His once strong and vigorous 
body had been wasted by disease and racked 
by pain. In poverty and in wretchedness 
he had long since sunk into his grave under 
the weeping moss of the great swamp trees. 
Sixty years after his generous gift the Trus- 
tees of the University honored themselves 
by bestowing his name on a beautiful struc- 
ture devoted to literature and to science. 
The sacrifices of the old hero were not in 
vain. His monument is more enduring 
than marble or brass. Centuries will come 
and go. Men's fortunes will wax and wane. 
But the blessings of the gift of Benjamin 
Smith nearly a hundred years ago will nev- 
er cease and his name will keep green for- 
ever. 

Kemp P. Battle. 



" What Shall We Read ?" 



'What shall we read ?', is a query which 
has assumed double significance ever since 
our periodicals have added to their list of 
contributors, the literary leaders of the day. 
Whether the literati can perform their prop- 
er functions as such, in portioning out, as it 
were, their individualities by piece-meal, 
rather than in presenting the rounded and 
unified result in an elaborate work, is a ser- 
ious question, especially when considered 
with reference to the youthful portion of 
their readers. 

An observation of four years has convinc- 
ed us that a large proportion of the reading 
done by the University students consists of 
feview and magazine articles. We are far 
from advocating that utter indifference to 
the questions and incidents of the day which 
frequently breeds in the assiduous student a 
sense of affected alienation from the interests 
of ordinary society. The question is, should 
a student, whose literary taste is in process 
of formation and whose rapid mental devel- 
opment craves novelty, devour as orthodox 
the crude untested theories of review con- 



6 



UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



[Feb. 



tributors. It is not too much to say that 
the literary efforts of a college student should 
be confined wholly to the cultivation of his 
powers of expression and invention, and to 
endeavor to appreciate a piece of literature 
as an art-product. 

It is to be presumed that his outside read- 
ing will be parallel with his training in this 
branch. But the tone of magazine articles 
is not consonant with this object. It is 
well known that advanced reviews are filled 
with tentative articles on novel themes 
Not only this, but these essays, often con- 
structed so flimsily with regard to matter, 
are thundered forth in a most oracular man- 
ner. The illogical tyro, converted by a 
mannerism, becomes the strenuous advocate 
of an ingeniously spun theory, presented by 
its author n erely as a specimen of literary 
or scientific jugglery. Thus frequently an 
appetite f< r sensational style i nd dicloc; t d 
reasoning is cultivated. The habitual read- 
er of review articles also contracts a habit 
of assimilating one phase of a question. 
The three main qualities of style especially 
favored by review writers — clearness, vivac- 
ity and plausibility — hasten the process, 
and the work of conviction is complete. He 
devours the product of the immature seed- 
ling, but the sounder fruitage that comes af- 
terward lacks the freshness that appeals to 
him. 

In the meanwhile, on account of the brief 
presentation of each subject, he has render- 
ed himself almost incapable of assimilating 
a healthy, complete and rounded treatise, 
wrought out by the persistent and vigorous 
strokes of a master mind. It is indeed a 
questionable charity for some of our pub- 
lishers to create audiences for those who 
cannot write books that will of tlurrsclve 
invite guests to the feast. At the same time, 
the above mentioned class of readers become 
mentally disabled, and halt in their effort 
to sustain and carry forward the burden of 
a continued train of thought. Hence it is 
thrt some of our most popular newspaper 
editors are skillful paragraphists, and one 
oelebrated periodical has resorted to a typo- 



graphical deception, in order to obviate the 
necessity of reducing logic to epigrams. 

One result is that the student seeks for 
stimulative rather than nourishing litera- 
ture, and thus literary anomalies succeed 
frequently in gaining an enthusiastic follow- 
ing. Eliminate from the productions of 
Col. Ingersoll and Oscar Wilde the element 
that causes the drunkenness of enthusiasm, 
and their wild theories would be nauseating 
to their originally intoxicated disciples. It 
is a peculiarity about sensationalists, that 
they often make brilliant parades through 
the world, but fail to make even respectable 
exits. It is this constant reading and blind- 
ed admiration of this literary clap-trap that 
prevents a student from enjoying literature 
as an art-product. Again, he who reads 
literature from a merely utilitarian stand- 
point, bids fair to become a rampant dema- 
gogue or a shallow dilettante ; but the sin- 
cere and faithful disciple of the great mas- 
ters, drinking in the divinity that lurks in 
their art, becomes their sympathizing inter- 
preter, or perhaps he himself, by a closely- 
wedded companionship, may catch the di- 
vine efflatus. The versatility, the brevity, 
the narrowness of review articles, however 
suitable they may be to the taste and leisure 
of a student, fortify his mind against the 
virtues of true literary art. 

The controversial tone of our recent per- 
iodicals is peculiarly tempting to students, 
and is probably more injurious than the sen- 
sational. It is not the stern logic, the ag- 
gressiveness or conservatism, the humble 
search for truth, (if such there be in these 
reviews) that attract his attention, but his 
memory rapidly garners in the " little nos- 
trums," the plentiful epigrams, the strained 
antitheses, and the questionable witticisms. 
Finally, he whose mind is not already fa- 
miliar with the conservative presence of true 
artistic models, will assuredly be inoculated 
with all the literary diseases of the age, if 
the current periodical literature should con- 
stitute his chief reading. We do not wish 
to be understood as condemning the read- 
ing of the best periodicals; we would only 



1882.] 



UNIVBBSITT MONTHLY. 



relegate them to their proper sphere. What 
President Porter says of the newspaper may 
be as aptly applied to the most dignified re- 
view : "One should use it as a servant and 
not as a master." We should remember in 
reading such productions that they have 
not yet passed through the crucible of the 
general consent of the education, but that 
they are merely the feelers of the literary 
pulse. It is only to be hoped that they will 
not prove misleaders, and leave us gorged 
with a base sophistry. * * * 



detections. 



Hon. J. L. M. Curry. 



This distinguished gentleman is discharg- 
ing the duties of General Agent of the Pea- 
body Educational Fund with marked abili- 
ty. He is admirably fitted for the ardu- 
ous and responsible work in which he is en- 
gaged, He is a man of robust physique, 
ripe scholarship, amplitude of mind, rare 
orational powers, pleasing address and sound 
judgment, He is in the prime of a vigor- 
ous manhood, and is capable of great labor 
and endurance. 

His address before the Georgia legislature 
some time since, was a masterpiece of strong 
and convincing oratory. We make the fol- 
lowing extracts. 

" What is tha end of government ? All 
this machinery is a means to an end. It is 
the end of government to secure life and 
property. One is the Russian or hangman's 
method. The other is the American idea, 
or the development of the individual man. 
I affirm it here in the presence of governor, 
supreme court, general assembly and the 
press, that great lever power — next to the 
pulpit — the greatest in the land. I affirm 
that for every dollar you give to education, 
you give four or five to jails and prosecu- 
tions. The brain power of Georgia is its 
wealth. All are entitled to the develop- 
ment of this power. There is no exclusive 
right in mind. A poet has said that a free- 
born American citizen could shake hands 



with a king on the throne, and feel that his 
majesty was honored. There is no aristoc- 
racy of mind. I heard Bancroft define de- 
mocracy 10 be the supremacy of man over 
his accidents. Society demands the develop- 
ment of every brain, and the best use of ev- 
ery one of its members, I hear men say 
that education unfits men for certain duties, 
I have noticed that they take care to place 
their restrictions on other people's children. 
This a government of the popular will. It 
is an experiment not fully worked out. If 
the royal families of the old world were to 
keep their children in ignorance, it would be 
regarded as /lie highest treason. Here we 
all belong to the royal family and it is trea- 
son in us to do so. 



Commodore Maury sat in his study in 
New York, snd constructed the charts that 
shortened the voyage to Australia thirty 
days. What we want is some Maury in ed- 
ucation, like Orr or some one else, to im- 
prove the charts of education. A man is 
mi re than his trade or his occupation. His 
occupation is only the segment of an infinite 
circle. Man is a father, a voter, a citizen. 
He has relations to God and eternity. He 
meets these only as he is educated, anel 
marches from just above the brute, to be 
not only a little lower than the angels, but 
to be partaker of the nature of God himself. 
As a Georgian, as a southern man, as an 
American citizen, as a christian man, in the 
nanfe of the uneducated masses, white and 
black, I beg you to rise to the height of this 
argument, and make Georgia in her man- 
hood, and her mental and moral resources, 
in reality as she is in name, the empire 

state of the South. " 

1 1 1 

Teacher : "Peter, you are such a bad boy 
that you are not fit to sit in the company of 
good boys on the bench. Come up here and 
sit by me, sir." 

Student under examination in physios : 
"What planets were known to the ancients ?" 
."Well, sir, there were Venus and Jupiter, 
and" — after a pause — "I think the earth, 
but I'm. not quite certain." 



8 



UNIVERSITY MOZ THLY. 



[Feb., 



THE 



UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 



PUBLISHED BY 



the Dialectic and Philanthropic Literary 
Societies cf the University of North Car- 
olina. 

TERMS: 

One Copy, one year, (of 9 months,) - - $1.00 
One Copy, six months, - - - - - .75 
Five Copies, to one address, one year, - - 4.00 

BA TES OF AD VEB TISING : 

One Dollar per inch for first insertion and fifty 
cents for each subsequent insertion of same adver- 
tisment. 



Address all communications to 

A. W. LONG, Business Manager, 
CHAPEL HILL, Orange Co., N. C. 



CHAPEL HILL, N. C, FEB'Y 1, 1882. 



We learn that the Rev. J, G. Armstrong, 
D. D., pastor of the Monumental Church, 
Richmond, Va., has accepted the invitation 
to deliver the baccalaureate sermon before 
the Senior class in June. It is our pleasure 
to have seen and heard Dr. Armstrong and 
we confidently assure the Seniors and all 
who shall attend Commencement that a 
splendid effort is in store for them. 



The free and festive Freshman is festive 
no more. The quietus was administered to 
him in the darkness of night. It soiied-his 
complexion and likewise made him blood- 
thirsty. He sought satisfaction at the point 
of the pistol. He swiftly got as much satis- 
faction as he thought consistent with the 
first law of nature. There still remain a 
few promising candidates for the " matnc 
brush." 

Just as we go to press, the whole College 
is saddened by the death of Walter Temple 
Jones, of Moore county. He died at his 
home on the 22nd of January, of typhoid 
fever, after an illness of twenty days. The 
deceased was in his 21st year and was a 



member of the class of '83. Gentle, gener- 
ous, hopeful, Temple Jones had not an ene- 
my in College, yet his individuality was 
clearly marked and his opinions openly spo- 
ken. A steadfast friend, a nice gentleman, 
a useful life, an honorable, high-hearted boy 
has gone the way of all the earth. May 
God temper the affliction to his stricken pa- 
rents. 

Salutatory. 



With this issue we present to the public 
the first copy of the University Monthly. 
It is to be conducted under the auspices of 
the Dialectic and Philanthropic Societies 
and is intended to afford an outlet for what- 
ever facility of expression, or freshness and 
power of thought, the members of those two 
bodies may possess. The Monthly is not 
designed to be a purely lit rary sheet, but 
shall from time to time contain articles 
which will be of interest not only to college- 
bred men and students, but to intelligent 
readers everywhere. We ask of our read- 
ers their charity in criticism and their liber- 
ality in subscriptions. Assured of a moder- 
ate share of these, we hope to lay the found- 
ations of a first-class college paper which 
shall satisfy the demand and need for one 
which has existed at this Institution for three 
years. The instability of enterprises of this 
nature is passing into a proverb and inex- 
perienced as we are, we feel a strong respon- 
sponsibility and some trepidation in assum- 
ing control of the Monthly. The strand 
of college journalism is thronged with wrecks 
and many are now hastening to decay. In 
the light of this dismal experience and with 
a sense of our own unfitness, we are brave 
enough or rash enough to inaugurate the 
University Monthly and to ask of a gen- 
erous public their kindly treatment. Our 
beginnings are somewhat humble yet we 
hope to rise surely, if slowly, to better 
things. 



Subscribe for the Monthly, and don't 
you fir 'et it. 



1882.] 



UNIVERSITY 3IONTIILY. 



9 



Frank Gordon Hines. 



Frank Hines met his death while bath- 
ing in the surf at Nag's Head on the 22nd 
day of August last. He was graduated 
from this Institution in the class of '81 and 
had left his Aimer Mater in the June pre- ' 
vious to his death, strong in the hope and 
promise of usefulness in time to come. For 
five months his friends in College and in the 
State have known and mourned his cruel 
end, yet with the first issue of the Monthly 
we feel it our sad privilege to give expres- 
sion to the grief we have known so long in 
silence. We come to lay the tribute of love 
and esteem upon the bier of a dead friend 
and to tell those to whom he was dear, that 
he and his deeds were high and above re- 
proach. He lived among us for three years 
and carried himself so loftily, and so like a 
man, that when the terrible news of his 
death came, every one of us felt the touch 
of genuine grief. We all knew that a 
worthy life had been extinguished. 

Frank Hines possessed a strong incisive 
intellect, with definite opinions and aggres- 
sive temperament. He was a clean-cut, 
clear-headed, open-handed, honest-hearted 
boy. Even now his bright countenance and 
kindly tones come up from the mists and 
shadows of the past, and it seems but yester- 
day that he walked his way among us and 
did his duty with us. A strong young actor 
has been taken from the great stage ! May 
we always revere and emulate the memory 
of his bright yonng life, for the ebbing tide 
of the ocean never bore away gentler spirit, 
knightlier soul or squarer actor' than Frank 
Gordon Hines. 



To the Alumni. 



The members of the two literary societies, 
under the control of which the Monthly is 
conducted, have for three years felt the need 
and deplored the absence of a college paper 
at this institution. In 1878, a magazine was 
started here with apparently fine prospects 
and an able corps of editors. It was edited 
with ability and dignity and created an era 



of literary activity in College which tended 
to the. improvement of all. After the first 
flush of its popularity, it lingered on for a 
a year or so and finally collapsed, unknelled 
unpaid-for and unknown. Such is the mel- 
ancholy history of journalism at this Insti- 
tution since the re-organization. It is not 
our purpose to adduce the causes of this fail- 
ure or to attach blame anywhere. We feel 
very certain, however, that a monthly pub- 
lication can and will be sustained at the In- 
stitution. That it will prove of real benefit 
to the students, men who live in this age of 
newspaper dissemination and influence, will 
hardly doubt. To the end that the Uni- 
versity Monthly may be established upon 
an enduring basis and where the evil for- 
tune that waits on literary journals may 
never reach it, we earnestly ask of the alum- 
ni their pecuniary assistance. We do not 
request an endowment or legacy or appro- 
priation, but simply a subscription. Good 
wishes and encouragement will be received 
with grateful appreciation, but subscription 
fees accompanied by kind words will over- 
whelm us with gratitude. 

The subscription price is only one dollar 
for nine months and it is our sober convic- 
tion that the alumni of this venerable seat 
of learning can bear up under that burden 
and still provide for themselves. All over 
this and other states, in every sphere of life, 
our alumni are to be found. They cannot 
fail to find pleasure in reading of the plans 
and purposes, the methods and prospects of 
the institution that witnessed their going 
forth in to life. They will learn that the 
University has fully recovered its ancient ef- 
fectiveness and is on the high road to emi- 
nence and usefulness. We ask you, gentle- 
men, to aid us by your patronage. We 
thought it wise to make our bow in our pre- 
sent form. It is our aim and ambition to 
make the Monthly the equal of any simi- 
lar publication in the country. Lend us a 
helping hand. The business editor awaits 
your orders. 



_$.;£**-♦- 



Subscribe for the Monthly. Only 
dollar a year. 



one 



10 



UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



[Feb. 



They give old John Barleycorn a right smart 
t issle here during election. 

E. T. Greenlee, one of our last year Reps, is 
reading law in Charlotte. 

Mr. W. A. Jenkins, who left us Xmas, is in busi- 
ness in Norfolk, Va. 

Case for the Grand Jury—" Rags " has got a 
guitar. 

',Huck Finn" is down in Sampson county, teach- 
ing the youag idea how to shoot. 

Mr. DeL. Haigh, last year C. B. M., is in busi- 
ness in Baltimore. 

_ Mr. Morehead Avery, class of '81, is reading law 
in Greensboro. 

Mr. R. B. Alberts™, class of 'SI, is teaching 
school down in Carteret county. 

"Bags" was performing extensively the other 
night ; result, headache and bad cold. 

Messsrs. Joyner and Rouse are pedagoguing it at 
La Grange. 

The "Tobacco Worm," class of '81, is at La arin- 
barg. 

Mr. Chas. D. McTver, class of '81, is teachm<* a 
very fine school in Durham. 

Mr. Turner Battle is at Norfolk, Va., in busi- 
ness. 

Mr. L. L. Mial, class of '81, "is, or ought to be 
studying mechanics at John Hopkins University! 

Mr. Lucien Walker, class of '81, is now meand- 
ering through, the country as a commercial travel- 
ler. 

"Wild Hog" has gone to farming up in the 
mountains. We hope that he mar "root" until he 
waxes fat. 

Mr. Alton Mclver, class of '81, is in business in 
Jonesboro. We hope the piney woods will be 
good to him. 

We had the pleasure of listening to an elegant 
address by Mr. C. B. Aycock, class of '80, sometime 
before Xmas. 



Our accomplished Chief Marshall of last year 
Mr. Duncan Mclver, one of the "trio." is in busi- 
ness in Sanford, Moore county. 

"Necessity," we see, is still at large. For the 
S&fety of the community, we think he ought to be 
chained up. 



We hear that Mr. R. L. Bobbitt, of Granville, 
has arrived at the dignity of paternity. We offer 
our congratulations. 

We had the pleasure of seeing Mr. R. W. Win- 
borne here during elections. He is teaching school 
down in Chatham county. 

One of our last year medallists, Mr. A. M. Ran- 
kin is teaching school in Cheraw, S. C. We have 
no doubt that he makes a handsome pedagogue. 

We hear that Mr. W. B. Slade. class of '80, is 
practicing law in Ga. We hope that he will meet 
with the success that his accomplished oratory and 
gentlemanly bearing deserve. 

The medical class are taking, besides medicine 
and pharmacy, a B. S. course, which is not laid 
down in the catalogue, but which could probably 
be found in a State statute. 

Billy Creal, after his arduous exertions in trying . 
to trace up the perpetrators of the malicious out° 
rage on the town hearse, is resting on his oars 
awaiting developments. 

It was with great pleasure that we heard of the 
marriage of Mr. C. A. McNeal. the other day. We 
offer our hearty congratulations and sincere good 
wishes. 

New Year cards and Xmas cake didn't flow into 
the sanctum with the steady persistency which 
should characterize such seasons. We hope this 
will be attended to. 

Not long ago a certain young friend of ours made 
the astonishing statement that he had a clock that 
would strike " for hours at a time." We have not 
yet had time to investigate the matter. 

We are pleased to hear that our old friend and 
comrade, N. A. Reynolds, has gone into the rail- 
road business. We hope he will some day be a 
Vanderbilt or a Jay Gould. At present he is over- 
seeing R. R. hands in Georgia. 

Mr. C. D. Hill, class of '81, is in Florida on an 
orange grove. May the gentle zephvrs prove 
beneficial, and may his honest labor be crowned 
with success, so that when he comes to " count his 
timber," it will "ante up" to suit him. 

- This campaign has been remarkably rich in pu- 
gilistic encounters. At any time, in either day or 
night, somebody is pegging away at somebody else, 
out by the lonely graveyard, or in some empty 
room. r ' 

"Man, that is bom of woman, is of few" days and 
full of trouble ; he cometh forth as a flower and is 
out down like a mullen stalk," was the remark of 
a Freshman, a few nights ago, as he went down in 



1882.] 

the mud and had to be lifted out by a crane and 
pulley and taken to bed. 

We learn that our friend, J. M. Leach Jr., class 
of '81, is studying law in Washington City. Much 
luck to him, and may he follow out the plan of ac- 
tion he so strenuously insisted on while here, as 
represented by what the Lord said unto Moses. We 
hope his success is such as to meet the wishes and 
expectations of his many warm friends, some of 
whom we are wbich. 

There are various opinions abroad, just now, as to 
what has become of the 'coon. One gentleman 
stoutly asserts that brother Eason has got him and 
gone on, but it is a mooted question. Any informa- 
tion on this subject will be thankfully received. It 
is a question of almost as much vital importance 
as who struck Billy Patterson, and its indefinite- 
ness is only equalled by the number of Carter's 
oats. 

We had the pleasure of attending a supper not 
long ago, where various speeches, patriotic and 
otherwise, were made, and listened to with breath- 
less attention, the only drawback being that the or- 
ator of the occasion seemed to be troubled to artic- 
ulate clearly. This may be explained by the fact that 
the atmosphere of the room was impure, but we 
don't know, and would like to have the phenome- 
non explained by some physiologist. We have no- 
ticed the same difficulty on various similar occas- 
sions, but have never heard a just explanation. 



VmLYEBSITY MONTHLY. 



11 



lE}xci]cmgES. 



We assume control of this department of 
the Monthly with many misgivings as to 
our rightly understanding and appreciating 
the work before us, since we are entirely in- 
nocent of ever having made a similar at- 
tempt. 

We do, in a measure, feel the importance 
of the mission which college journalism has 
to accomplish in this country, and the con- 
sequent responsibility resting on the ex- 
change column, which, by generous and im- 
partial criticism, can aid greatly in improv- 
ing and perfecting the character of our 
journals. 

In this, our first issue, we cordially greet 
our contemporaries and extend them the 
right hand of fellowship. 

We sincerely hope that our relations with 
the various exchanges that may honor us 



by a representation on our list, will always 
be of the most friendly nature. 

It shall be our aim in conducting this de- 
partment to be as fair and generous in our 
remarks and criticism as is possible for an 
exchange editor,, who is the naturally con- 
stituted champion and defender of his pa- 
per. 

We also wish to tender our thanks to 
those exchanges that have anticipated our 
appearance and have already honored us. 
We have not been fortunate enough to see 
the latest numbers of any of our exchanges, 
and hence are compelled to base our esti- 
mate of each upon the first issues of the 
year, which, perhaps, are not fair samples 
of what will be, owing to the more or less 
confusion at the opening of c liege and the 
"blue " feeling which marks the close of 
vacation. Still we were highly entertained 
by their perusal, and congratulate ourselves 
on the pleasure in store for us, if the later 
numbers only . sustain the reputation they 
have made with us. 

We have 'before us the November num- 
ber of the Southern Collegian, a handsomely 
gotten up magazine hailing from the Wash- 
ington and Lee University. It contains 
much interesting matter, and we read with 
pleasure a well written article on "Marlowe's 
Edward II." The Collegian deserves suc- 
cess and better support from the students of 
the Univ. than we would infer that it has 
from its editorial 

The Cornell Review is a students' maga- 
zine devoted to literature and science. It is 
ably edited, and bids fair to attain quite an 
enviable rank among college periodicals. 

The Asbury Monthly comes to us from 
Ind. Asbury Univ., and is a live, produc- 
tion. We congratulate it upon its decided 
improvement since its October issue. 

Next comes the Cornell Sun, which realizes 
a need greatly felt among college students; it 
is essentially a college newspaper, and while 
it lays no claim to great literary merit, it is 
quite- a success, and is full of daily college 
news. 



12 UNIVERSITY MONTH! X*. 

©allege J^ecaijfl. 



[Feb. 



One month of the spring term has passed. 

The campus has grown very quiet, save 
when "Foot-ball " rings upon the air. There 
is a disposition to seek quiet rooms more 
than we have noticed here before. It aug- 
urs well. The new buildings are gradually 
filling. 

Elections, attended with the usual inter- 
est, have passed. The coming men are be- 
ginning to watch the winds. The two soci- 
eties have designated the following gentle- 
men as officials for the commencement exer- 
cises : Phi. Society, J. W. Hays, of Oxford ; 
A. R. Shaw, of Robeson ; L. Vann, of Flor- 
ida, as Representatives. For Chief Mar- 
shal, M. C. Millender of Selma; subs., W. 
T. Dortch, of Goldsboro, J. A. Bryan of 
South Carolina, and C. W. Smedes of Ral- 
eigh. 

Di. Society, J. T. Strayhorn, of Hillsfeoro; 
T. A. Wharton of Greensboro; Thomas 
Radcliffe, of Wilmington, as Representa- 
tives. G. A. Mebane, of Mebaneville, J. F. 
Rogers, of Granville, Ed. Ruffin of Virginia 
as marshals. 

The election for ball managers was held 
exx masse. Mr. J. F. Wilkes was elected as 
Chief Manager. Messrs. J. Wood, of Eden- 
ton, T. R. Ransom, of Weldon, P. Stamps, J. 
R. Beaman, of Clinton, were elected as sub 
managers. Gentlemen, tne Monthly con- 
gratulates you. 

We are glad to know that steps have 
been taken by our athletic friends to repair 
our gymnasium with a new one. It is an 
essential. Let us have it. Can't we also 
have a skatiug rink ? It would pay well and 
be a fine exercise. 

Cameron Avenue will soon be the pretti- 
est in the campus. 

That anomaly, Smith Hall, now has a 
presentable appearance. The books are 
classified, and will be catalogued during, 
the Spring and Summer. Mrs. Spencer's 
donation occupies a whole alcove. The 



number of books, we learn increases almost 
daily. With proper interest on part of our 
people, it would soon be a credit to the 
State, and a resource of knowledge to the 
students. 

We learn that the Phi. Society will in a 
few weeks invest in a lot of new books. 

The Di. has just received a fine lot of new 
and valuable works. 

"Class-Day" is coming; look out, ye who 
have fallen by the wayside, or turned to the 
flesh-pots of ease and luxury. Our Proph- 
et is a hard one. 

We record nothing with more gratifica- 
tion than the factthat the University is able 
to supply the demand for Chemists. 

In every department, the aim is to be 
practical and beneficial to student and State; 
and when we see Mr. Dancy called from his 
laboratory here to that of the State Chemists, 
we believe it to be^an earnest of what is in 
store for the faithful University student. 

In every department of study, there are 
students pursuing advanced and special 
courses, and we believe that their influence 
will be felt and seen in the intelligence of 
the people. 

We see with pleasure also the growing 
thoroughness of our law school. Prof. Man- 
ning has extended the course to embrace 
two years, and the graduates, aware of the 
advantages of the place, are fast returning 
to reap them. 

Bro. Mayhew has been called home, and 
alas ! we must admit another into the sacred 
privileges of editorship. 

"Peace to thy ashes." 

Mr. Locke Craig is Washington Orator 
elect, in place of T. W. Mayhew, resigned. 

So much has been said of late concerning 
the University R. R., that we hesitate to 
comment. That much desired object is still 
one of the future. But we feel confident 
that in our next issue we can tell of the 
Avhizzing train as an actual fact. "So mote 



1882.] 



UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



13 



it be." It will be a happy day when we 
can bid farewell to hacks and wagons. Ta, 
ta, brothers Thomson, Watson and Cates. 

Notwithstanding the many hindrances, 
as bad crops, dry weather, etc., the catalogue 
for '81 and '82 will contain over two hun- 
dred names. The Senior class numbers 18. 
It is conservative in numbers as in other 
respects. We understand that they have 
abolished the " cup " and the office of Poet. 
Too bad ! For the strains of Mr. Harris 
still ring in our ears. 

Prof. Holmes has failed to give us any 
dots on his trip to Washington to attend the 
Convention of the Agricultural Colleges. 
He was, however, chairman of an important 
committee, and took an active part in the 
transactions of the body. We wonder if he 
caught anybody out in another snow storm, 
or was presented with any more checks. 

We have heard it rumored, or suggested, 
perhaps, that the members of the Faculty 
will, this spring add another tie of remem- 
brance to the many which they already have 
upon the Senior class. They each propose 
to give a social dining to the class. This 
would be powerful. Ay, Seniors ! The cus- 
tom is practiced in some of our institutions 
and it w©rks well. Of course the staff of 
the Monthly will be remembered on that 
occasion. 



{^EnEipi College ]^ews. 

The seniors at Amherst have Sanskrit as 
an elective study in the second and third 
terms. 

There are 7,000 Americans now studying 
in the German schools and universities. 

Amherst has given over having examina- 
tions. Lucky Amherst boys. 

A College Faculty is venerated by Fresh- 
men, tolerated by Sophs., respected by Jun- 
iors, and honored by the Seniors. — Ex. 

Princeton, Williams, Cornell and Am- 
herst Colleges have decided upon wearing 
Oxford caps. 



The oldest existing literary society in the 
United States is at Yale. It was organized 
in 1768. — Lancet. 

The Concord School of Philosophy has 
been as prosperous and interesting as ever 
this year, and excepting at the Kant meet- 
ing at Saratoga, there La^ probably never 
been so much good talk about Kant in so 
short a time as on Kant days. Prof. Hedge, 
of Harvard, read an admirable sketch of the 
Professor's life, which not only told his sto- 
ry, but clearly stated his philosophical posi- 
tion and influence. President Porter, of 
Yale, sent a discourse upon Kant's relation 
to modern religious thought. 

To teach the German language in the St. 
Louis public schools, costs $100,000 per 
year. 

It is said that at Harvard University, in 
the last fifty years, no student who smoked 
has graduated at the head of his class. The 
case is far different at our own University, 
for almost invariably our best men have 
been habitual users of " the weed. " So 
you see the rule is far from general. 

The University of Virginia has 365 stu- 
dents. 

The first paper published by Dartmouth 
College, in 1802, was called the "ijazette." 
Daniel Webster was one of the contributors 
and signed himself, "Icarus." 

Let some of our students make "Daniel 
Websters" of themselves by contributing to 
the 'Monthly. 

Dr. E. A. Freeman, the noted English 
historian, has been secured as non-resident 
professor of Cornell University. This fact 
calls forth the remark of the Springfield Re- 
publican, " that a non-resident professor is a 
man who takes up more room in the cata- 
logue than he does in the College. 



The Czar of Russia will be crowned at 
Moscow next April. 

North Carolina is said to have built 149 
miles of railroad during the past year. 



14 



UNIVERSITY 3IOJSTTHLW 



[Feb. 



Miscellany. 



^ 



ew Map of North Carolina. 



[From the News and Observer.] 
We are indebted to Mr. Collier Cobb for 
one of his latest maps of this State. It is an 
improvement in all respects on the one is- 
sued a year or so ago, and as a reference map 
is of peculiar value. The counties are well 
defined, and the map is very plainly print- 
ed. The population of the counties, the lo- 
calities where battles have been fought, 
where valuable minerals, etc., are found, the 
railways built or projected, all are clearly 
shown. A smaller map on the same sheet 
gives the region of coast growth, of the long 
leaf pine, of the oak and the chestnut, wal- 
nut, spruce pine, white pine and fir. 

The map is bordered by notes containing 
statistical information. We find that there 
are in the State sixty-six educational insti- 
tutions, such as university, colleges, high 
schools, military academies, etc. There are 
in addition, graded schools at Raleigh, Wil- 
mington, Bakersville, Goldsboro, Fayette- 
viile, Salisbury, Charlotte and Greensboro. 
There are twenty -one agricultural societies 
and clubs of note. There are four paper- 
mills, all water power, with a daily capacity 
of eight tons of paper. There are fifty-nine 
cotton and woolen factories besides factories 
for the manufacture of tobacco, agricultural 
implements, furniture and wood work, sew- 
ing machines, etc. There are no less than 
twenty-two railways, whose lines are wholly 
or in part in the State. The extreme length 
of the State, east to west, from Dare to Polk 
[Cherokee] counties, is 485 miles, and the 
extreme breadth, from Brunswick to Gran- 
ville, north and south, 188 miles. The area 
is 50,704 square miles, greater then the area 
of New York. There are ninety-six coun- 
ties. There are ten sounds, and the area of 
the sounds and bays is 3,300 scpuare miles. 
There are fifteen lakes, covering an area of 
230 square miles. There are "three insane 
asylums and two institutions for the deaf and 
dumb and the blind. As to population, 
there are 1,400,000 persons, of which 688,- 
164 are males, 711,836 females; 1,396,322 
are natives and only 3,678 foreigners. There 
are 867,467 white persons, 531,316 colored 
persons, 1,216 Indians and half-breeds and 
one Japanese. 

Other outline maps on the same sheet show 

how the different sections of the State were 

'settled— by English Quakers and Baptists 

in the northeast; by Swiss and French in the 



east; by Scotch in the southern tier of coun- 
ties; by Scotch-Irish a little further west; by 
Moravians in the northwest, and by Dutch 
in the west centre. Maps also show the 
areas devoted to peculiar productions, etc., 
such as rice and corn in the east, cotton a 
little nearer the centre, then corn and cotton, 
next tobacco, yet a little further west the, 
small grains, then the great fruit country 
and on the extreme western border the re- 
gion where buckwheat, wheat, barley, etc., 
flourish. There is much other information 
in this useful map, which is certainly in the 
highest degree creditable to young Mr. 
Cobb. 

1 Hffl- t 

Some of our State exchanges are discuss- 
ing whether you should write a or an before 
heroic, historical, etc. Superintendent Shep- 
herd calls his book "An Historical Reader." 
As he knows more about English than most 
writers we dare say he had good authority 
for the usage. A Newbern paper appeals 
to Worcester and Webster, and finds them 
justifying such sentences as "an historscal 
account" and "an historian." We were 
taken to task for writing "an University." 
We gave several authorities — among them 
the English classics — for the usage. Since 
then we have noted the use among two or 
three other leading writers of this century. 
— Wilmington Star. 

There is good authority for saying "An 
Historical Reader," "An heroic action," &c. 
The use of an before such words as Uni- 
versity, Union, &c, is a very different ques- 
tion. The rule in such cases we take it is 
this, that if the word following the indefi- 
nite article begin with a consonant sound the 
form a should be used. The words Univer- 
sity, Union, &c, sound as if they were 
spelled with an initial y which is a consonnt 
sound. We hold that "a University," a 
Union," "a United States Bank," are cor- 
rect, whilst the substitution of an for a in 
these and similar cases would be incorrect. 
— Fayetteville Examin er. 

* 48i * ■ — 

Rev. A. D. Mayo, of Boston, Mass., de- 
livered a lecture on education and common 
Schools, in Greensboro, on Friday evening, 
11 tli inst. 

The men who succeed without the aid of 
education are the exceptions. Common men 
need all the help that education can give, 
to put themselves on a level; and even of 
the exceptional men it may be said that they 
would have succeeded still better with the 
advantage of education. — Star of Zion. 



Q^ 



1^0 





Vol I. 



Chapel Hill, N. C, Mirch, 1832. 



No. 2. 



SnEtny. 



Unseaworthy. 



BY KECLTJSE. 



A stately ship of fair outside 

Was coursing the waves of a summer sea 
And merrily over the peaceful tide, 

She swept in queenly majesty. 
Her white sheets swelled to the Southern breeze 
And bore her on to distant seas. 

And my heart went out to the gallant ship 

Of stately form and fair outside: 
"Sail on, ship, to the far offshore 

And safely rest in thy native tide." 

But shadows steal o'er the silvery tide, 

And storm spirits spring from oceau caves 

And the gallant ship of fair outside 

Is lashed by the fury of maddened waves; 

Her shrouds are singing a solemn dirge 

While rocked and tossed in the foaming surge 

The storm went by, and a far off shore 
Was strewn with broken timbers o'er — 
Kotten timbers brought in by the tide 
From the fated ship of the fair outside. 

And I thought how many a human ship 

Of fair exterior sails life's sea 
To meet Temptation's storms, and drift 

A wreck upon eternity. 

0cnti[ifiutions. 

The Work of the Puritans. 

Perhaps no nation has contributed so 
much of usefulness and experience to the 
world, or has been more fruitful in great 
and lasting influences as the one from whom 
come our own lineage and laws. The story 
of English progress, the actions and reac- 
tions, the ebb and flow of her mighty course 



through the ages, is as wonderful as it is 
continuous. In the annals of no other peo- 
ple can the student of history trace so com- 
pletely the successive steps of civilization or 
hear so distinctly the uninterrupted tread 
of liberty. From barbarism and supersti- 
tion there have been evolved light and law, 
and the England of astrologers, serfs and 
outlaws, has become the radiating centre of 
intelligence and power to all the world, the 
highway of freedom and thought, the home 
of all knowledge and the mart of all trade. 
Among the various causes which have 
brought about this wonderful elevation and 
authority, and not the least of the great up- 
heavals that attended the birth of civil and 
religious liberty, may be classed the Object 
and End of Puritanism. The principles of 
Puritanism and the essence of the Puritan 
character, were the necessary resultants of 
the religious quarrel and estrangement be- 
tween Henry VIII and Leo X. 

The right of liberty of conscience, which 
naturally followed this change in the minds 
of Englishmen, alike prevented their allegi- 
ance to the remains of proscribed Romanism 
and to the hybrid religious system which 
Henry had founded in debauchery and 
blood before their very eyes. Every con- 
science wished to profit by its own liberty, 
and sects sprang up from this religious an- 
archy as innumerable as the ideas of a mul- 
titude delivered up to their own fancies. 
The most wide-spread of these sects were 
the Puritans, whose vitality stood tne test of 
Mary's cruelty, and under the intelligent 
despotism of the great Queen, by whom the 
main principles of the reformation were ac- 
cepted, but the zeal of the ultra reformers 
held at bay, grew in strength and numbers. 
From this time on through 150 years, they 



20 



COJSTTBIB UTIOm. 



[March 



stalk, colossal figures, across the stage of 
English history ; and though their struggle 
was mainly a religious one, they secured 
blessings of civil liberty; which are as the 
dearest possessions of our race. As the lin- 
eal descendants of the Reformation, they 
logically sought to make it a reality and to 
restore Christianity to its native purity. 
They acknowledged no leader but God, and 
no guide save His Word, and each Puritan 
felt within himself an internal inspiration 
of the religious and political meaning of 
that Holy Word. They discarded as abom- 
inations, the signs, symbols and ceremonials 
of the church, and purposed to abolish every- 
thing but God Himself. Stern, practical, aus- 
tere, they have been handed down in his- 
tory shorn of every grace that illumines life, 
and lacking every element of warmth and 
joyousness. The smiling landscape, the 
green valley, the rushing river, the ripening 
grain, the towering peak were significant to 
them only as the signs of the glory of God. 
They were men without grace of person, of 
uncouth visage, of uncultivated minds. 
Learned only in the oracle of God, and be- 
stowing their own meaning on its inspired 
leaves, they received no lessons of tender- 
ness or humanity from the productions of 
men. 

With all the tendrils of their mind 
stretching toward the Great Being whose 
will they lived to obey, and whose rewards 
they hoped to reap, they went their way, in- 
sensible alike to pain or pleasure. Yet they 
were no common men, no vulgar fanatics. 
We deplore their severe conception of moral 
virtue, their strange deficiency in human 
sympathy, their artificial notions of life. 
We admire the greatness of their aim, 
the intensity of their feeling, their immuta- 
bility of purpose. We condemn the sullen 
gloom of their habits, their evtravagant aus- 
terity—yet we call them men. Their deeds 
are theirjnonument. To them belongs the 
patent for the first Republic. Driven from 
their country, in the forests of America they 
realized the dream of the Grecian idealist — 
in the establishment of a pure democracy, in 



the maturity of which is beheld the center 
of enlightenment on this continent. The 
struggle of Puritanism against absolutism 
in church and state is familiar to the world. 
Accustomed to give implicit obedience alone 
to the Divine will, the claims of James I. 
jarred against everything that was noble in 
the Puritan tone of the time. They resolved 
to fight for religious concessions, to redeem 
the right of the people to govern themselves, 
to regulate taxation, to suppress monopolies, 
to control the foreign policy. It had taken 
centuries to reach that conclusion. Cool, 
resolute, dogged, they harried the old King 
to his death, and inaugurated that long par- 
liamentary duel with his vacillating son, 
which ended in civil uproar and the birth of 
whatever rights we now possess. The dis- 
sensions of the Commonwealth, the usurpa- 
tions of Cromwell, the reaction which fol- 
lowed the cold severity of Puritanic sway 
need not be outlined here. Puritanism 
seemingly fell. They had labored to set up 
a visible kingdom of God on earth and they 
had failed; they had tried to establish a re- 
ligious system of national life and it had 
ended in disgust and ridicule. 

The joyous acclaims which welcomed to 
the throne of his fathers the exile King, the 
shouts and jeers that assailed the memory 
and fame of him who had brought a King 
to the block — who had rescued from obscur- 
ity the blessings of Magna Charta, and done 
over again the glorious work of Runnymede, 
sounded forever, it seemed, the death-knell 
Puritanism. But not so, When the wild 
orgy of the Restoration had ceased, when 
the sensuality and skepticism of the "merry 
Monarch" had recalled a people unaccus- 
tomed to shame and defeat, from their loyal 
intoxication, Puritanism came forth from 
the shadow of national hate and started on 
its proper mission. Their aim had been too 
great, their achievements too radical to be 
laughed and satirized into oblivion by the 
licentious wits and poets of the Restoration. 
The influence of those who had fought the 
long fight, who had faced Rupert's chivalry 
on Marston Moor and Naseby field and with 



1882.] 



CONIRIB TJTIONS. 



21 



high praises of God in their mouths had 
smitten down their enemies in the name of 
the Lord, could not be eradicated from the 
minds of men. The ultra zeal and rigidity 
that sought by enactment to make men de- 
vout, that affected formality, that canted, 
that showed the white of its eyes at the mer- 
ry-makings of the young people, had been 
worn away by the attrition of circumstances. 
They had learned not to attempt that which 
was beyond their reach. But their influence 
was abroad in the land. It could be seen 
in the seriousness and industry of the mass- 
es, in their freedom of thought, in their sim- 
plicity of manners. With only abhorrence 
for the past and its tyranny, they peaceably 
secured, in enduring form, what they failed 
to obtain by violence. Yet by violence and 
bloodshed their end had been reached ; for 
when Charles I. faced the London mob, on 
his way to death, with that calm heroism that 
restored his dynasty, the rights of the people 
were won. The darkness and uproar of revo- 
lution could not obliterate them. They lived 
in the hearts and consciences of men. They 
colored English thought, moulded English 
sentiment, builded up English institutions, 
and the England that we know and love, 
the England of liberalism, the England of 
reform, the England of the nineteenth cen- 
tury is the handiwork of the Puritans. 

PlDZER. 



The Literary Societies of the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina. 



The Literary Societies of the University 
of North Carolina are the Dialectic and Phi- 
lanthropic. For dignity and usefulness, for 
the important part sustained by them, in 
the training of the students, and for the 
hold they have on their members, both while 
at the University and after- they go into the 
busy arena of the world, they have few 
equals and no superiors, we think, in any 
institution of the land. They are remarka- 
ble as demonstrating that quality which dis- 
tinguishes the Teutonic race and has made 
it the governing race of the world, submis- 



sion to lawi There may sometimes occur 
exceptions, but in the whole, there are few 
assemblies of men, whether religious, politi- 
cal or legislative, where order as well pre- 
vails, where the rules adopted for their con- 
duct are so well observed, where more ear- 
nest enthusiasm for improvement is exhibi- 
ted, than in these bodies of young men, who 
govern themselves without the guidance of 
any experienced superior. These examples 
of self-government by those ordinarily sup- 
posed to be by nature, opposed to discipline, 
are striking proofs of the innate capacity of 
Americans, of all ages and under all circum- 
stances, to crystallize into communities reg- 
ulated by law. 

In order to make the members of these 
two societies more interested in and proud 
of them, the Trustees and Faculty of the 
University give them large powers. One 
day in the week (Saturday) and one night 
(Friday) are given up for their exercises. 
They have the appointment of Representa- 
tives to show the oratorical culture of the 
University during commencement week. 
They nominate the Marshals who are to 
keep order among the large numbers who 
assemble on that occasion. Four large halls 
for society meetings and libraries are assign- 
ed to them for their exclusive use. 

The societies have shown enlightenment 
and taste in availing themselves of their 
advantages. Their halls of assembly are 
models of elegance and beauty and comfort. 
Their libraries contain about 15,000 volumes 
of standard works in literature and science. 
Their walls are adorned by portraits of their 
members who have gone forth and attained 
the honors of the world. They have by far 
the largest and most important collection, 
in North Carolina, of life-size oil portraits 
of eminent men. 

THE DIALECTIC SOCIETY 

was formed in 1795, the year when the 
doors of the University were thrown open 
for students. Its first President was James 
Mebane, father of our most worthy citizen, 
Giles Mebane, both father and son having 
attained the dignity of Speaker of the Sen- 



22 



COFTRIB UTIONS. 



[March 



ate of our General Assembly. Among the 
first members were, Thomas D. Bennehan, 
father of Mr. Paul Cameron, Hutchings G. 
Burton, afterwards Governor, Ebenezer Pet- 
tigrew, a member of Congress, father of the 
lamented General Pettigrew, Henry J. 
Toole, father of a distinguished man of the 
same name, and James Webb, of Hillsboro. 
The first meetings of the society were 
held in any convenient room attainable. 
About 1813 a combined meeting hall and 
library in the third story of the South Build- 
ing on the south side was given for its exclu- 
sive use. In 1848 the hall and library were 
divided, transferred to the second and third 
stories of the newly erected north end of the 
Old West Building. In 1858 the society had 
become so numerous that still more ample 
accommodations were provided, the present 
very handsome apartments in the New West 
Building. 

The hall of 1848 is now President Battle's 
recitation room and is also used for meetings 
of the Faculty, and whenever they honor 
Chapei Hill by their presence, the Trustees 
of the University. President Battle was 
President of the society in 1848, and with 
him the venerable James Mebane, after a 
lapse of fifty-three years, presided at the 
dedication of the new hall. 

Time would fail us to mention the mem- 
bers of this society who have become dis- 
tinguished in after life. They have adorn- 
ed all the public and private stations, in all 
the States from the Potomac to the Rio 
Grande, one of them (Polk) having been 
President of this great Republic. Of the 
two Senators from North Carolina in the 
National Congress, Vance is a "Di" and 
Ransom a "Phi." 

The color of the Dialectic Society is blue, 
emblem of steadfastness and truth. Its mot- 
to is, Love of Virtue and Science. 

THE PHILANTHROPIC SOCIETY. 

In the year 1795, on the first of August, 
eight students of the University "for im- 
provement in literary pursuits" united them- 
selves into the '^Concord" Society.- They 
were William C. Alston of Halifax, David 



Gillespie of Duplin, Evan Jones of Wil- 
mington, Henry Kearney of Northampton, 
George W. Long of Halifax, Nicholas Long 
of Louisburg, Edwin J. Osborne of Salis- 
bury, and David Cook. On the 29th of 
August, 1796, it was "motioned that the 
name of this Society should be changed from 
that of the Concord to that of the Philan- 
thropic Society. Agreed to by unanimous 
consent." The Society at that time con- 
sisted of twenty-four members. The first 
President of the "Concord" Society was Da- 
vid Gillespie, whose grandson, R. S. White 
is on the Society roll for the present year. 
The first President of the Philanthropic So- 
ciety was Richard Eagles of Wilmington. 

Among the members were John Taylor 
of Orange, whose grandson is now Professor 
of Mathematics in the University, Hinton 
James of Wilmington, the first student of 
the University, and William -Cherry of Ber- 
tie. 

The secretary's book, recording the pro- 
ceedings of the society from the 10th of -Au- 
gust, 1795, the time of the first regular meet 
ing, is still in the archives of the Society, 
remarkably legible and well preserved. 
Reading, declamation, composition and de- 
bate were the exercises. Every mem- 
ber had to perform some literary duty at 
each meeting, and strict attendance was en- 
forced. Several members were expelled for 
irregular attendance the first year. The ab- 
sence of business motions from the records 
suggests a financial famine in the early his- 
tory of the Society. On Nov. 2, 1795, it 
was "motioned that a subscription be made 
for caudles in the winter season. It passed 
in the affirmative." Some motions are re- 
corded as "passed in the negative." May 
10, 1796, it was "motioned that the money 
in the treasury should be appropriated to 
the purpose of buying the Halifax newspa- 
per." This might seem to indicate an inten- 
tion to enter the field of journalism. But 
the next entry explains, "and Mr. McCul- 
lough as a subscriber allowed the Society 
the privilege of using his paper." It was 
then "motioned that we should buy the.Fay- . 



1882.] 



CONTBIB TJTIOFS. 



23 



ettevJlle paper." These motions together 
with one to buy a chest to keep the records 
in, indicate the financial transactions- of the 
first year. 

The literary performances were on a lar- 
ger scale. A fair sample may be taken 
from the minutes for Nov. 1, 1796: The 
readers were as follows:, Mr. Wm. Clark, a 
letter from the Spectator, asking how to cure 
a cross husband; Mr. Lewis Hicks, a piece 
on Pity, an allegory; Mr. Simon Turner, a 
piece from the Spectator; Mr. Richard Ea- 
gles, a piece on Virtue; Mr. Thos. Hunt, on 
Virtuous Sentiment; Mr. John Bryan, the 
Character of Argos. 

The declaimers spoke the following; the j 
Speech of Adherbal to the Roman Senate; 
a piece on Pedantry; the Speech of Micipsa 
to Jugurtha; a piece on Genius; iEneas's 
Account of the Sack of Troy; the Character 
of the French; a piece on Gaming. 

The compositions were on Regularity, 
Happiness, and Drunkenness. 

"Query: Whether ought the Americans 
to declare War against the Algerines or not? 
The question was decided without giving 
preference to either side, because the accounts 
in the newspapers were contradicted." And 
then to show their metal the disputants en- 
tered the lists again, "Another question was 
then debated upon, which was, Whether we 
ought to marry for Gold in preference to 
beauty, or not ? Decided in favor of Gold." 
The capital G and the decision might sug- 
gest more or less scarcity of both gold and 
beauty in the Chapel Hill of 1796. 

The debates were usually on abstract sub- 
jects; but not always. On Sept. 27th, it 
was decided "that we ought to break down 
the treaty between Britain and America." 
On Oct. 11th, members of Congress were re- 
minded of their proper value. "Question : 
Whether ought the Members of Congress to 
be allowed greater wages than the soldier or 
not. The question was debated with great 
warmth by both parties and was decided 
that the Member of Congress should not be 
paid as much as the Soldier." 
The importation of negro slaves was con- 



sidered Oct. 12, 1795,, and was decided to 
be "advantageous to the United States," but 
August 29, 1796, the question being on the 
right of the Americans to enslave the Afri- 
cans or vice versa, "it was decided by a . ma- 
jority that the Africans have as good a right, 
if not a better, than the Americans." At the 
next meeting, to show the utter futility of an 
African invasion, it was decided "that death. 
is to be preferred to slavery," the query pre- 
senting a choice of these two evils. 

The Histrionic Art was not neglected in 
those days. March 29th, "Mr. George Long 
"motioned that the duties of the Society 
should be omitted and a play be acted in 
their room. Agreed to." 

The despotism of the Faculty was proper- 
ly characterized in a debate on, "Whether 
the rules and regulations of the College are 
well made? And it was decided that they 
all are, except that the Faculty have too 
much authority." On the query as to 
whether "we should aid the French against 
Great Britain, the decision was for War." 

From the frequent regulations against 
quarreling, it may be inferred that Society 
matters caused undue warmth now and then. 
The old records are full of interesting, 
amusing and instructive entries. Those 
given above have consumed enough space, 
perhaps. The records show that the foun- 
ders were men of punctual habits, good liter- 
ary taste and manly character. They were 
well worthy of the honors that the ever- 
spreading fame of the Society has heaped 
upon their memories. 



The educational machinery of this entire 
continent needs readjustment and reform — 
the North feels it, the South and West feel 
it, Virginia feels it. The question of ques- 
tions before the people of this continent to- 
day is, not how shall we train the intellect 
so as to give to it the highest development 
and the greatest grasp and power, but how 
shall we develop and give permanence to 
character— how shall we develop and send 
forth men and women of purity of 
heart and purity of life, of honesty and hon- 
or, of integrity and fidelity in every station, 
who shall stand as granite pillars founded 
on a rock, at whose base the billows of cor- 
ruption and vice break in vain, around 
whose shining shafts society would gather, 
and climb and cling as ivy to the wall.— 
Rev. Thomas Hume, D. D., in Educational 
Journal of Virginia. 



j§* BDITOBIAL. 

THE 

UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 



[March 



PUBLISHED BY 

the Dialectic and Philanthropic Literary 
Societies cf the University of North Car- 
olina. 

TERMS: 

One Copy, one year, (of 9 months,) - - $1.00 
One Copy, six months, - .75 

Five Copies, to one address, one year, - - 4.00 

RATES OF ADVERTISING: 

One Dollar per inch for first insertion and fifty 
cents for each subsequent insertion of same adver- 
tisment. 



Address all communications to 

A. W. LONG, Business Manager, 
CHAPEL HILL, Orange Co., N. C. 



CHAPEL HILL, N. C, MARCH, 1882. 



Our little venture is one month old. 
With natural trepidation we gave it its first 
impetus, and with natural solicitude we have 
watched the signs of its reception. Perhaps 
we should be contented with the result. 
Prom many well-wishers we have received 
cheery words accompanied with large sil- 
ver dollars. To these, and such as shall do 
likewise hereafter, our thanks are due and 
heartily given. To the press also we are in- 
debted for kindly mention, though we ex- 
pected nothing else — not from a sense of our 
own excellence, but because we thought that 
the broad, generous spirit of the press of this 
State could only look with pleasure upon 
our earnest, unaided effort to establish a pa- 
per at this institution. 



As stated in our salutatory, the Month- 
ly is intended to be the mouth-piece of the 
students generally, and was not designed to 
be wholly dependent upon the editors for its 
matter. Its purpose is to create literary ac- 
tivity and emulation among the body of the 
students. To that end we would gladly wel- 
come any contributions to our sanctum, re- 
questing our contributors, however, that if 



their MSS. be rejected not to attribute it to 
any favoritism on our part, but only a just 
and honest discrimination. We notice with 
pleasure a right comprehension of this mat- 
ter among many students. Send in your 
contributions and we will exercise an impar- 
tial judgment. 



Our readers wilt peruse with interest the 
short sketches~of the Dialectic and Philan- 
thropic Societies given in this issue. It seems 
unreal to those jff us'who are now enjoying 
the advantages these twojsocieties offer and 
suffering the penalties they sometimes im- 
pose, when we reflect that they have existed 
for nearly an hundred years,~and have nur- 
tured the incipient genius of so many his- 
toric figures. If the names of those who 
received their first fstimulus within their 
walls were stricken from the roll-call of the 
State, her claim to greatness would be scant 
indeed. 



A.Eeminiscence. 



Four of them were at Yorktown. They 
had gone with light hearts and purses to 
match. It was night at that historic battle- 
field, and also at other places less historic. 
Hand-in-hand they had wandered during 
the dusty day, full of patriotism and beer; 
but as nightfell, one of them got lost. His 
absence was not noted, the lost sheep prin- 
ciple didn't work. They had forgotten he 
was there. Shorn of their brightest mem- 
ber they strayed aimlessly over the magnifi- 
cent wastes of Temple Farm until finally 
they halted in front of the Reception Hall. 
The scene was a memorable one. Out upon 
the noble expanse of York River the fleets 
of two nations lay at anchor, and the lights 
from the decks cast a luminous, dancing 
streak over the plashing waves. Within 
the Hall the sound of many twinkling feet 
mingling with the soft strains of waltz mu- 
sic told the lonely trio on the outer wall, 
what was going on, "and they^desired to get 
in. They didn't exactly know what they 
would do after getting in, but they wanted 



188^] 



EDITORIAL. 



25 



to get in. Visions of commencement came up 
before ,them. The case looked desperate. 
They were not distinguished visitors, nor 
foreign'guests, nor could they recall any- 
thing they had ever done for their country. 
Then up-spake the smallest of that North 
Carolina delegation, "Call Gov. Jarvis out, 
he'll let us in." Then uprose one of that 
number, and with a touching confidence in 
the prerogative of our Chief Executive, 
knocked at the door. With fierce eagerness 
the two awaited the result. Some high- 
placed party answered the summons. The 
eager emissary enquired, "Is Gov. Jarvis 
in ?" It was a simple question and he was 
answered in the affirmative, but be spake 
no more, only gazed fondly in on the daz- 
zling scene and fled, leaving the spike-tailed 
party to reflect on his mental status. Blank 
despair possessed them now. They plunged 
into the dust and darkness, reappeared un- 
der the fierce light of a beer-stand where 
they hovered for a few minutes and finally 
rented upper berths in a steamboat and 
slept the sleep of the extremely sleepy. 



Political Science at the University. 



We consider it overwhelming testimony 
to the strong sense of the American people 
that Mr. Oscar Wilde^the gentleman of sun- 
flower and lily notoriety, ^has been treated 
as he has, a sort of literary Dundreary. He 
may be very clever and his hunt after the 
beautiful very admirable, but his clever- 
ness is not the sort Americans are apt to im- 
itate; there may be a few high-flyers who 
cling to him, we haven't heard, though we 
have heard that he wears knee-breeches. 
We think that is just too awfully horrid. 
He ought to be ashamed of himself! This is 
not the Sandwich Islands ! Some of the 
super-assthetical have proposed to invite 
him dawn here. We are much in favor of it. 
We think he would be appreciated here. 
We desire to put him in with " Kags," and 
then furnish "Rags " with a guitar. It is 
said that the lovable " Osker's " liquor af- 
fects him in the well-known manner. 



Subscribe for the Monthly. 
dollar a year. 



Only one 



During the past three years, the question 
of studying Politics as a science in our Uni- 
versities, has been considerably agitated. 
One marked characteristic of the movement 
has been that the proposed training should 
be almost altogether theoretical. We do 
not wish to be considered egotistic or arro- 
gant in a remark, which we propose to make 
concerning the department of Political Sci- 
ence in our own University. Ever since the 
re-organization, even before the question of 
establishing Political Science schools be- 
came prominent, it was decided t6 have 
such a school in the University. The school 
was constructed upon the principal that it . 
should embrace, not only enough political 
training to enable us to send out intelligent 
citizens, but that it should go further and 
lay a sound, broad foundation for those who 
intended to devote their lives to politics. 
The history of our country has shown us 
that we especially need practical politicians; 
for that is the dominant feature in the ques- 
tions that must be discussed before us for 
probably the next fifty or one hundred 
years. Students must be trained to under- 
stand Currency, Banking, the Constitution, 
and the progress of the International Law. 

Such an extended theoretical course in the 
principles of these subjects as is contem- 
plated by the political schools, is very like- 
ly to render them impractical. Our Presi- 
dent, Dr. Battle, has arranged a. Political 
Science course, which is requisite in order • 
to obtain any degree offered by the Univer- 
sity. First, the subject of Political Econ- 
emy is thoroughly discussed, and students 
are encouraged to do parallel reading and 
to debate special questions before the Presi- 
dent. In addition to this, President Battle 
presents in special lectures the aspects of 
the Currency, Banking, and Tax questions 
of the day, all of which are illustrated by 
practical cases. Secondly, the political his- 
tory of the United States is discussed from 
a non-partisan stand-point, and the causes 
of the rise and fall of the different parties 



26 



PEBSOWAL. 



[March 



are explained. Thirdly, the Constitution of 
North Carolina with its recent amendments 
is studied, and a series of lectures is deliv- 
ered upon its history and development. 
Fourthly, the Constitution of the United 
States is taken up and discussed with Cool- 
ey's Exposition, and Supreme Court cases 
are cited to illustaate every point. Finally, 
International Law is studied with especial 
reference to the late diplomatic questions. 
It is very easy to see our claims. The 
school is both modern and practical- Poli- 
tics should be studied with reference to the 
people. At the same time a student should 
have a certain amount of theoretical train- 
ing to start with. But we claim that an ex- 
tended course of four years in theoretical 
politics would unfit him for dealing with 
the people, whereas a thorough training of 
a year in the principles, and practical ac- 
quaintance with the people and with politi- 
cal life, while he may continue his studies, 
is decidedly preferable. 



^Ei|sonaI. 



Birthington's Wash day has come and 
gone and total teetotalism is the result. 

Le. Mial ran up here the other day, from 
Ealeigh, and informs us that he is not at 
John Hopkins' University. We still cling 
to our second proposition. 

Mr. H. B. Battle, class of '81, has, we 
take pleasure in stating, a pleasant position 
in the State Experiment Station, at Raleigh. 
We wish him speedy promotion and scien- 
tific fame. 

There appears to be a considerable amount 
of rivalry between the Rev. Jordan Weaver 
and one of the Editors of the Monthly, 
as to which of them can persecute the long- 
suffering editor the most. 

We warn them, that patience may at 
length cease to be a virtue. 

The election for ."" Borer's Medal" will 
come off soon, and we warn certain gentle- 
men, that if they do not give us a wider 



berth, we will illustrate the power of the 
Press, by using the Monthly as an organ 
to secure the election with justice and im- 
partiality. 

The following interesting menagerie is on 
daily exhibition at the hotel. Big Frank 
and Little Tom, the Albinos; Fly-speck 
Billy, and Esau, " an hairy man. " The 
show is under the management of " Short 
and Dirty." His talk is amusing and 
charges reasonable. White folks, 15 cents. 
Niggers and Freshmen, free. Come down. 

The thrilling encounter between a Fresh 
and a Junior last month, which would have 
resulted in a sanguinary struggle but for the 
exquisite coolness and extraordinary pres- 
ence of mind evinced by one of the combat- 
ants in retreating promptly, has, we are 
proud to say, been amicably adjusted, so 
that the friends of both parties may rest 
quiet. Though the retreat was not one 
which, in strict military parlance, might be 
termed orderly; yet it was conducted with 
such astounding celerity and earnestness of 
purpose — two military requisites, that we 
were surprised and delighted to see among 
us such undouhted military genius in one 
so young. 

We would advise both gentlemen to enter 
the army. 

>^» — 

William B. Slacle, '80, of Ga. 



This talented member of the class of '80 
has since graduating, had a position in the 
National Bank of Columbus, Ga. 

We are glad to see that he is putting into 
practice the knowledge and love of constitu- 
tional rights which he learned at his Alma 
Mater. 

It seems that on Jan. 6, eight men came 
into Columbus seeking work in an orderly 
manner, but having the appearance of being 
tramps. They summarily arrested by the 
mayor and with no trial sentenced to the 
chain gang. A few days after, an article 
appeared in one of the leading dailies, signed, 
"W, B. S.," proving conclusively that this 



1882.] 



EXCHANGES. 



27 



action was an open violation of all law, of 
Magna Charta, and of the United States 
Constitution, and demanding the release of 
the prisoners. No action being taken by 
the authorities, another article appeared 
three days later, from the same pen, justify- 
ing his former position and protesting in 
stronger terms against the violation of law. 

On the same day the prisoners were 
brought before Judge Brooks, under a writ 
of habeas corpus sued out by Mr. W. B. 
Slade, and all parties were called on to show 
cause why they should be detained. On 
their trial upon charge of vagrancy, they 
were released on their own recognizances, 
the proofs being insufficient for conviction. 

It is especially commendable in our friend, 
that in the Avhole city of Columbus, he was 
the only one to demand the rights of the 
laws in favor of the unfortunate men. We 
congratulate him on the success of his first 
effort in behalf of freedom, and regard this 
as an indication of his future career. 



J^xcI[ctngES. 



Again we come to our exchanges and re- 
mark w y ith pleasure the appearance of seve- 
ral new ones. 

We are glad to welcome our namesake 
from Randolph Macon College, and must 
congratulate it on its evident popularity 
with the "ministering angels." Of the five 
exchanges noticed by it, three were from 
colleges for young ladies. Indeed, from the 
courtly manner in which it speaks of them, 
and its other good qualities, we are not sur- 
prised at its good fortune. 

We too have been similarly honored, but 
sad to say, in only one instance. The St. 
Mary's Muse, edited in a most able manner 
by the young- ladies of St Mary's, contains 
quite a number of pleasant, readable arti- 
cles and the only fault we have to find is 
that it is a quarterly. 

We also acknowledge the receipt of the 
Orphan's Friend. Among the many excel- 
lent reasons given for its publication, we no- 



tice this: "The children of the Asylum need 
a live, fresh and practical paper for their en- 
couragement, improvement and entertain- 
ment — a friend to speak with them, to them 
and for them." They have it and we wish 
it long-continued success in its noble aim. 

The Lariat is a breezy, bustling visitor 
from Wabash College, Ind., and to it we 
are indebted for the first intimation we have 
received of the projected "convention of col- 
lege editors." 

If this idea could be realized it would be 
of the greatest benefit to college journalism. 
All the advantages derived from association 
would be gained, new energy would be in- 
fused into each individual editor and an in- 
terest in the good cause awakened in both 
colleges and the public. If properly car- 
ried out, we can easily see that college jour- 
nalism would not be the only gainer, but 
that education also would profit by it, and 
we sincerely hope that some active steps 
may be taken in regard to it; otherwise, it 
will merely serve as a fruitful theme for 
discussion by the exhausted brain of the col- 
lege editor and become just such another 
eye-sore as the Guiteau trial. 

The College Herald reflects credit on Trin- 
ity, and we hope it will prove itself one of 
the "little acorns" from which "tall oaks" 
are grown. 

We owe our thanks to the Wilmington 
Star, which contains some encouraging re- 
marks about the Monthly, the Chatham 
Record, Fayetteville Examiner, and other 
leading State papers for their courtesy. 

*«9* 

On the 28th of January, 1882, the rail- 
road to Paint Rock was completed. On the 
1st day of February, 1882, just as the sun 
was rising beautiful and clear, the whistle 
of Col. Holt's work train on the University 
Railroad, waked the echoes for the first time 
in the hills and ravines around Chapel Hill. 
The remarkable coincidence is that the road 
from Morehead City to the Tennessee line, 
which Dr. Joseph Caldwell was the first to 
advocate, should be completed at the same 
time that the railroad Avas about completed 
to the place from which were written his 
celebrated Carleton letters. The zeal with 
which he advocated his system of internal 
improvements would doubtless have been 
much abated if he had known at the time 
that it would have been sixty years before 
his favorite railroad line would be completed, 
and before Chapel Hill would have railroad 
communications "with the outer world. — Ed- 
ucational Journal. ' 



28 



COLLEGE MECOBJ>. 



[March 



We take pleasure in announcing, for the 
benefit of the patrons of this Institution and 
the friends of the students, that the small- 
pox has not yet matriculated at the Univer- 
sity. 

Prof. Pell is doing good work for his Al- 
ma Mater in the English department. We 
venture the assertion that in a very short 
time the standard in this department will be 
as high as in any institution of learning in 
the South, if not in the countrv. 

A petition has been sent to the Past-masJ 
ter-General to change the mail-route be- 
tween this place and Durham, so that the 
mails may be brought by the R. R., and 
not by the hack line. This will make our 
mails much more regular, and we will re- 
ceive the eastern mail twenty-four hours 
earlier. 

Prof. Mangum has decided to have Sen- 
ior speaking about the middle of this month. 
Every member of the class will be required 
to speak, and those who make the best im- 
impression on the Faculty will probably 
have the opportunity of displaying their or- 
atorical powers to the assembled multitude 
next commencement. 

A few days ago we heard some members 
of the Soph, class debating the question, 
•'Who was the father of Methuselah ?" One 
thought the name of the person under de- 
bate was Elijah; a second was not certain 
whether it was Elijah or Elias. We com- 
mend to the serious attention of the Faculty 
a course in the Old Testament for the Sophs, 
and Fresh. 

Two members of the law class of 1881-82 
have returned from Raleigh, having passed 
their examinations before the Supreme 
Court and obtained their licenses to prac- 
tice law. We never, for a moment, doubted 
that students as faithful as these have been, 
who had enjoyed the privilege of instruc- 
tion under two such teachers as Pres. Bat- 
tle and Prof. Manning could fail to be ap- 



proved. We tender them our congratula- 
tions and best wishes for their future suc- 
cess. 

We understand that only ten members of 
the graduating class will be allowed to speak 
Commencement Day, and that their speech- 
es will be"; limited to ten minutes. The 
knowledge of this fact will be gratifying to 
those who attend our commencements, but 
do not care for speeches. By this arrange- 
ment, the entire afternoon can~be devoted to 
preparation for the grand ball, or, if prefer- 
able, to participation in the German. 

We know that all of the Alumni will] 
hear with regret, of the death of Lemuel 
Yancey, the deaf mute, on the night of the 
29th of last January. Lem always took a 
great deal of interest in the students and 
their doings, and many will recall his eag- 
erness to find out any news and his earnest- 
ness in imparting it to others. Many oth- 
ers will recollect the numerous jokes, etc., 
told of him and by him. 

The Philanthropic Society received, as a 
Christmas present, from Gen. E. J. Mallett, 
of the class of 1818, two handsomely exe- 
cuted photographs of himself, taken when 
he was 54 and 84 years old respectively. 
These photographs now adorn the Hall of 
the Society and will repay a visit to the 
Hall. General Mallett, it will be remem- 
bered by all who were at the commence- 
ment of 1881, delivered on the 63rd anni- 
versary of his graduation, an eloquent ad- 
dress to the last graduating class. 

At their annual meeting in January, the 
Trustees postponed the discussion of the an- I 
nual Commencement ball until their meet- 
ing next Commencement, when a much 
larger attendance is expected. Some mem. 
bers of the Board of Trustees are strongly 
opposed to this feature in our Commence- 
ment exercises, and, no doubt, conscien- 
tiously believe that it should be, abolished. 
It is to be hoped that some measures will be 
adopted which will remove the ground of 
their objections, but will retain this time- 
honored means of gratification for our yisi- 



! 



1882.] 



COLLEGE RECORD. 



29 



(tors and ourselves for the benefit of all fu- 
ture generations. 

Some of our students are such indefatiga- 
ble smokers that the members of the Facul- 
ty are very careful not to enter their rooms. 
The sanctum of one of ye smokers was en- 
tered a few days ago by one of the Profes- 
sors; but so dense was the smoke and so 
strong the fumes of an old pipe, that the 
Prof, retired hurriedly in disgust, and has 
not since ventured within the door. We 
would not be very much surprised if the 
Faculty, at some future meeting, should 
pass a rule prohibiting, under the penalty of 
suspension, this disgusting and enervating 
practice. 

The Senior Class have decided to have 
the Class-Day celebration on Friday,-March 
31st. The speakers chosen for the occasion 
are, A. W. McAlister, Orator; E. A. Alder- 
man, Prophet; F. N. Skinner, Historian; 
and C. W. Worth, President. Music will 
be furnished by the University Choir. The 
class will, perhaps, also engage the services 
of the "University Amateur String Band." 
The members of the class cordially invite 
all their friends from the neighboring towns 
and cities to be present on that festive occa- 
sion; and promise to do all in their power 
to make the time pass in the most agreeable 
manner possible. We understand that sev- 
eral look forward to that day as the one on 
which their future happiness or misery will 
depend. 



modern improvements for gymnastic exer- 
cise. ) 

Preparations are being made to re-shingle 
Gerrard Hall, a work which has been need- 
ed for some time. The Trustees, at their 
annnal meeting in January were urged by 
Pres. Battle to enlarge this building for the 
accommodation of the large number of 
guests expected at future Commencements. 
Any movement toward the accomplishment 
of tnis object would_be hailed with delight 
by all the friends of the University, and es- 
pecially by the students. Heretofore, this 
Hall has been uncomfortably crowded every 
Commencement when the prospect of a ride 
over twelve miles of rough road deterred 
many from coming. By the completion of 
the R. Pv. this great drawback is removed; 
and we expect to see not only the entire 
building crowded, but all the adjacent por- 
tions of the campus filled with a throng 
eager to drink in the words of wit and wis- 
dom which flow from the lips of our gradu- 
ates and representatives. Will not some 
wealthy friend give us the means to provide 
for this eager, anxious throng ? Do so and 
we will ever pray, etc. 

{^eneital OsIIegE ]\[ews. c 

One hundred students are_in attendanceat Trin- 
ity College 

Wofford College S. C. has[152*students enrolled 
this session- 

The 47th Anniversary of two Literary Societies 
of Wake Forest College will be celebrated 17th Feb. 

Salem Female Academy has 160 pupils 

Voluntary contributions to the University of 
Virginia since 1865 foot up $440,000. 

The Trinity Herald proposes a general Board of 
Trustees to be appointed by the Legislature who 
shall determine and execute all examinations for 
graduation and is willing to measure lances with 
Wake Forest, Chapel Hill and Davidson. That 
would be a fair test. 



The pleasure of doing goodis'theonly one that 
never wears out. — Anon. 

Hobbcs attributes the difficulty jnenThave in re- 
ceiving the truth to their minds being prepossessed 
by false opinions — they have prejudged the ques- 
tion. 



30 



AD VERTISEMENTS. 



THE NORTH CAROLINA 

EDUCATIONAL JOURNAL. 

REV. J. F. HEITMAN, 

EDITOR AND PUBLISHER. 



TEEMS OF SUBSCRIPTION: 


One Copy for Six Months, 


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One Copy for One Year, 


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Twenty Copies " " - 


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SOME POINTS TO BE NOTED WITH 
REGARD TO THIS JOURNAL. 



1. It is the only Educational Joukxal 
now published in the State. 

2. It has now passed successfully through 
its First Volume and may be regarded as a 
fixed institution. 

3. It has among its contributors many of 
the best and most eminent educators of the 
State. 

4. Its columns are oj>en to all who wish 
to communicate their ideas on educational 
topics, and as such is the best medium of 
communication for those engaged in the 
work of education. 

5. Its columns are filled with important 
information for parents, teachers and school 
officers. 

6. It is non-political, non-sectarian, and 
is not in alliance with any particular insti- 
tution of learning. 

7. It is not the agent of any publishing 
house or school fixture establishment, nor 
does the publisher run anything of the kind 
in connection with the Journal. 

8. It offers no premiums to induce unwil- 
ling subscriptions, but aims to stand on its 
own merits, and hopes on that basis to 
achieve success. 

9. Its historical department is a most in- 
teresting and valuable feature, aiming as it 
does to collect and preserve important ma- 
terial for the future historian as well as to 
enlighten the present generation on past 
events. 

10. As an advertising medium for those 
books and materials which pertain to schools 
and education it is bound to be the best in 
the State for already the Journal visits 
every county and goes to those most inteest- 
ed in educational work. 



CALL A.T 

J. W. CARE'S old Stand, 

Where you will find a FULL LINE OF 

STAPLE GROCERIES 

CHEAP FOE CASH. 

Coffee, 
Sugar, 

Molasses, 
Butter, Syrup, 

Flour, Rice, 

Meal, Hams, 

Cheesse Bulk Meats 

Crackers, Sausage, 
Peanuts, Lard, 
Kerosene Oil, Candy. Hominy, 

Canned Peaches, Spices, Fish, 

Canned Tomatoes, Starch, &c, 
Salt, Soap, 

Soda, Pepper, 

Chewing Tobacco, &c, 

Leather, Smoking Tobacco 

Nails, Snuff, 

Horse Shoes, Putty, 
Mule Shoes, Glass, 
Buckets, Putty, 

Brooms, &c, &c, &c, 

Dry Goods, Sheeting, 
Hardware, Checks, 
Tinware, Calico, 

Hats, Shoes, &c, 

Examine our prices of groceries by the 
quantity, before purchasing elsewhere. 

Chapel Hill N. C, February 1, 1882. 



THE MOST POPULAR 

— AND — 

Successful School Books of the Day 

AK E PUBLISHED BY 

D. APPLET0N, & 00,, 

1, 3 & 5 Bond St., - - - NEW YORK. 

AMONG "WHICH AE 

Appleton's New Readers, — five volumes, 

Appleton's Standard Geographies, 

The Model Copy Book — with sliding copies, 

Quackenbos's New American History, 

Quackenbcs's Illustrated Lessons in our Language, 

Ballard's Words, and How to put them together. 

Krusi's Drawing Series, 

Cornell's Systematic Geographies, . . 

Appleton's Arithmetics, 

Harkness's Latin Series, etc., etc. 

Catalogue, circulars, price-list, mailed free. 
5-tf 



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Vol. I. 



Chapel Hill, N. C, April 1882. 



No. 3. 



Education in the South. 

The charge that the South has neglected 
the higher education of her people is not 
true. Her record is honorable, in the days 
both prior and subsequent to the late war, 
even in comparison with the boastful and 
lauded North. Dr. Curry, the accomplish- 
ed Agent of the Peabody Fund, states: 

"If the census of I860, as taken by the 
United States authorities, be correct, the 
white population of the Northern States 
in that year was nearly 19,000,000, and of 
the Southern, only a little over 8,000,000. 
At that time the North had 205 colleges, 
the South, 275 ; the North had 29,044 stu- 
dents, the South, 27,000; the North paid 
for these colleges $1,514,203, the South, $1,- 
662,419." 

If it be said that many of those Southern 
colleges were of an inferior grade, it is re- 
plied that the same was true of many of 
those in the North. In truth, the North, 
with all its advantages in years and accumu- 
lated wealth, had very few really distin- 
guished schools. 

Nor was the education obtained at the 
North of a better quality than that fur-' 
nished by Southern institutions. This as- 
sertion is based upon facts, which are more 
reliable than theories. The highest and 
fairest test is found in the results of the 
work that was done by the schools in the 
two sections. From the time that the grad- 
uates of the Southern colleges entered the 
public arena, . their ranks have contained 
men able to contend successfully with the 



most accomplished alumni from the oldest 
and most iamous schools at the North, in 
those noblest fields of achievement in which 
truly great men show their greatness by be- 
coming recognized defenders of momentous 
interests and honored leaders of their fel- 
low-men. The South has always produced 
men, men for the times. How is it to-day ? 
At the South the war almost completely 
destroyed nearly all the educational insti- 
tutions of every grade, and swept away the 
means indispensable to their establishment 
and maintenance. All classes of people 
were subjected to a struggle, as for life, 
against the tremendous evils that over- 
whelmed them. But they strove with he- 
roic spirit to rebuild the temples of learn- 
ing and to make them even more excellent 
than they were in the past. Success has 
necessarily been slow, but it has been truly 
honorable and inspiring. Already the 
number of Southern boys at Northern col- 
leges has become significantly small and is 
constantly growing smaller. Our people 
are finding the schdols that they regard best 
for Southern boys within the Southern 
States. As in the past, so to day, the North 
with its riches makes a grand display of 
boasted facilities; and it runs ahead of us 
in some things, such as Sanscrit, Chinese, 
Adlerism, scientific arrogance, boating and 
hazing; but, as in the past, so in the pres- 
ent, the South is conducting and constantly 
improving an educational system that will 
develop the best type of the true manhcoi 
for all the loftier and more important du- 
ties of life. There is a feverish, sensational 



36 



COWTBIB UTIONS. 



[April 



genius in the Northern education of this 
day that forebodes a strange and disastrous 
future, if it be not tempered and restrained 
by a healthy conservatism such as charac- 
terizes the representative education of the 
South. 

I have said little or nothing about what 
is called scientific education. In this the 
North is certainly in advance of us, per- 
haps not greatly to our disadvantage. The 
truth probably is that this excitement about 
Natural Science is a sort of temporary colle- 
giate epidemic, so far as its extreme and ex- 
travagant phenomena are comcerned, and 
will gradually if not rapidly pass away; just 
as the present railroad mania, which in some 
respects it resembles. They are both rush- 
ing forward with ominous recklessness. 

The South is studying and teaching sci- 
ence, too, and will continue to study and 
teach it, more and more thoroughly, but it 
will never make a god of it or place it as 
master over those departments of learning 
whose servant it is divinely appointed to be. 
Well-balanced Southern minds will view 
the whole subject in its true, character and 
just relations, and will not be led astray by 
the captivating sensuousness of materialis- 
tic theories. 

But it is said, the South has no literature; 
or, the North far excels the South in litera- 
ture. This is true, at least as to quantity; 
and in both bad and good, in both abomina- 
ble and estimable. In view of the number 
that have tried the author's fortune in the 
two sections, probably the South has suc- 
ceeded as often and failed as seldom as the 
North. It will hardly be questioned that 
the North has, during this century, produced 
as much feeble and worthless literature, in 
proportion to its better creations, as any 
land in the limits of our civilization. With 
all its boasted authorship, it has given the . 
world no grand epic ; not a drama that was 
not ephemeral ; few, if any, first class his- 
tories ; no philosophical work of transcend- 
ent excellence ; in short, no potent offspring 
of mighty mind that has arrested the 
thoughts of millions and pressed them into 
newly-discovered paths. 



Still, injustice and charity, let us honor 
and cherish whatever of good the Northern 
mind has achieved ; but let us not forget 
that, after all, the South is not so far be- 
hind. 

Domu8. 



Science vs. Ancient Languages. 



There will be no attempt in this paper 
to pit the claims of Science against those of 
Ancient Languages for precedence in our 
college courses. It is rather a summing up 
and restatement of some of the conclusions 
arrived at in the discussion as to the res- 
pective value of the two in education. 

The recent protest, as we may call it, of 
the Faculty of the University of Berlin 
against the omission of the Ancient Lan- 
guages from the preparatory training of 
their students has attracted attention again 
to this much discussed question. And this 
paper from the Berlin Faculty, embodying, 
as it does, the experience of men of world- 
wide reputation is by far the strongest ar- 
gument for the retention of such studies that 
recent years have brought forth. 

The question of the utility of a study is a 
very difficult one to decide. All college 
training is very much like that which goes 
on in an athletic hall. The muscles are de- 
veloped by different forms of exercise, all 
combining to make one perfect development 
of the whole body and fit it for its after- 
work. The exact effect of intellectual clubs 
and dumb-bells however is hard to discern 
and we may fall into the error of thinking 
one less useful than others because of igno- 
rance as to the development resulting from 
it. Not so very many years ago the ultima- 
tum of all collegiate education seemed to be 
to turn out Latin and Greek scholars. All 
else was subordinated to this. The text- 
books, theses, orations, all were written in 
these languages, and even mathematics was 
forced to yield to the fashion and clothe it- 
self as best it might in Latin manufactured 
for the purpose. That great minds were 
sent forth from these colleges, Ave all know> 



1881.] 



COKTRIB UTIOJVS. 



37 



yet the question will arise, Were they great 
because of, or in spite of this classical train- 
ing ? It may have been such as to smother 
the light in many feebler minds and yet to 
those who could stand it, result in a widen- 
ing and strengthening from the hard work 
it entailed. Because of the great advances 
made in Modern Science and as a very nat- 
ural recoil from this excessive use of the 
Ancient Languages, the tendency has been 
to leave them more and more out of collegi- 
ate courses, until in many of our education- 
al institutions, (colleges and universities), 
they have been almost entirely supplanted 
by what are regarded as more practical, and 
hence, more useful studies. Some appre- 
hension has ever been felt lest the study of 
Greek should entirely die out among us — it, 
as necessitating more labor, being the more 
irksome and the first to be thrown off. This 
reaction, we repeat, is a natural one, but is 
there not danger of its going too far ? May 
we not be playing the part of fitful children, 
passing by the substantial, strength-giving 
food and glutting ourselves with the more 
appetizing fruits which should crown the 
feast? As usual, the middle course seems 
the safer. "First train the mind and bring 
(tut all of its working powers with a reason- 
able amount of the wisdom of the old Greeks 
and Romans and then let it digest the facts 
of Modern Science. 

A great deal depends upon what is con- 
sidered the true object of college education. 
Is it to supply the student with facts or is it 
to tit him for acquiring and utilizing those 
facts afterwards ? The number of such facts 
which can be imparted in a four years' 
course is but limited. Is it not much better 
then so to draw out the energies of the stu- 
dent that he may afterwards search out and 
make his own the truths which centuries of 
man's labor have won from nature*? 

To an untrained mind Natural Science is 
a mass uf facts — interesting, wonderful they 
may b?,"b:it still in the main isolated. It is 
only the mind which has been strengthened 
by constant exercise and which has been 
trained to think that can follow out the 



reasoning which deduces from them the 
great natural laws. And it is only when 
the mind can grasp their bearing toward one 
another and their relation to the perfect 
whole, that it can begin to retain these facts 
or make them of permanent value. They 
must be digested in order that they may be 
properly taken in, otherwise they pass from 
the mind almost as soon as- -the voice teach- 
ing them has died away uyon the ear. It is 
essential then that the mental faculties should 
be properly trained in order that scientific 
studies be of permanent value. Some of 
the greatest scientific men of modern days 
state this to have been their experience and 
in rhe Berlin Memorial they give it as their 
opinion that the study of ancient languages 
seems the best preparatory training. Pu- 
pils coming from the Realschule, where 
Latin and Greek are comparatively little 
taught, are quickly outstripped by those 
from the Gymnasium where much stress is 
placed upon these studies. And yet, to all 
appearances, the former had the advantage 
in the race ; for they came with a certain 
grounding in' scientific studies which the 
Gymnasium studies did not possess. The 
experience of these learned professors proved 
that it was an advantage only in appear- 
ance. A certain smattering had been ob- 
tained by their previous studies, a superfic- 
ial knowledge which made a deeper insight 
into the laws lying beyond the facts all the 
more difficult. They did not enter upon 
the study with the ardor of taking up some- 
thing new. They thought themselves ac- 
quainted with all that was to be learned 
and were wearied with it before they began. 
To the others, the study came with all the 
zest of novelty ; and their faculties, all alive 
and trained to systematic acquirement, rap- 
idly took hold of, and understandingly pur- 
sued the subject before them. 

No thinking man can fail to see that some 
preliminary training is necessary for the 
study of science. The question only remains 
what shall that training be. And these 
thinking men of Germany have thrown the 
weight of their experience in the scale fo r 



38 



CONTRIB UTIONS. 



[April 



Latin and Greek. To some few, the study 
of Latin and Greek will be an end; to most, 
it must be a means, and if it is once clearly 
proved to be the best means whereby we can 
attain excellence in the more " practical " 
studies, there will be very little danger of 
that decay which has been so much appre- 
hended by some. 

Science. 



Judge William H. Battle. 

On the morning of the fourteenth of 
March, 1879, the spirit of the last of a noble 
band took its flight to a better country. 
That band, composed of Graham, Ruffin, 
Badger, Pearson and others, has now no 
representative. They are the ardent souls 
who formed our laws, our history, our State. 
After guarding their country through the 
dangers of the dreadful war, after temper- 
ing the evils of the sudden infusion of the 
negro ballot, and seeing their beloved State 
with wonderful activity adapt herself to the 
new arrangement, and burst forth new and 
prosperous, they sank, one by one, to their 
honored graves. Others still living were 
the active managers, they were the guard- 
ians of the State. They should, and ever 
will, live in the hearts of our people — their 
influence can never die. 

Of this bright array, none can present a 
worthier example to the rising generation 
than he who last passed away from the 
scenes. Life should be duty. Judge Bat- 
tle was not the greatest or most brilliant of 
his peers, but he is pre-eminent in his pure, 
ardent and life-long devotion to duty. 

In 1743, a man descended from English 
ancestors left Virginia to seek his fortune 
in other lands. He settled in Edgecombe 
county, N. C, and his descendents are now 
scattered over all the Southern States. This 
man* Elisha Battle, soon became a leader in 
his. section and was a prominent civilian in 
the Revolution. He was a member of the 
Congress at Halifax which formed the Con- 
stitution of 1776, and afterwards in '88 of 
the Convention at Hillsboro which rejected 



the Constitution of the U. S. Two of his 
lineal descendents are now Presidents of 
Universities. . 

Judge Battle was the great-grandson of 
Elisha and his ancestors on both sides were 
leading Revolutionary spirits. The identi- 
cal land bought from Lord Granville in 
1743 is still in the possession of the Battle 
family. 

Judge Battle was the first of the family 
to leave farming and enter a profession. He 
entered the Sophomore class half advanced , 
at the University and graduated with high 
honor in 1820, 18 years old. His grandson, 
Kemp P. Battle, Jr., '79 was the first stu- 
dent of the fourth generation, whose ances- 
tors had all been University men. 

He read law under Chief Justice Hen- 
derson, justly considered one of our great- 
est common law jurists, and such a reputa- 
tion for diligence and learning did he ac- 
quire, that on his application far license, the 
Supreme Court waived examinations, tho' 
at that time two were usually required. 

He married Miss Lucy Plummet? of War- 
renton, and he always ascribed to her cheer- 
fulness and unfailing encouragement much 
of his success. For fortune did not grant 
him the fruits of his profession till he had 
undergone a weary probation. 

He was not idle, however, during these 
years of enforced leisure. He mastered 
thoroughly the State Reports and was al- 
ways famous for his knowledge of them. He 
attracted, too, the notice of the profession 
editing old reports. Judge Battle gained 
success, not by the favor of the people, for 
he was too modest and unassuming for that, 
but by his impression upon the bar. This 
was the corner-stone of his success. On ac- 
count of this he was appointed with Iredell 
and Nash to form the Revised Statutes of 
'38, which work he superintended at Boston. 
On account of this he was created first, a 
Judge of the Superior, and then of "the Su- 
preme Court. 

He moved to Chapel Hill in 1843 to ed- 
ucate his sons, and continued to reside here 



1881.] 



COJSfTBIB UTIONS. 



39 



till the University star disappeared behind 
a cloud. 

At the restoration of the University, he 
returned with his son, Pres. K. P. Battle, to 
watch over the struggling institution, and 
spent the remainder of his days near its 
walls. He was an active friend and lover 
of the University and always showed an ar- 
dent interest in all its affairs. For twenty- 
five years he was Professor of Law, and 
numbers of the most distinguished lawyers 
in the State were his pupils. 

Judge Battle is one of the few North 
Carolinians who have performed the duty 
which Lord Bacon says is due by every suc- 
cessful man to his profession, of writing 
some book on the profession. He assisted 
in the Revisal of '38, and wrote Battle's Re- 
vival of '72. Thi» latter, though not fault- 
less, is a worthy monument to its -author 
and it should be remembered that he was 
required to do, unaided, the work which 
three of the leading lawyers of the State are 
now engaged in. His complete Digest is 
the only one jn use. For twelve years he 
was a Judge of the Superior Court, and for 
- sixteen he sat on the Supreme Court bench, 
the trusted associate of Puffin and Pearson. 
Truly his was a life well spent, and well he 
earned his rest. 

He is a striking example to young men 
of what energy and perseverance can ac- 
complish. 

Judge Battle was a member of the Epis- 
copal Church for over forty years ; his was 
a thoroughly practical, liberal religion, by 
which his every act was guided. His life 
was an unswerving devotion to duty. The 
most prominent features' of his character 
were his modesty, his straightforwardness, 
his liberality, his purity, his almost fault- 
lessness. These features were characteristic 
of his life. The encomiums which, at his 
death, were lavished upon him, are all to 
the same effect. The following by Hon. 
A. S. Merrimon is very expressive, "I shall 
not say that Judge Battle was a great man 
in any single respect; but he was great in 
the unity, symmetry, goodness and beauty 



of his character. His whole record is stain' 
less." 

The period of his death is a memorable 
one, and will ever be vivid to the students 
of 79. On Sunday morning as the sun was 
rising, the old college bell rang out for the 
students to do the last honor to the old man, 
the Judge who had gone to his well-earned 
rest. They escorted the remains to the edge 
of the village, and their committees went on 
to Raleigh to lay the body in state in the 
Capitol. 

Three days later, in the darkness of night, 
the old bell rang out again. At the dreary 
summons, the students once more gathered 
together. This time it was to perform the 
same service to one of their own comrades, 
one who such a short time before had been 
as happy and as thoughtless as any one. In 
double file they followed the corpse, slowly 
and sorrowfully to the edge of town. They 
thought, as they separated, of the strange- 
ness of death — of the old man taken in the 
fulness of years— of the young man taken in 

his prime. -^ , 

$grThe societies are very careful about 
preserving the beauty of that portion of the 
campus known as the "forbidden ground." 
All students are ptohibited from using it as 
a play -ground or from even stepping upon 
it except at their peril. This is entirely 
proper, for it is the fairest and most con- 
spicuous portion of the campus. In spite 
of these stringent regulations, paths may be 
seen intersecting it in many directions. The 
colored population and those of the villag- 
ers who feel disposed, use it as a thorough- 
fare and as a means of economizing locomo- 
tion. With Commencement rapidly ap- 
proaching aDd the grass just beginning to 
spring up, this should be stopped. Let the 
proper authorities 3ee to it. The students 
would probably contract to suppress the 
nuisance if the necessary power were given 
them. 



[April 



40 EDITORIAL. 

THE I and we purchase anything. This is not the 

UNIVERSITY MONTHLY case with p - l He regards them meve] y as 

WAUYMW^i WViMUUi measurers of men. His dimensions are on 

published by file all over the Southern States. 

the Dialectic and Philanthropic Literary- 
Societies cf the University of North Car- 
olina. 

Entered at the Post Office at Chapel Hill 
as second-class matter. 



TERMS: ' 

One Copy, one year, (of 9 months,) - 
One Copy, six months, - - - - 
Five Copies, to one address, one year, - 



- $1.00 

- .75 
- 4.00 



RA TES OF AD VER TISING : 

One Dollar per inch for first insertion and fifty 
cents for each subsequent insertion of same adver- 
tisment. 

Address all communications to 

A. W. LONG, Business Manager, 
CHAPEL HILL, Orange Co., N. C. 

CHAPEL HILL, N. C, APRIL, 1882. 

Those who are looking for information 
on the Tariff could not do better, we think, 
than to study Senator Vance's recent great 
speech on the subject. They will be saved 
the labor of mastering abstract generaliza- 
tions and will meet face to face the salient 
features of the great question arranged with 
rare argumentative skill and held up with 
specific force and freshness. 



Now is the spring, of our Commencement 
anticipations enlivened and made glorious 
by the cheerful prattle of of the drummers. 
We are glad to welcome them here. Thev 
know so much better than you do what you 
want and compel you to purchase articles 
you do not need and are ashamed of. We 
love to listen to them, to hear them talk 
about everything with familiar vigoroup, 
confidence, and argue with you about your 
financial condition, and force their taste on 
you, and drivel, and lie. We are powerless 
to assert our individuality in the presence 
of a drummer. Our cherished notions flee 



Among the new books racently received 
by the "Di," we notice a very valuable work 
by Mr. Freeman, the English historian, en- 
titled, The Historical Geography of Europe. 
It contains about 650 pages and is accompa- 
nied by an atlas of 65 colored maps. The 
work is not a history, but a mere statement 
of the many changes of rule and dominion 
which have taken place in Europe and its 
colonial empire since the dawn of history. 
The causes and mutual relations of each 
event are brought forward until the present 
state of affairs is reached. This seems to us 
a very striking way to learn history. By a 
comparison of maps information may . be 
gained which would otherwise necessitate 
wading through many chapters of dry his- 
torical matter. We commend the book to 
those historically inclined. 



We noticed a short time ago a coinmun- 
nication from Hon. A. M. Waddell in the 
Wilmington Star and endorsed by that pa- 
per, relative to erecting a monument to the 
memory of those students of the University 
who lost their lives in the late war. The 
project commends itself to every-one, and 
we feel confident in asserting that the stu- 
dents of to-day will gladly give of their 
means towards its accomplishment. It is 
our purpose, in succeeding numbers of the 
Monthly, to give short biographies of the 
more prominent of those who left the Uni- 
versity to meet death on the battle-field. 
We hope to gain such information concern- 
ing them as will be instructive and interest- 
ing to the public generally and to their 
former comrades and friends in this and oth- 
er States. 



It was claimed in our article on the Lit- 
erary Societies of the University that our 
collection of oil-portraits was unequalled in 
the State. To make good this claim, we 



1882.] 



EDITORIAL. 



41 



give a list of them below, and shall from 
time to time give the salient features in the 
career of those whose deeds and fame have 
been lost sight of in the lapse of time. We 
venture to assert that the names of some of 
whom we shall speak and who have left their 
impress on bur State affairs are now forgot- 
t 'n, save by careful students ' of our State 
history. We shall be content if our sketch- 
es will induce in any mind a greater vener- 
ation and better acquaintance with the 
prominent actors in our earlier history. 

The Dialectic Society owns the following: 
Jas. K. Polk, Gov. Swain, Dr. Jas. Phillips, 
Thos. L. Clingman, Chief Justice Ruffin, 
Gen. Wra, R. Davie, Wm, A. Graham, Wil- 
lie P. Mangum, Gov. Manly, Geo. E. Bad- 
ger, Giles Mebane, Dr. Charles. F. Deems, 
Dr. Wm. Hooper, Judge Archibald, D. 
Murphy, Gov. Owen and Gov. Rencher. 

The Philanthropic Society contains the 
following: 

Judge Gaston, Dr. Francis L. Hawks, 
Gen. Bryan Grimes, John H. Bryan, John 
Branch, Dr. Joseph Caldwell, Judge James 
Grant, of Iowa, Gov. Wm. Miller, Hon. R. 
R. Bridgers, Wm. R. King, of Alabama, 
Bartholomew F. Moore, John Y. Mason, 
James C. Dobbins, Dr. Elisha Mitchell and 
Chief Justice Manning of Louisiana. 



Speech-Making-. 



There are a great many speeches deliver- 
ed here Commencement. Tuesday evening 
in the annual session of the Societies, the 
talking begins. On Wednesday morning, 
the Orator delivers the address, and in the 
afternoon the baccalaureate sermon is lis- 
tened to ; at night, the v(i?e of the Repre- 
sentative is heard through the land. Bright 
and early Thursday morning, the graduates 
add their mite to the ever-increasing volume 
of talk, hotly pursued in the afternoon Joy 
the many racy and piquant speeches inci- 
dent to the delivery of medals and a climax 
is reached on Thursday night in the spont: - 
• neous effort of every one to_say something. 
It is easy to conceive how this may grow 



wearisome unless mighty precautions are ta- 
ken to enchain the attention of our auditors. 
It is quite impossible to pare down the 
amount of speaking. Many would regard 
that as an infringement on civil liberty. 
The nature of our social oi'ganization must 
be accountable for the importance and 
pronens^ to speaking, so universal in our 
country. We are unable to account for it 
on any other hypothesis. 

No considerable body of Americans can 
possibly gather together without some ora- 
tory. There is an incompleteness about an 
assembly, lacking this essential, fatal to its 
aims and purposes. This may be a healthy 
and proper state of affairs. We sincerely 
hope so. The average college man is 
abreast of the times on this idea. The right 
to speak, he considers one of the unalien- 
able rights, to be enumerated along with 
life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. 

Only extreme circumstances, therefore, 
could diminish the quantity of speaking, 
such a course would not only rudely tram- 
ple upon the desires of the speaker himself, 
but would do violence to the tender pride of 
parents, who are wont to think that the 
treasures of knowledge have been scantily 
gathered unless a gem is produced in the 
shape of a graduating speech. We put 
away this alternative as monstrous. We 
then face the question, how to make the 
many speeches entertaining, and how. to 
make the listeners in the chapel better con- 
tented with their lot than the loungers en 
the outward wall. An important factor in 
in the solution of this knotty problem lies 
in the theme chosen for discussion. The 
bare announcement of the theme will in 
many cases decide whether the speaker is to 
be listened to or borne with. 

The importance of this idea can not be 
over estimated by our Commencement speak- 
ers. With the best possible motives we de- 
sire to warn them against the selection of 
trite, vast or obstruse subjects-. At the out- 
set they will be called upon to subdue a 
^ fascinating tendency to clear up some vast 
question, the misleading idea- being, that 



42 



PERSONAL. 



[April 



only far-reaching subjects are commensu- 
rate with the expectations of the occasion. 
Slight experience will forever crush that 
notion. The average college speaker is not 
associated in the popular mind with an un- 
due wealth of profundity, and if the speaker 
attempts that role, the irreverent publ\c 
will be apt to look for a more efficient cause. 

In short, originality will be denied him, 
and his mental bombardment will stir no 
no deeper feeling than a desire for its cessa- 
tion. Vigor and freshness however is ex- 
pected of college-bred young men and our 
Commencement speakers should try to ex- 
cel in this pai'ticular. This they can do by 
judicious selection of themes, by consenting 
to keep in the back-ground, Pericles, Julius 
Caesar and the Declaration of Independence, 
and bringing forward things of near and 
living interest. It does not take a prophet 
to foretell that they will meet the reward of 
a pleased audience and feel the conscious 
pride of well-appreciated labor. Intellec- 
tual force itself may be economized by shun- 
ning the immensity of space and vastness of 
time, and hopes of success realized by clear- 
ly directed, and less ambitious efforts. 

It.is not too much to say, that so far, our 
Commencement themes have been singular- 
ly tasteful and timely, and have been so 
pronounced by those competent to pass upon 
them. So much greater the reason why we 
should be watchul. Beware of ample, many- 
sided topics. If the choice be between the 
Universe and an ant-hill, try the ant-hill. 



I^Eijsonal. 



We are glad to see a spiritual ticket- 
agent has announced himself here. Patron- 
ize him. 

The "General" left us sometime back for 
a melancholy purpose. We k>pe to see 
hi in back soon. 

W. J. Adams, class of '81, is teaching 
school in Carthage, Moore county. We 
wish him luck. 



"Zeno," we understand, has "pitched his 
tent in a wilder land," and is studying med- 
icine in New York. 

Good Guinea Market ! All who. guineas 
to sell will make by sending them to "Fans," 
P. 0. Box 2,094. We understand he is 
paying the enormous price of 87 2 cents per 
guinea. 

The Tuneful Liar, having regained the 
original brightness of his complexion and 
recovered from the panic into which he mo- 
mentarily thrown by embarrassing circum- 
stances, is still regaling friends and foes 
with enormous tales of western adventure. 

We were much pained last moiith to know 
that one of the students was dragged before 
Court on charge of assault and battery. 
His counsel plead guilty, but urged insan- 
ity, which was clearly proven and prisoner 
discharged. 

University still ahead ! We have the 
pleasure of informing our many readers that 
our Chief Marshal of 1881— Mr. Duncan 
MTve.t is one of the magisterial board of 
Moore county, distributing even-handed 
justioe in the capacity of Justice of the 
Peace. We have no doubt that, with his 
executive ability and legal learning, he will 
prove an honor to the bench. 

It will doubtless be a gratifying fact to 
those earnestly concerned as to the literary 
future of the South, to learn that a " star " 
has at last arisen. 

We give below an extract sent to a stu- 
dent by the future Mrs. Browning : 
Trust the giver, 

You will never have 
Cause to regret it. 

Not as the rose may our 
Friendship wither, 

But as the ever-green 
Live forever. 
We are not responsible for the metre, ar- 
rangement nor sentiment of the above. We 
claim the honor of discovering the geni, how- 
ever. 



1882.] 



EXCHANGES. 



43 



^xctictnges. 



The Wake Forest Student is a handsome- 
ly gotten up and well-edited magazine. It 
is a pleasant companion in spare moments, 
and we read with much pleasure the Anni- 
versary oration on ''Reserved Power." The 
Student is published by only one of the two 
societies, the Euzelian, and does it credit. 
At the University, many of the students of 
both Societies seem to expect the Monthly 
to start, maintain and enlarge itself with 
no aid from them whatever, either financial 
or literary. 

The Asbury Monthly has again put in an 
appearance after a protracted absence. We 
uotice it has omitted its Exchange column 
and produces but one article in the Literary 
Department. Tnis is said to be on the "Ev- 
olution of Parties," but we suppose the au- 
thor must have been writing two articles 
" at one sitting " and in naming them be- 
came confused. If so, the other was entitled 
"Game Poultry and Rifle Pits." We are 
glad to see the Monthly bestirring itself in 
regard to the College Press Association. 
Come Again. 

The March number of the Randolph Ma- 
con Monthly is the combined effort of a new 
set of editors and fully sustains the reputa- 
tion it had achieved under the preceding 
corps. This is one of our best exchanges 
and will always receive a warm welcome. 
We were both interested and instructed by 
its article on "Cake Walks," having never 
heard of the performance before. We guess 
it was something similar to the "Gunther- 
ian" of 79. 

The Orphan's Friend is counted among 
our friends too and is a welcome visitor. 
We owe it thanks for its kind and cheering 
words. 

The North Western from Evanston, Illi- 
nois, has the neatest exterior and best ar- 
ranged interior of any college paper we have 
yet seen- Jts. editorials, etc., are doubtless 
fully appreciated by the students of N. W. 
University, "and many of them are even in- 
teresting to. outsiders. We regret to see so 



little in its Literary, still what there is in it 
is good. 

The College Herald comes up to time 
and our expectations. 

We are pleased to be able to place upon 
our exchange list such a bright little jour- 
nal as the College Record, from the Nor- 
folk College, for young ladies. One would 
judge from its salutatory that it believed in 
the Fatalistic doctrine, but we won't con- 
clude so. We can safely predict for it a 
successful future, unbiased by our "fellow 
feeling." (The Record has had but two 
months more experience than the Month- 
ly. 

Several of our State papers have graced 
our table this month :— Fayetteville Exam- 
iner, Chatham Record, Kinston Journal and. 

the Home and Democrat. 

I We have received a prospectus of a new 
weeklv, the New South, to be published at 
Wilmington, N. C, by Mr. E. A. Oldham, 
late associate editor of the Newbern News. 
It is to be devoted to all the interests of the 
South, general and special. We wish the 
gentleman success in his laudable enter- 
prise. 

We consider that we have made a most 
valuable acquisition to our exchange list in 
the N C. Educational Journal. North Car« 
olina has long needed just such a journal, 
and we are glad to see that it has been so 
well supported and has made such a suc- 
cess. Without doubt, it deserves this and 
more too from the friends of education in 
the State. The educational interests of the 
"Old North State" have too long been neg- 
lected and the Journal appears as their de- 
voted and successful advocate. 



The poorest education that teaches a man 
self-control is better than the best without 

it. 

»^j^» ' — ' 

- There are nw in this, country 2J1,H4 
teachers, or one teacher, to. every} 84. of pop- 
ulation. - - -• - 



44 



COLLEGE KECOBD. 



[April 



SENIOR SPAEKING. 



A Synopsis of the Speeches Delivered 

at the University hy the Class of 

'82, on March 15th, 1882. 



On the 15th of March the old custom of 
Senior speaking was revived. Twelve mem- 
bers of the graduating class delivered original 
orations, and, from what w r e can learn, gave 
universal satisfaction. 

The first speaker was J. W. Jackson. 
Subject: Immigration and its Results. 

The speaker show T ed that while immigra- 
tion was more limited than at present tho 
people could be assimilated. Now, the num- 
ber of immigrants was s:> large that they 
had become a powerful minority, holding 
the balance of power, and using it as fancy 
or caprice dictated. The foreigners had no 
sympathy with our government and cared 
nothing for its preservation; and, therefore, 
should have no influence in it. As a reme- 
dy, the Naturalization Laws should be more 
stringent and the privileges and immunities 
of citizenship should not be given immi- 
grants until they had become true Ameri- 
cans. 

I). S. Kennedy, on Why Study Law ?, 
p nnted out the evils which would arise if 
all the educated young men should adopt 
law as their profession. Literature offers 
greater and more lasting fame; manufac- 
tures, more. wealth; medicine has great need 
of educated men to hurl from their stronghold 
the army of quacks and patent-medicine 
manufacturers. 

M'M. Furgerson; subject: The Philoso- 
phy Nihilism. 

The whole Russian nation is desirous of 
reform in government. The Nihilists are 
those who endeavor to bring about this re- 
form. They wish a different religion ; a 
government which will elevate the peasant 
and set some limit to the arrogance of the 
nobility. They do not wish to overthrow 
the government, but to reform it, and this 

they will accomplish. 

• ' E. A.- de Sch-weini.tz next spoke on the 
Gbldeu Industry of. the South. 



Within the last decade, great advances 
have been made in every department of in- 
dustry. The war swept away the fragile 
structure we had formed, but left the strong 
rock-foundation on which we can erect a 
lasting monument. This can best be accom- 
plished by the production and manufacture 
of cotton. Give us manufactures and free 
competition, increase our educational advan- 
tages, and we will soon occupy a position 
worthy of the Pride of the World. 

G. G. WiLSOJt: A Representative Amer- 
ican Statesman. 

Nations are but the monuments of great 
men. The gulf of civil war gave us section- 
al statesmen; but we look above these to an 
American statesman, Daniel Webster. He 
was a constitutional statesman, who entered 
political life when the scion of government 
was tender and needed a strong support. 
On the slavery question he differed with the 
people of his beloved Massachusetts and 
fell a sacrifice to his greatness. 

F. N. Sktnner : The Opium War and 
its Results. 

The war was brought on by the seizure of 
opium smuggled into China by the English . 
The Chinese, exclusive, provincial, have 
always been a people with whom it was ex- 
ceedingly difficult to make a treaty. Two 
treaties were made between England and 
China, but always violated by the latter. 
The last was ratified in 1860 and since that 
time, the Chinese are steadily becoming a 
more civilized and enlightened nation. 

A. W. M'Alister: The Puritan and 
Cavalier in England and America. 

The wars of the Crusades and of the Rcs- 
es and the invention of the printing-press 
threw open the the way for the Puritan to 
gain the ascendency in England. They 
came as the apostles of liberty. The Puri- 
tan was directly opposed to the Cavalier; 
the one was conservative, the other an inno- 
vator; the one, cold in religious matters, the 
other, a fanatic. The Puritan settled in 
Massachusetts, the Cavalier, in Virginia. 
In the Revolutionary War, they banded to- 
gether for commou safety; but as soon a 






1882,] 



COLLEGE RECORD. 



4.5 



the struggle was over, again turned against 
each other. They met on the plains of 
Kansas, and the chivalry and gallantry of 
the Cavalier was again compelled to give 
way before the endurance of the Puritan. 
The self-control and fortitude of the Cava- 
lier, when he beheld his home destroyed 
and knew that he was considered attainted 
with treason, immediately after the war was 
over, are unequalled in history. But again 
he is prospering and his influence for good 
will soon be felt by all the world. 

E. A. Alderman : The Railroad Prob- 
lem. 

The Railroads have outgrown the objects 
for which they were built and seem to have 
seized some of the attributes of sovereignty. 
They are public plunderers instead of pub- 
lic benefactors. Merciful men may form 
the corporation ; but, when formed, it be- 
comes as hard as steel and pitiless as the 
storm. In New Jersey, the power of corpo- 
rations shapes and controls the government. 
Since it has succeeded in one State, why not 
in all ? It will monopolize the press and tel- 
egraph, and then nothing will be heard or 
read but what increases their own strength. 
The voice of liberty will be hushed. The 
National Government must meet and check 
this power. Our treatment of this question 
will make or mar our future, and show- 
whether the American Republic will over- 
come or be overcome by causes which over- 
threw all other republics. 

G. AV. Whitsett; Drifting with the 
Tide. 

We are a nation of superficial readers; 
and all who read, think they are wise 
enough to determine every question of the 
day. We are now in the midst of a cru- 
sade against the Christian Religion, organ- 
ized by the Hermit Ingersoll, the Apostle 
of Infidelity. From such a crusade sprang 
the French Revolution. Shall our country 
be overcome by this power ? If not, Truth 
with all its persuasive power must meet and 
destroy this crusade. 

A. W. Allen : True Heroism. 
Fifty-one heroes met in Philadelphia to 



form the Declaration o f Independence. 
Cromwell and his republic had failed; the 
Republics of Greece and Rome had risen 
and fallen. But notwithstanding this, these 
heroic men resolved that the American col- 
onies should be free in defiance of the au- 
thority of England. They had need of great 
valor to sustain them; but they had (he 
courage to act where France and Austria 
stood still. Benjamin Franklin told the 
world of the reality of their heroism. They 
gave us the palladium of our libcrtv. 

Charles W. Worth : Our Papers. 

The Press is the great promoter of reform. 
Its purpose is to give to the people all that 
is done by the nations of the earth. The 
reformers have now become objects of re- 
form. The papers now are almost exclu- 
sively political, oblivious of the fact that 
the people care for something besides poli- 
tics. They do not give public opinion, but 
endeavor to form it, The manner in which 
they wrangle among ^themselves and throw 
aside the mantle of editorial c'ignity is dis- 
graceful. 
tA.S. Grandy: The Insanity Plea. 

In its relations to jurisprudence, this plea 
has been much abused. If a good man kills 
his neighbor, this plea is offered and he 
goes scot-free. A man who commits mur- 
der in cold blood is defended on the ground 
of insanity; and the baseness and cruelty of 
the deed are brought forward as proofs of 
tre truth of the plea. Thus no man is safe. 
Any man is justifiable in taking another's 
life in self-defence, but Society must not do 
this. Reason, Humanity and Philanthrophy 
protest against such a course. 

♦*** ' 

The expenditures of the industrial schools 
of Great Britain last year reached the sum 
of $1,518,275. : 

The University of Denver contemplates 
establishing a business college to be con- 
ducted in connection with the institution. 

Forty-nine thousand Ohio voters cannot 
read. 

Swimming lessons is the latest branch of 
study in the schools at Greenock, Scotland. 



46 



AD VEBT1SEMENTS. 



THE NORTH CAROLINA 

EDUCATIONAL JOURNAL. 

REV.J.F.HEITMAN, 

EDITOR AND PUBLISHER. 



TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION 



One Copy for Six Months, 
One Copy for One Year, 
Five Copies " " - 
Ten Copies " " 
Twenty Copies " " - 



$0.60 
1.00 
4.00 
7.50 

14.00 



SOME POINTS TO BE NOTED WITH 
REGARO TO THIS JOURNAL. 



1. It is the only Educational Journal 
now published in the State. 

2. It has now passed successfully through 
its First Volume and may be regarded as a 
fixed institution. 

3. It has among its contributors many of 
the best and most eminent educators of the 
State. 

4. Its columns are open to all who wish 
to communicate their ideas on educational 
topics, and as such is the best medium* of 
communication for those engaged in the 
work of education. 

5. Its columns are filled with important 
information for parents, teachers and school 
officers. 

6. It is non-political, non-sectarian, and 
is not in alliance with any particular insti- 
tution of learning. # • 

7. It is not the agent of any publishing 
house or school fixture establishment, nor 
does the publisher run anything of the kind 
in connection with the Journal. 

8. It offers no premiums to induce unwil- 
ling sub33riptions, but aims to stand on its 
own merits, and hopes on that basis to 
achieve success. 

9. Its historical department is a most in- 
teresting and valuable feature, aiming as it 
does to collect and preserve important ma- 
terial for the future historian as well as to 
enlighten the present generation on past 
events. 

10. As an advertising medium for those 
books and materials which pertain to schools 
and education it is bound to be the best in 
the State for already the Journal visits 
every ounty and goes to those most inteest- 
e'd in educational work. 



CALL, A.T 

J. W. CARR'S old Stand, 

Where you will find a FULL LINE OF 

STAPLE GROCERIES 

CHEAP FOE CASH. 

Coffee, 
Sugar, 

Molasses, 
Butter, Syrup, 

Flour, Rice, 

Meal, Hams, 

Cheesse Bulk Meats 
Crackers, Sausage, 
Peanuts, Lard, 
Kerosene Oil, Candy. Hominy, 

Canned Peaches, Spices, Fish, 

Canned Tomatoes, Starch, &c, 
Salt, Soap, 

Soda, Pepper, 

Chewing Tobacco, &c, 
Leather, Smoking Tobacco 

Nails, Snuff, 

Horse Shoes, Putty, 
Mule Shoes, Glass, 
Buckets, Putty, 

Brooms, &c, &c, &c, 

Dry Goods, Sheeting, 
Hardware, Checks,_ 

Tinware, Calico, . 

Hats, Shees, &c, 

Examine our prices of groceries by the 
quantity, before purchasing elsewhere. 

Chapel HiU N. C.,' February 1, 1882. 
THE MOST POPULAB 

— AND — 

Successful School Books of the Day 

ARE PUBLISHED BY 

D, APPLET0N, & 00,, 

1, 3 & 5 Bond St., - - - NEW YOEK. 

AMOKG WHICH AE 

Appleton's New Readers, — five volumes, 

Appleton's Standard Geographies, 

The Model Copy Book — with sliding copies, 

Quackenbos's New American History, 

Quackenbos's Illustrated Lessons in our Language, 

Ballard's Words, and How to put them together. 

Krusi's Drawing Series, 

Cornell's Systematic Geographies, 

Appleton's Arithmetics, 

Harkness's Latin Series, etc., etc. 

Catalogue, circulars, price-list; mailed free. 
5-tf 



Vol. I. 



Chapel Hill, N. C, May, 1882. 



No. 4. 



Dr. James Phillips. 



There are many among the pupils of the 
late Dr. Phillips to be found in every South- 
ern and Western State, .who will feel a deep 
interest in his personal history. I know, 
therefore, that I will render an acceptable 
service to a considerable portion of your 
readers by sketching while they are fresh 
in my memory, some of the leading inci- 
dents of his life. 

Dr. Phillips rarely referred, in conversa- 
tion, to himself, and few beyond his own 
family are familiar with the events of his 
early history. He was born at Nevendon, 
Essex county, on the 22nd of April, 1792, 
and at the time of his death, March 14, 1867, 
wanted little more than a month of comple- 
ting the seventy-fifth year of his age. He 
was the third son of Rev. Richard and Su- 
san Meade Phillips. His father was a min- 
ister of the Established Church of England, 
and attached to the Evangelical party in 
that Church, numbering among his friends 
such men as Henry Veuve and John Ber- 
ridge. He removed, when James was seven 
years old, to Stafford-Roche, Cornwall, 
where he confined rector of that parish un- 
til his death, about 1837. 

James Phillips, in company with an older 
brother, Samuel A. Phillips., now a resident 
of New York City, came to America in the 
year 1818, and engaged in the business of 
teaching, at Harlem, N. Y., where he soon 
had a flourishsng school. In 1821 he mar 
ried Julia Yermeule, daughter of a New 
Jersey farmer of good family. Her brother, 



Rev. Cornelius C. Yermeule, D. D., was for 
many years pastor of the Reformed Dutch 
Church in Harlaem. In 1820, Dr. Phillips 
competed successfully for the chair of Math- 
ematics and Natural Philosophy in the Un- 
iversity of North Carolina, and arrived in 
Cqapel Hill, the seat of the University, in 
May, 182b\ President Caldwell was then 
in the fifty-fourth year of his age, in the 
full possession of remarkable physical and 
mental energy. Prof. Phillips was in his 
thirty. fourth year. Dr. Mitchell, the Sen- 
ior Professor of Chemistry, and Dr. Hooper, 
Professor of Rhetoric and Logic, were»born 
in the same year with Dr. Phillips. Prof. 
Andrews, subsequently the eminent lexicog- 
rapher, was then Professor of Ancient, and 
Prof. Hentz (husband of the celebrated au- 
thoress, Mrs Caroline Lee Hentz) was Pro- 
fessor of Modern Languages. The Rev. Dr. 
Hooper is now the only survivor of that 
band of eminent men who, forty years ago, 
constituted the Faculty of our University. 
" The history of Dr. Phillips' forty years' 
work will best be given in connection with 
a general history of our University ami 
State, which will, we hope, ere long be pre- 
pared by competent hands. Those years of 
his life were years of close study, of hard 
work and of singular devotion, to the duties 
ihat lay before him. It is no disparage- 
ment to any of his colleagues in the Faculty 
to say that, in unvarying punctuality ami 
fidelity in every relation, and in the dis- 
charge of every duty, great or small, none 
could compare with him. The lives of few 
teachers, in this, or any other country can 



52 



CONTMIB VTIONS. 



[May 



present such a record. 

Dr. Phillips was an inexorable mathema- 
tician. Had he ever a pupil who will not 
bear the same testimony, with the addition 
that he never knew a man of sterner integ- 
rity or more unflinching courage? not mere- 
ly physical — for this is no uncommon trait 
— but moral courage ? He shrank from no 
duty imposed on him by his oifice, either as 
professor or as minister in the Church of 
God. And, while he never swerved a hair's 
breadth from the undeviating line of recti- 
tude which he marked out for himself, ei- 
their to conciliate favor or deprecate cen- 
sure, no man has ever secured a larger share 
of affectionate veneration in the hearts of 
all who knew him. He was emphatically a 
gentleman of the old school in manners, in 
religious belief, and in most of his forms of 
thought. While he rejected no new theo- 
ries simply because they were new, he em- 
braced none without careful examination 
and thorough conviction of their worth. 
His favorite religious reading lay among 
the old non-conformist divines ; his favorite 
authors were the old English classics ; the 
book that was oftenest in his hand was the 
oldest of all — the Bible. Without entering 
further into the delineation of his charac- 
ter,- which will receive a more elaborate sur- 
vey than I have at present, time or disposi- 
tion to make, I may mention that among 
numerous testimonials to the value and ef- 
ficiency of his method of instruction in his 
own department of science, was a letter from 
Lieutenant Maury, while at the head of the 
national observatory. He had had succes- 
sively two of Dr. Phillips' pupils (General 
Pettigrew and Captain A. W. Lawrence) as 
assistants, and he applied to secure a third 
as instructor for his own children, stating 
that he desired them to have the benefit of 
the same training which had rendered his 
assistants such ready and accurate mathe- 
maticians. 

How often has Dr. Phillips in early life 
responded to his own father in his church, 
in the beautiful and expressive language of 
the English Litany, "From battle and mur- 



der, and from sudden death, Good Lord de- 
liver us ! " I have sometimes thought that 
the last of the events was, under some cir- 
cumstances, rather to be coveted than dread- 
ed. "The chamber where the good man 
meets his fate is privileged beyond the com- 
mon walks of virtuous life — just on the 
verge of heaven." This was Dr. Caldwell's 
case. He died the victim of excrutiating 
and lingering disease, with his wife and 
friends to witness the calmness and compos-: 
ure, the faith and triumph of his closing 
hour. His senior professor, Dr. Mitchell, 
perished instantaneously in one of the wild- 
est and most inaccessible gorges of the Al- 
leghanies, and reposes on the loftiest sum- 
mit of the continent, east of the Rocky 
Mountains. Who that knew him personal- 
ly would have desired a different termina- 
tion of his active existence ? Not less start- 
ling and remarkable was the departure of 
his venerated friend and colleague, Dr. Phil- 
lips. On the tempestuous morning of the 
14th, a little before nine o'clock, with his 
accustomed, almost constitutional punctual- 
ity, in despite of the entreaties of his young- 
est child, he set out in the rain to officiate 
at morning prayers. He arrived at the 
chapel as usual, in advance of the ringing 
of the bell, and took his accustomed seat 
immediately behind the reading-desk. 
What were his thoughts or feelings during 
that walk, and as he sat there a few min- 
utes alone, can be known only to his God. 
The first student who entered the chapel af- 
ter the bell commenced ringing bowed to 
him and spoke. The salutation not being 
returned, he advanced toward him, and per- 
ceived him in the act of falling from his 
seat. He dropped to the floor in the pre- 
cise spot where, for so many years, he had 
so often and so fervently prayed for the ris- 
ing generation that surrounded him. Dr. 
Mallett was almost immediately there, but 
in ten minutes he had ceased to breathe. 
Surrounded by the whole body of students, 
in the arms of one of them, he went to his 
eternal rest without a pang or a struggle, 
and in sad and solemn procession was borne 



1882.] 



CONTRIB UTIOAS. 



by them and his colleagues in the Faculty 
to his residence and laid down in his library 
among his books ; his manuscript sermon 
in preparation for next Sabbath lying open 
on his table, just as he had left it. There 
the veteran who had dropped at his post 
lay with the peace of God upon his noble 
brow, having heard the summons, " Come 
up higher," and received the word, " Well 
done. " He walked with God and was not, 
for God took him. 

Had Dr. Phillips been permitted to choose 
the time, place and manner of his depart- 
ure, I do not doubt he would have chosen 
thus. His most frequent petition in family 
prayer of late had been, "Let mc be useful 
as long as I live, and let me die in thy ser- 
vice." He had a dread of an old age length- 
ened out in weakness and infirmity. And 
his Master gave his old servant what he de- 
sired. At his post, with his harness on, 
with his recitation-room key and "Pierce's 
Plane and Solid Geometry" in his hand, 
prepared to begin his day's work with pray- 
er, the last sound in his ears the familiar 
tones of the college bell, the last sight the 
students assembling for worship, he passed 
away. A better, braver, nobler man I have 
never known. 

He preaehed his last sermon in the Pres- 
byterian Church on Sunday, the 10th, from 
the text Amos v. 6, and heard the recita- 
tions of the Junior, Sophomore and Fresh- 
man classes on the two succeeding days. 
The evening before his death I walked home 
with him from the chapel after prayers, and 
saw him stop to pluck a flower from the 
campus shrubbery to carry his little* grand- 
daughter. 

On Saturday morning, March 16, his re- 
mains were carried to the college chapel, 
which Avas draped in black, and after a 
short and singularly appropriate address by 
Professor Hepburn, he was laid away in the 
graveyard near his grandchildren who had 
preceded him to heaven. — Letter from Hon. 
D. L. Swain, LL. D., to the North Carolina 
Presbyterian, March 27, 1867. 



Johaim Wolfgang Goethe. 



Several centuries ago there might have 
been seen a lonely man wending his solitary 
way down the Alps towards the plains of 
the Tiber. He had escaped to tell the 
haughty emperor of Rome that the barbar- 
ian Hermann had routed and slain his ar- 
my. An event that forboded ill to Rome, 
but glory to man. The advantage was mo- 
mentary — only a stray beam, which was 
soon lost to the eager Teutonic. Roman 
influence continued. They gave the peo- 
ple their rnorals, habits, manners, govern- 
ment and religion. It cost Luther many a 
bitter pang to stem the tide and bring to 
his wretched countrymen — like Promethius 
of old— the fire of free thinking. It requir- 
ed the mighty channel of the interregnum 
for the established order of things to pass 
through. It was through this that the 
cringing servility of Germany, first to Rome 
then to herself, dragged its slow length 
along. In Literature, the state of affairs 
was, if possible, worse. Germany was bui 
a moth that fluttered about the glaring light 
of Rome — no originality — no taste — no am- 
bition — with a religion that only freezed the 
fountains of action and of life. Timidly 
the "stars" rose, twinkled .and passed away, 
smothered by the sodded minds of their 
countrymen. Voltaire arose — combated the 
past through its ills — trampled to the dust 
the gallant feats and progress of man, and 
boldly asserted the reign of Reason. His 
influence was felt to penetrate alike the 
royal palaces and the humble huts. Hume, 
Gibbon and Robertson acknowledged him 
right, and exultingly threw down the gaunt- 
let to the Christian world. Oceah nor con- 
tinent staid the influence. England could 
point only to Johnson, who stood alone 
grand in his firmness but unable to stay the 
force. In this hour of despair the genius 
of Goethe pierced the darkness. Through 
him the world, heaving with agonizing con- 
tortions, wrung out its cry, wild, passionate 
and uncontrollable in his Werther. 

Again, he lent his genius to Scott that he 



id 



CONTRTB VTIONS. 



[May 



might speak to the English world through 
his Goetz bon Berliehingen. Byron and 
Shelley with borrowed lustre did also shine 
and the taste of the world was purified. 

Enthusiasts may proclaim the genius 
who with poetic skill, analyzes the throb- 
bing heart of man, and culls therefrom his 
mighty motive powers ; but who, like Goe- 
the, has gently curbed and guided the mind 
of a nation reveling in new-born freedom? 
When the brilliant light of Jefferson's 
dictum flashed across the waters, growing 
in grandeur and sublimity by ignited France, 
leaping wildly from spire to hut throughout 
the "Father-land" — when, but a step would 
have hurled the people into the vortex of 
anarchy — it was the immortal Goethe, stand- 
ing aloof and above the eddy, cried through 
the melodious strains of his Apocalyptic 
Faust, "Peace, be still." 

Such being the general tenor and influ- 
ence of his w T orks, we will examine some- 
what into the life of the man. His career 
was a varied one, and yet in all the variety, 
he stood by his conservative principles. In 
this age so remarkable for profligacy of 
taste, Goethe stood firmly by the classic 
past. In its literature his found lofty con- 
ceptions and pure taste ; in its history, he 
found gallant feats of arms, and patriotic 
and noble statesmanship ; in every depart- 
ment of art or industry he found perfection 
to be the watch-word, it was to excel in 
conception, taste, dictioirfend execution that 
the poets wrote. It was to eclipse the valor 
of the contending gods that the Spartan 
band stood like adamant within their nar- 
row defile. It was to rival the mellow mur- 
murings of nature that the bard strung his 
lyre. Goethe knew and felt all this. And 
yet with such a worthy exemplar, his im- 
pulsiveness drove him to many seeming ex- 
cesses. Poets are constitutionally fond of 
the ladies. Goethe was no exception. At 
an early age he heeded the gentle wooings of 
sacred passion and revelled in his happy 
fortune. No chivalric knight was ever 
more devoted in his attentions, or indulged 
\\\ more romantic episodes. 



It was his custom to prove all things. To 
know in its highest sense was the desire of 
his mind. He chased with eagerness the 
magic phantoms of the alchemists, turning 
only to test some law of nature, or the 
depth and tenderness of some Medussa's 
love. No object was too humble to teach 
him a lesson. No empty brilliancy could 
entertain him. From court pageant and 
glittering show he instinctively turned. 
This characteristic is plainly given in Wil- 
helm Meister. The hero neglects every- 
thing to enjoy some literary treat. He 
worships the grand conceptions in Hamlet. 

Goethe was educated for a jmrist ; but 
his untamed spirit could not plod the well- 
worn tract of Roman lawyers. Nature 
claimed him as her own. To him she yield- 
ed up her hidden treasures, as she led him 
through fields rich with thought that he 
might pluck therefrom the rarest^gems. To 
her he went with his cares and sorrows. 
Even in sleep Nature would come as his 
ministering angel to tell of sheaves still un- 
garnered. He was the mouth-piece of 
wronged and abused humanity. Mind, tram- 
meled with superstition, bigotry and oppres- 
sion rang out in clarion tones through him, 
warnings to the wavering, terrors to the dis- 
solute, and incentives to those yearning for 
higher and nobler things. 

In that great, grand moral play, Faust, 
we see the rampart principles of the dav 
personified in no less a personage than the 
Devil. It shows how corruption stalks 
abroad, how it coils, serpent-like, about the 
tender tendrils of maiden modesty and vir- 
tue, how with one gigantic swoop it seems 
to clutch the last bud of purity, with one 
foul stroke hurls honesty from the land. 

Again, in another play, we see how the 
German heart was made to bleed beneath 
the tyrannous heel of the haughty despot — 
how that the rights sacred and dear even to 
the grovelling worm, were trodden in the 
dust — how that man consequently came to 
violate the God-given privileges of the 
hearth-stone, and friendship was only a 
name. 



1882.] 



COJSTRIB UTIOWS. 



We might speak of the researches of Goe- 
the in science, anatomy and botany"; but 
these Mere not the fields in which his gen- 
ius loved to stroll. We can wave the tro- 
phies won here, and still be able to hail 
him mighty of the mighty. His life, his 
mind, his soul were* poetic. When cares 
would press upon him, he would invite his 
muse, and together they would Mend their 
happy way to Parnassus ; M'hen the sirens 
ot Redassen Mould beckon, the Mooings of 
nature would call him to her bosom. The 
duties of state could not entice him; for of- 
ten he Mould Mander from good duke Karl 
that he might rebathe his spirit, and recon- 
secrate his energies. One he journeyed 
southward to see the home of the men who 
had so inspired his youth. Who can tell of 
the feelings of the man as he stood upon 
the banks of "Father Tiber" and the mem- 
ories of the hallowed past flocked upon him. 

I imagine that if there is anything that 
can touch the holy of holies in a poet's soul, 
it is to stand by the tomb of a kindred spir- 
it and feel his spirit claiming and recogniz- 
its kinship. This grand source of inspira- 
tion — no wonder that Alcestis did first re- 
pair to the tomb of his father — no Monder 
that Xapoleon, great as he Mas, should sIom-- 
ly take from the Great Frederick's tomb his 
well-worn sword, sheathed in a hundred 
victories. Xo wonder that the spirit of 
Goethe should lead- him to the tomb of Dante 
that he might press its urn to his bosom and 
live in a heaven of ecstasy. The commun- 
ion was sweet, the thoughts M'ere heavenly. 

This visit Mas a prominent factor in the 
remainder of Goethe's life. His ideas of 
man Mere chastened and his conception of 
his capacity Mas heightened. He felt and 
knew the pliant, comprehensive, penetrat- 
ing Teutonic mind, and determined to die a 
martyr to its developement. 

All his life he had gathered strength and 
feeling from the by-paths of pleasure, and 
now he returns home, a man, full, ripe ready 
for the battles of life. He mounts at once 
the ascendencv of the faithful student, and 



thoughts teeming with power and beauty 
fall fast from his pen. He withdraws him- 
self from all the scenes of worldly pleasure, 
and lives in the enjoyment of his own 
thoughts, and the companionship of the rec- 
ords — proud monuments of his predecessors. 
The wail from seething France pierced not 
the quiet sanctum — on, on he strides, as 
ever and anon the transient beam of hope 
flickers athwart the untrodden path. Prin- 
ciples of faith and life are rapidly formu- 
lated and given to the unquiet crowd below. 
With masterly hand he stills the raging 
passions of his countrymen. With earnest 
appeals to the intellect he calls his nation to 
that career which has been so glorious and 
is destined to be so sublime, Wrappe/l in 
the sacred legacies of the past, he bade his 
people follow in his Make, and ere a century 
has passed, Voltaire, Gibbon, Rosseau, Xa- 
poleon and their countries have paled before 
the splendor of the onward march. To-dav 
they stand alone — the paragon of nations. 
Mighty men have risen to cast a halo- upon 
the people's name ; but it is yet the task of 
"Father-Land" to rear a greater than Goe- 
the. 

We have not attempted in this short es- 
say to discuss the merits of any single pro- 
duction of Goethe. We have endeavored 
simply to indicate the general tenor and ef- 
fect of his life and Works. Xo man can ad- 
equately describe a bright, sparkling spring 
of Mater. It can be appreciated alone by 
the drinking. So if you M*ould understand 
the recent rapid developments of Germany 
— if you M'ould appreciate fully the real 
strength and beauty of Scott, Shelley and 
Byron — if you M'ould comprehend therough, 
rigid, original Carlyle— in short, if you 
Mould know yourself, your fellows, your cen- 
tury, first know Goethe. 

Tug. 

Eton College. England, has eight hundred and 
ninety students. 

Trinity College Commencement will lie on the 
7th and 8th of June. 



r>(> 



BniToniAL. 



UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

PUBLISHED BY 

the Dialectic and Philanthropic Literary 
Societies cf the University of North Car- 
olina. 



[May 



Entered at the Post Office at Chapel Hill 

as second-class matter. 

TERMS: 

One Copy, one year, (of 9 months/) - - $1.00 
One Copy, six months, - - - - _ ,75 
Five Copies, to one address, one year, *- - 4.00 

RA TES OF AD VER TISING : 

One Dollar per inch for first insertion and fifty 
cents for each subsequent insertion of same adver- 
tisment. 

Atldress all communications to 

A. W. LONG, Business Manager, 
CHAPEL HILL, Orange Co., N. C. 

CHAPEL HILL, Jf. C, MAY, 1882. 



We feel strongly tempted to offer a daz- 
zling prize for an original Spring poem. It 
would be such a saccharine pastime looking 
over the MS. and picking out the beauties 
and deciding on the poetical force of the 
respective poems. It would afford such a 
tempting opportunity to raise the average 
of profanity in our community. We sigh 
for a sight of a genuine Spring poem. 



The University Normal School will be- 
gin June 15th and continue for five weeks. 
All old students will greatly miss the pres- 
ence of Prof. Shepherd and it will be diffi- 
cult to fill his place. In ability, tact and 
firmness, he seemed to us incomparable. 
Mr. M. A. Newell, Superintendent of Pub- 
lic Instruction of the State of Maryland, has 
been elected Superintendent, and Prof. Ed- 
ward P. Moses, Assistant. These gentle- 
men have had large experience in the con- 
duct of -Normal Schools and come among 
us highly qualified to make the Normal of 
'82 what it has been in past years, full of in- 
terest and instruction. The entire corps of 
instructors will shortly be made known, and 



under the supervision of Pres. Battle and 
Superintendent Scarborough, they can only 
be men of fitness and vigor. The teachers 
of North Carolina should not fail to take 
advantage of the opportunities for instruc- 
tion afforded them at these annual sessions 
of the Normal School*. Those eminent in 
the profession have gratefully confessed that 
they had added to their stores of learning, 
that they had received much practical infor- 
mation, that their pride in their calling had 
been strengthened and themselves re-invig- 
orated by their stay here. An important 
feature of the approaching session will be 
the meeting of the County Superintendents, 
at which, questions relative to their work 
will be discussed and plans for the improve- 
ment of our system of education brought 
forward. 



We have been eagerly awaiting subscrip- 
tions from our alumni friends, some of whom 
have relieved our anxiety, others have not, 
The Managing Editor, though very busy, 
would cheerfully consume some time in ac- 
knowledging subscriptions and in mailing 
copies of the Monthly- He is wedded to 
his art. Try him. Only one dollar for 
nine months. 



We call attention to the short sketch con- 
tained in this issue of the life of Dr. James 
Phillips, Professor of Mathematics in the 
University from 1826-1867. It is from the 
pen of Gov. Swain and was contributed by 
him to the Presbyterian Church Almanac, 
in 1867, shortly after the sudden death of 
Dr. Phillips. Surely the Monthly cannot 
devote its pages to a better purpose than in 
bringing before the minds of a new genera- 
tion of students the names and deeds of 
those great men who guided the University 
in its earlier clays and whose impress is seen 
in its organization and influences. 

In the furtherance of this purpose we ear- 
nestly request of all persons here or else- 
where, who may possess information con- 
cerning our alumni and others distinguish- 
ed in our annals, that they send such infor- 
mation to us. It will be gratefully received. 



1882. 



EDITOBIAL. 



SV 



Our Portraits. 



In order to keep green the memories of 
the great men of the Dialectic and Philan- 
thropic Societies, whose portraits hang in 
our Halls, we begin in this issue, the lead- 
ing events of their lives. We take them in 
the order given in our April number, giving 
alternately a "Di" and a "Phi." 

JAMES KNOX POLK 

■was born iu Mecklenburg county, Novem- 
ber 2, 1795. His father moved to Tennes- 
see in 1806. He matriculated at the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina in 1816, and grad- 
uated in 1818, with first distinctions, having 
never missed a duty. Among his class-mates 
were Robert Donaldson, of Hyde Park, New 
York, Hamilton C. Jones, Governor Wil- 
liam D. Mosely, of Florida, Hugh Waddell, 
once Speaker of our State Senate, and three 
now living, Bishop W. M. Green, of Missis- 
ipyi, Rev. Dr. Robert Hall Morrison, once 
President of Davidson College, and General 
Edward Jones Mallett, of New York. 

Young Polk studied law under Felix 
Grandy, obtained license to practice law, 
was for several years a member of the State 
Legislature, was elected a member of the 
House of Representatives in 1825, a suppor- 
ter of Andrew Jackson, served for fourteen 
successive years, was chosen Speaker at the 
session of 1834-35, and held that high office 
for five sessions. He was elected Governor • 
of Tennessee in 1839, was nominated by the 
Democratic party for the office of President 
of the United States and defeated Clay in 
1844, It was during his administration 
that the war with Mexico occurred, preced- 
ed by the annexation of Texas and followed 
by the acquisition of California, New Mexi- 
co, &c. He died about three months after 
the end of his Presidential term in 1849. 
His estimable widow still survives him. 

President Polk visited the University in 
1847 in company with John Y. Mason, his 
Secretary of the Navy, and other distin- 
guished men. While here, he assisted in 
inaugurating the movement toward the 
erection of the handsome monument to his 



instructor, President Caldwell, which now 
stands in front of the South Building. His 
portrait is by the distinguished artist, Sully, 
and is very life-like. 

WILLIAM GASTON 

was born in Newbern on September 19th, 
1778, graduated at Princeton with first hon- 
ors at the age of 18, was admitted to the 
bar in 1798, was State Senator in 1800 and 
1812, was Speaker of the House in 1808, 
served as member of the House of Repre- 
sentatives of the U. S. from 1813 to 1817, 
was member of the House of Commons of 
N. C. in 1827, '28, '31, and of the Conven- 
tion of 1835, and was Judge of the Supreme 
Court of the State in its best days, from 1834 
to 1844, along with Chief Justice Ruffin and 
Judge Daniel. He died January 23rd, 
1844 while attending the Court- 
He joined the Philanthropic Society as 
an honorary member in 1809. 

He was distinguished as a lawyer, an or- 
ator, a statesman, and a judge. His litera- 
ry attainments were of a high order. He 
wrote the words of our State song, "The 
Old North State." 



The Monthly was doubly represented 
at the Press Convention recently held at 
Elizabeth City. For comeliness, brains, ful- 
ness of purse and splendor of attire, our 
delegates were unsurpassed. The interests 
of college journalism and collegiate journal- 
ists were carefully watched and jealously 
guarded by that delegation. We are sorry 
to say that they didn't figure as prominent- 
ly in the Convention as we had imagined, 
as we saw them go forth like strong men 
for the race, free passes protruding from 
their costly raiment. Another instance of 
native modestv carried too far. 



The departments of Natural Philosophy, 
Natural History and Chemistry have recent- 
ly been greatly improved by the acquisition 
of valuable apparatus and the University 
Library enlarged by the addition of many 
important and needed books of reference 
for the several depai'tments. It is only a 
question of time with us. 



58 



I>JUliSOJ\AL. 



[Ma : 



PERSONAL. 



"Marvel not." "Rags" has a large sup- 
ply of "marvels" to dispose of and would 
gladly see customers. "Sukies" a specialty. 

Mr. C. E. Shober has returned from a 
visit to Washington and New York. We 
are glad to see him back. 

W. W. Vandiver was at the Press Con- 
vention, but we are happy to see he has re- 
turned. The innocent Greek was not gob- 
bled by sharpers. 

If any undue bitterness is seen in any de- 
partment of this issue of the Monthly, we 
trust our readers will kindly over look it, 
as those gentlemen were not allowed repre- 
sentation in the Press Convention. 

We are able to vouch for the fact that 
Mr. Donnell Gilliam, who left us a month 
or so back, is on the fair road to do himself 
and his Alma Mater great honor. We 
had the plsasure of noticing in a State pa- 
per, not long ago, that in his first case, he 
acquitted himself with "credit and graceful- 
ness. 

On Class-Day, we were much pleased to 
see among the number of visitors, Prof. C. 
D. Mclver, of Durham, and Mr. J. Alton 
Mclver, of Jonesboro. Both gentlemen 
were looking as well and handsome as ever. 
We hope that their good example in com- 
ing up to the "Hill" sometimes, will be fol- 
lowed by all the "old" men. 

We owe the public an explanation and 
propose^ to give it right here. One of our 
brother-editors has gotten into trouble. He 
is accused of smuggling— or at least that is 
what it amounts to. Our explanation is, 
that we had nothing whatever to do with 
his case, and we wish to observe that the 
aforesaid b. e. does not represent the moral 
status of the corps. We hope he will go 
to jail. 

Two students, we are told, have establish- 
ed a "junk shop." They are clever boys, 
and des S ve patronage. Go ahead. 



Pugilistic encounters seem to be getting 
quite fashionable. You can hardly turn a 
corner without meeting some scarred vete- 
ran of the craft. 

"Old Buncombe," when last heard from, 
had crawled into a hole in the side of the 
Blue Ridge, and then pulled the hole in af- 
ter him. In the mean time, he is prepar- 
ing a poem, dedicated to the Baby Profcs 
sor. Hurrah for the E. B. ! 

"Rags," after a sojourn of several weeks 
"at Cornwalliston," returns to us much re- 
cuperated, and ready to resume his studies 
with his accustomed vigor and energy. 

The esthetic Sophomore, with Wilde de- 
light, now roams the country in quest of 
botanical specimens to please his fantastic 
taste. He grows eloquent over the Lirio 
dendron, Tnlipifera, and thinks the Bhodo 
dendron Catawbiense perfectly exquisite. 

Mr. Emile Adam Alexander Androvener 
de Schwiggumitzer, tsgether with "Neces- 
sity" and ssveral others, attended the Pub 
lie Debate at the Binham School last week 

Some of the Senicrs are in "sack-clotl 
and ashes." Geometry is attracting their 
attention at present. 

"Daniel Webster" made a flying visit t< 
Greensboro last week to visit relations and 
the tailor. Look out, ye Commencement 
folks. 

All the barriers of aristocracy are now 
broken down. Seniors, Juniors, Sopho- 
mores, Freshmen all play marbles. "Shoot 
and venture ! " 

"Short and Dirty" and his combination 
are still in full blast and promise to be an 
interesting feature of Commencement, "S 
& D." is drilling his gang to close magnifij 
cently at that time his remarkably success- 
ful engagement at this place. 

The "hero of the burnt districts of Michi- 
gan" has closed his campaign with Igno- 
rance, bearing off the palm of triumph. His 
"prominent feature" beams with joy. To 
those who patronized in the "future" he re- 
turns thanks. 



1882] 



EXCHANGES. 



59 



We are deeply grieved to learn that at 
one of the female colleges in this State, a 
short while ago, a dispute ran so high be- 
tween two of the "studentesses" at the afore- 
said college, that the usage and customs of 
the nineteenth century were laid aside, and 
the gallant, though rather benighted, cus- 
toms of 600 years back were substituted, 
and the dispute was settled by an appeal to 
personal combat. Now this ain't right. 
Remember " your little hands were n>t 
made &c. " 



EXCHANGES. 



For some reason unknown to us the num- 
ber of college exchanges received this month 
is considerably less than heretofore, but at 
the same time, the list of State papers has 
increased. We have never yet made any 
special mention of these latter beyond an 
expression of our appreciation of their cour- 
tesy, for we consider that it would be pre- 
sumption on our part, with a circulation 
confined almost wholly to the State, to call 
attention to journals so well known and es- 
teemed. Suffice it t > say that they have 
been extremely kind and generous in their 
recognition of us, but no more than Ave ex- 
pected from the worthy members of the X. 
C. Press. Xor is this said in accordance 
with the spirit of "you tickle me and I'll 
tickle you." Indeed/in expressing the policy 
of this column, we could not do better than 
join with the Northwestern in condemning 
the sentiment which seems to prevail 
among the college exchanges of "perverting 
this department, which ought to be made 
both interesting and instructive, into a mere 
medium of compliment and criticism, unin- 
teresting to subscribers and unprofitable to 
editors. 

In our exchanges we have seen varying 
notices and criticisms of the Niagara Index, 
of Suspension Bridge, X. Y., and these had 
aroused our curiosity which, we are pleased 
to say, was gratified during the pasi month 
by a sight of this paper, which is neither as 
black as it is painted nor as good as its most 



enthusiastic friends would claim. It con- 
tains more matter in its literary and editor- 
ial department than any other college peri- 
odical on our list and at the same time the 
quality of this is good; there is indeed noth- 
ing striking, unless it is the rhetorical flight 
in the article on Wilhelm Tell, but it still 
has considerable merit and worth. It 
would seem that it was the exchange editor 
who had brought the storm, such as.it was, 
upon its devoted head, but without entering 
into the merits of the case, Ave Avould say 
that a truce should be declared after the 
generous and hospitable invitation Avhich he 
extended to the college editors to hold their 
projected convention there. The charming 
picture Avhich he conjured up, Avith the "fru- 
gal repast and vieAV of the great Falls by 
the light of electricity &c, &c, " has quite 
entranced us and Ave cordially invite him to 
"grip fins" on the strength of it. 

The spicy little College Record is prompt- 
ly on hand and is a model in its way. It is 
thoroughly imbued with the idea that "brev- 
ity is the soul of Avit ;" its articles have in- 
teresting themes, are pleasantly put and 
above all are short. It can in a few lines 
fully dispose of a subject Avhich has cos; 
others pages in a mere attempt. We have 
heard all about a woman's tongue, but Ave 
can safely say her pen is all right. Per- 
haps, being occupied Avith talking, she cuts 
the writing short. It may take the Month- 
ly to task for assuming the right to call 
anything "little" in view of its own diminu- 
tive size, but Ave are merely anticipating an 
enlargement of our next issue. 

The Wake Forest Student is determined 
to be a success and Ave believe that it Avill. 
The students of both Sock ties have united 
in the work of publishing it and this Avill 
increase, of course, its facilities for enlarg- 
ing its scope of poAver and influence. The 
April number contains the Anniversary 
Oration of the Euzelian orator on " Great 
Advantages Call for Great Lives" in which 
the subject is handled in a masterly man- 
ner. We Avish we could give our reader? 
the oration entire, but have not space for 
eA r en a synopsis 



60 



COLLEGE BECOMD. 



[May 



"It is said the R. R. has ran off." 

The students in the Mineralogy class are 
now busily engaged in laboratory work in 
that department. If you wish to see much 
blowing going on, pay a visit to the labora- 
tory. 

We learn that Prof. Venable has offered 
a medal for the best laboratory work done 
by any member of the first Chemistry class. 
Now for hard work. 

The Philanthropic Society has just made 
an addition of more than a hundred vol- 
umes to its library. New books on Scien- 
tific, Biographical, Political, Historical, and 
miscellaneous subjects will now be all the 
rage. 

Mr. N. F. Heitman has been appointed 
Instructor in Greek. This is an honor well 
conferred ; Mr. Heitman having been one 
of the hardest students in the Greek classes 
for the lrst two years, and one of the recip- 
ients of Greek medals at last Commence- 
ment. 

We are glad to be able to announce to 
our readers that Maj. Wm. M. Robbins, of 
Statesville, will deliver the annual address 
before the two Societies at their approach- 
ing Commencement, May 31st, 1882. Maj. 
Robbins, in his letter of acceptance, says, 
"that as a North Carolinian and a friend of 
the University, he does not feel at liberty to 
decline the invitation, nothwithstanding its 
performance will be under many cares and 
engagements." It is entirely needless for 
us to speak of Maj. Robbins' eminent fitness 
for the position or of the great pleasure with 
which the students will listen to him. We 
offer our congratulations to the Societies on 
their admirable selection. 

On the first Saturday in April, the an- 
nual election for medals in the Dialectic 
Society took place. The' Debater's medal 
was awarded to Mr. A. W. Allen, of Gran- 
ville county ; the Declaimer's medal, to Mr. 
A. C. Floyd, of Watauga county. 

Two weeks later, the Philanthropic Soci- 
ety awarded its medals. Mr. R. S. White, 



of Bladen county, received the Debater's 
medal ; Mr. H. Horace Williams, of Gates 
county, the Essayist's, and Mr. T. B. Cher- 
ry of Pitt county, the Declaimer's. We 
congratulate the Societies on their choice 
and the recipients of these honors on their 
good fortune. Now the students who dis- 
like to speak will rejoice for that part of the 
college year has come when the candidates 
cease from boring, and their friends can 
find some rest. 



Class-Day Exercises. 

MARCH 31st, 1882. 

To-day the Senior class assembled around 
the Caldwell Monument to plant their "tree" 
and go through the other exercises of the 
day. 

This precedent was established by the 
class of '80, and will hereafter remain a 
permanent institution. The pleasant weath- 
er and the favoring smiles of the ladies add- 
ed much of interest and sprightliness to the 
occasion. After a song by the University 
Glee Club, 

THE ORATOR, 

Mr. A. W. McAlister, was introduced to 
the audience. We would do the gentleman 
an injustice were we to attempt an outline 
of his excellent oration in this short notice. 
To be rightly appreciated it must be heard. 
Mr. McAlister's delivery is easy and grace- 
ful. His style is not overburdened with 
ornament, but is remarkably clear and flow- 
ing. He gave some wholesome advice to 
the class, which, if heeded, will result in 
permanent and lasting good to themselves 
and to their State. 

THE HISTORIAN, 

Mr. F. N. Skinner, was next introduced. 
Mr. Skinner gave us an account of the ex- 
periences and doings of the class from their 
Freshman year up to the present time. He 
painted in vivid colors the heroic acts of the 
Freshmen in braving the storm of water- 
melon rinds ruthlessly hurled at them by 
the insolent Sophs. ; the martyr-like sub- 
mission to all acts of barbarity and cruelty, 



1882.] 



COLLEGE JRE€OBL>. 



01 



and the subdued air with which they re- 
ceived the taunts and sneers of their perse- 
cutors. While he touched mostly upon the 
humorous experiences of their college life, 
yet he paid a touching tribute to two mem- 
bers of the class who, ill the heat of the race, 
.were stricken down by an Unseen Hand. 

THE PROPHET, 

Mr. E. A. Alderman, prophesied concerning 
the weal or woe of each member of the class. 
It was his duty to work out the course and 
fix the destiny of each one. And well did 
he do it. It really seemed that the mantle 
of prophecy had fallen upon him. He did 
not prophesy by omens and signs, but told 
candidly and plainly what occupation each 
would follow — whether th'ey would be hen- 
pecked by their wives, marry an heiress and 
spend their lives quarreling with their 
mother-in-law, study law, run for Town Con- 
stable, and be the sot of the village, or help 
their wives to run a bakery, and pull teeth 
in the back-room, " three jerks for a quar- 
ter." 

THE PRESIDENT 

of the class, Mr. C. W. Worth, closed the 
exercises of the day with a neat and timely 
address to his fellow class-mates. He, too, 
gave advice worth following. He congrat- 
ulated the class that they had come thus far 
through the fiery ordeal of a student's life, 
and had shown themselves to be men. 

Some statistics concerning the age, weight, 
politics, religion, and future occupations of 
the class may not be uninteresting. The 
weight of the whole class is two thousand 
and seventy-four pounds. The average 
weight is one hundred and forty-six and 
one-half pouuds. The oldest member of the 
class is twenty-six, the youngest, eighteen. 
•The average age is twenty-one and a half. 
■Four are Methodists, five Baptists, six Pres- 
byterians, two Episcopalians, one Lutheran, 
and one Christian. Eight will be lawyers, 
two ministers, one teacher, three physicians, 
Ipiree merchants, one dentist, and one can't 
decide between law and farming. 

In politics the class is emphatically and 



solidly Democratic. Long live the class of 

'82! 



That the boys of 30 years ago enjoyed a 
little fun as much as .we do now will be 
shown by the following letter, found a short 
time since, among some old papers. It is 
directed "To any Respectable member of[ 
the Soph Class, Turpentine Hall, Chape 
Hill, Ts T . C." We give it verb, et lit : 

Nassau Hall, Princeton, N. J., 

December 4, 1851. 

To any respectable member of the Soph 

Class — Sir : — At a class meeting of the Soph 

class of the College of New Jersey it was 

unanimously 

Resolved : — That it would be extremely 
gratifying to every member of said class to 
see a living Soph of Chapel Hill. And in 
order that our curiosity may be gratified we 
most humbly request a member of your 
class to be boxed up and directed to any 
member of the Soph Class, Princeton, N. J. 
The animal might otherwise never reach us. 
It has also been reccommended that his 
Peddigree be forwarded with a list of the 
various things upon which the animal feeds 
so that he may be hospitably entertained 
during his sojourn amoungst us. 

Yours very respectfully, 

Soph Class, 
Princeton, N. J. 



We were pleased to see on the "Hill" a 
few days ago, Maj. Robt. Bingham of Bing- 
ham School. While here the Major attend- 
ed a great many of the lectures of the Uni- 
versity. He delivered a lecture before the 
Y. M. C. A. on the Potentialities of Youth, 
and like all of Maj. Bingham's productions, 
it was replete with vigorous good S3nse and 
was clearly and ornately put. Major Bing- 
ham is a man to be listened to. When he 
addresses a body of young men, he tells 
them what they ought to know and ought 
to profit by and in such a form that, no 
doubt, can be held as to the courage of his 
convictions. His lecture was thoroughly 
enjoyed and apjireciated and we would be 
glad to welcome him here on a similar mis- 
sion at an early date. 



3 



Drv 



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arms: and if, by good treatment, it shall reach 
maturity, our interest in it shall grow with its - 
growth. 



)^D 





761. I. 



Chapel Hill, N. C, June, 1882. 



No. 5. 



Judge George W. Brooks. 



In a country with interests as varied and 
rast as our own, many agents are required 
br the exercise of public functions. Intel- 
igence is so commonly diffused and the nat- 
ural qualities of the mind so generally uni- 
form, that it would become a useless and 
tiresome iteration to write the history of 
ach one entrusted with public affairs. In 
the ordinary routine of life, few occasions 
3,re offered to men, even in responsible posi- 
tion, to act otherwise than many others 
would act, or to signalize their conduct by 
|by noted deed. 

Whilst in every neighborhood the details 
of character vary, and every village has its 
hero, generally, each aspirant for tame is 
matched by a rival of equal claim in every 
other locality, and few may justly merit dis- 
tinction above the others. It requires ex- 
ceptional force of character, an unusual cur- 
rent of events, the conjunction of both con- 
ditions, perhaps, to lift into prominence the 
life and acts of one of the workers of to-day, 
above the common level of others employed 
in similar duties. 

When, however, circumstances give room 
for great qualities to benefit the world, grat- 
itude for the good done and justice to the 
doer, make it a pleasing and instructive 
task to con me norate a noted life. 

Judge George W. Brooks, the subject of 
this memoir, in life, pretended, to little em- 
inence, and was not .troubled about his repu- 
tation. He only thought of the matter in 



hand as it arose, gave his entire attention to 
the proper and rightful discharge of the du- 
ties of the occasion and forgot that he was 
an actor in the scene. 

His mind was of slow growth and pre- 
sented little of the versatility of genius or 
the pleasing combination that goss to form 
the wit. It was of the granite formation, 
simple in its original elements but harden- 
ing into a structure of great strength and 
durability. Upon its plastic surface what- 
ever hovered left its image there forever. 
He never forgot what he learned once, and 
his learning was of the apt kind for useful- 
ness and success. His early education was 
gained from schools in which only a few 
things are taught, but taught well, and from 
teachers who inculcated moral and religious 
principles of undoubted orthodoxy. 

His nature was fitted for this rudimentary 
training and perhaps it throve better than 
under a larger and more varied culture. 
Formed by just and true principles which 
strengthened with his growth, he developed 
into a useful character, add his conscience 
responded healthily to every enquiry. His 
judgment was remarkably calm and free 
from the disturbing excitement of fancy or 
passion. Bringing from his moral training 
the best elements of equity to aid a judgment 
logical and excsllent, and never adopting a 
conclusion until he fully knew and compre- 
hended the facts, the power of concentra- 
tion which saw only -the;matter before him, 
gave to his decision a simplicity and cleai*- 
ness which carried conviction ap '" 



J 



68 



CONTMIB UTIONS. 



[June 



authority by its intrinsic value. 

Judge Brooks was born in Pasquotank 
county, on the 16th day of March, 1821. 
His father was from Gates county and his 
family is said to have originally come from 
Essex county, Virginia. His mother was a 
native of Pasquotank county and whose 
maiden name was Catharine Davis. Her 
first husband was Br. Knox, and he dying, 
she subsequently married William C. Brooks 
the father of Judge Brooks. 

Judge Brooks' youth was passed mostly 
in the country, in Gates county ; and his 
school days at Henry Riddick's school near 
Sunsbury, an institution of much local ce- 
. lebrity, and at the Friends' Academy at 
Belvidue, Perquimans county, which for 
more than forty years has been recognized 
as an excellent institution of its class. Un- 
til manhood, nearly all his associations were 
with the country. 

Having reached the age of twenty-one, he 
began the study of the law and pursued it 
for nearly three years, giving time to thor- 
oughly digest and understand what he read. 
He could not read in a hurry. An indis- 
tinct idea was to him no idea ; and he nev- 
er ceased to read over and ponder a sentence 
until its meaning was clear to his mind. 
He was fortunate in his law teacher, Gen'l 
J. C. B. Ehringhaus, who was a good law- 
yer, learned rapidly and took great delight 
in aiding his student, who looked on him 
as an elder brother and companion. He 
received his licence in 1844 and settled at 
Elizabeth City, in his native county, and 
from that time until the war began in 1861, 
he was a regular attendant at the Courts in 
Gates, Perquimans, Pasquotank, Camden 
and Currituck. 

His life was laborious from the start. His first 
acquisitions were slow, but he gained rapid- 
ly in knowledge, and as he grew, his desire 
for more light increased. He knew no pleas- 
ure except study and the preparation of his 
cases. Pleasures, such as pass under that 
name, he mostly derided or loathed, and 
aj aaflffi pHJaents of leisure to the dear- 
* -^ts. This was to 



him an unfailing source of pleasure and hd 
soon became permeated through and through! 
with the flavor of the law, whilst his hands 
were always active in the practical business] 
of the profession. 

His practice increased gradually and nev 
er retrograded, and at the beginning of the 
war it was, perhaps, larger than that of an 
other lawyer in his Circuit. It was prac 
tice of the best kind. His clients were gen 
erally the wealthiest men in the district and 
his collection business was very large. He 
did not attract -this business on account of 
harshness, or severity, or the use of low 
means unbecoming an honorable attorney. 
He was selected because of his sound judg- 
ment, his industry and knowledge of the 
law, and knowledge of men. His decision 
was the law to his clients and rarely did 
thep find him mistaken. He was not elo- 
quent as an advocate, had few of the graces 
of the orator and perhaps expanded his sub- 
ject too fully. But he was plain, took posi- 
tions which the common sense of the jury 
sustained, patiently cleared up every point, 
and generally won his case. Before the 
Court he was equally successful, and he be- 
came in public esteem and in reality, a trus- 
ty, upright and able lawyer. He had accu- 
mulated a large fortune before the Avar 
came ; for with all his other qualities, he 
possessed the solid virtue of economy and 
the business faculty which leads to thrift. 
He was not avaricious, but he looked upon 
waste as a sin, and unnecessarv indulgence 
as au evil. 

Never a politician, his political notions 
and principles were fixed and abiding. He 
was an uncompromising Whig of the old 
school, and the conservative influences of 
that teaching remained with him through 
life. He opposed secession with a quiet, but 
persistent determination which would have 
been dangerous, personally, to a less esteem- 
ed man. 

To his mind secession was a monstrous 
heresy. He saw no justification, no excuse 
for the doctrine in the Constitution, and he 
saw no occasion for it in practice. He did 



1882,] 



CONTRIB UTIOJTS. 



69 



foresee the horrors of the war, and he pre- 
dicted with accuracy the results which haye 
followed. 

He served in the Legislature of 1852 and 
in the Convention of 1866 from his native 
county, and this was the extent of his pub- 
lic political service. 

He psssed through the war, with the res- 
pect of all parties, an open and avowed Un- 
ion man. He succored all who came near 
him needing help, regardless of opinion, and 
he devoted himself and his means to the 
aid of humanity. He was not indifferent to 
the sufferings of the South. No one more 
dearly loved his people and his home. Their 
reverses gave him no pleasure ; they grieved 
him the more deeply, because incurred in a 
cause he could not approve. 

A generous man never takes pleasure in 
:;the sorrows or reverses of his kin or neigh- 
bors, because those evils result from causes 
about which there is a difference of opinion. 
It may be illustrated by a simple business 
transaction. One man is inclined to make 
an investment of money. His brother ad- 
vises him not to do so and predicts loss. 
The investment is made, however, and is 
lost. Can the brother rejoice at the misfor- 
tune? Is it not his duty to help repair the 
mischance and to give .the unfortuate one 
advice and aid ? But in the bitterness of 
party differences, motives that are unselfish 
are denied to those who differ from us, and 
every act is distorted in order to be cited as 
proof of the worst intentions. Judge Brooks 
and thousands like him in opinion, have 
been denounced as enemies to the South and 
made to feel the odium due only to traitors, 
because men in their anger and unreasoning 
injustice, will not accord to others what they 
exact for themselveles and what justice de- 
mands as due to all. He and thousands like 
him, in opinion, loved the South all the 
more for her sorrows, and were patriots in 
.the midst of persecution. He loved his 
country and he loved his home. He show- 
ed his love when the time came that he 
could serve it with a free conscience, and 
he showed that he bore no selfish love where 



he risked all but honor, to save the rights of 
the people. 

In August 1865 he was appointed U. S. 
District Judge for the District of North Car- 
olina, which at that time embodied the whole 
State, the division of the State into two dis- 
tricts not happening until 1872. Up to his 
appointment the duties of a District Judge 
were very light. A Very few criminal cases 
and an occasional civil action occupied the 
Judge but a small portion of his time. But 
from the organization of the Court in 1865, 
the duties of the Judge were varied and ar- 
duous, and his labors incessant. The dis- 
trict Courts usually lasted the full term, 
and the circuit Courts at Raleigh continued 
for weeks. When a little later, the Bank- 
rupt Act went into operation, the labors of 
the Judge were duplicated and he literally 
worked all the time, from morning until 
night. Few men have ever been called 
upon to undergo the toil which fell to his 
share, for five years. But he loved to work, 
he considered it his duty to attend to every 
case at orice when it came before him, and 
he did it, sparing himself in nothing, scarce- 
ly allowing time for necessary food and sleep, 
and never thinking of rest and recreation. 
It was his usual habit to preside all day in 
the court house, and to hear chambers caus- 
es and bankrupt cases in his room until late 
at night, in order to despatch business and 
save time and expense to counsel and clients 
who were waiting. 

This daily routine of constant work un- 
dermined his health and wasted his strength 
to such an extent that, when at length relief 
came by a division of the State, it was too 
late for him to recuperate, and he slowly 
died a martyr to duty. 

The Internal Revenue law, one of the leg. 
acies of the war, went into operation under 
Judge Brooks. Its provisions and the nec- 
essarily inquisitorial nature of its execution 
were strange to the people and unpopular. 
The agents, to whom its executiom was com- 
mitted, were raw to their duties ; they were, 
perhaps unconsciously, in maiiy cases dis- 
courteous and harsh ; the peo le sullen and 



70 



COKTRIB UTIOWS. 



[Jur 



disposed to take offense, often without suffi- 
cient cause, and the peace of society was 
constantly endangered. Partisan bitterness 
came in to aid the anarchy of feeling, and 
much depended upon the character of the 
Judge who had to enforce the law, and do 
justice to legal rights. Few men iti his po- 
sition could have gone through the ordeal 
he had to run and come out more gloriously 
than he did. 

Some complaints were uttered in individ- 
ual cases, but upon the whole, his judicial 
reputation, during that time of strife and 
storm, has met with fewer assaults than are 
made now; in a time of calm and peace, 
upon the Judges of our State Courts. They 
were made, but have faded out and men 
will not revive them again forever. Judge 
Brooks lived to see the law T executed as any 
other law is, and to know he had much to 
do with clearing the way to its enforcement, 
of the obstructions which, to one less wise, 
hamane and firm, might to this day, have 
been sources of disturbance to the good or- 
der of society and the ready execution of the 
law. . • 

His rulings iii every branch of the law, 
civil, criminal, in admiralty and in bank- 
ruptcy, have stood the test as well as those 
of any Judge having so many cases before 
him and of such variety. He met, at every 
turn, the best lawyers of the State aud he 
led them. His was no weak mind to choose 
some leader of the bar and follow him, but 
he took the lead himself, unpretendingly, 
but persistently, and held it to the end. He 
held the reins of justice in his own hands 
and never consigned them to the keeping of 
deputies. ' " 

He ever stood up for the sense of justice 
hallowed by the common law, and for the 
forms which a thousand years of use have 
consecrated as the ones only fit for freemen's 
use. He was always jealous of criminal in- 
formations, and whilst allowing their use in 
trivial cases, aL sanctioned by law, his mind 
was easier and his judicial conscience clear- 
er, when a grand jury had first found a true 
i -,o n on trial for a criminal 



\ 



offense. He then felt under no disadva 
tage towards the prisoner or the law. Th 
were on equal terms and he could, with 
lingering sense of unfairness, mete out to 
convicted criminal the measure of his peJ 
alty. 

He was, of all things, a just man and h 
scorned oppression under whatever name ] 
was practiced. He was a firm devotee tj 
that cardinal maxim of human liberty an 
human rights, crystallized in the terse lai 
guage of the common law, "For every wron] 
there is a remedy." His acts and thought 
were inspired by the spirit of the commoi 
law, and he held that invalid which ai 
tempted to abate one jot or tittle of its «rant 
and provisions. 

When a case was presented to him ii 
which a citizen seemed to suffer Avrong, j 
was useless to argue to him upon any re 
finement of pleading which deprived th 
sufferer ot redress before some tribuna 
Such a condition could not, to his mind ex 
ist. To every wrong there is a remedy 
and wherever the English language is spo 
ken, this isa fundamental, inalienable cond 
tion which exists supreme, above the con 
struction of laws, constitutions and forms 
No English Constitution can be frame! 
without this provision, or at least be urged] 
none had been formed so wrongfully defici-j 
ent. 

It was "this jealous regard for human! 
rights that impelled him to take a step ex-j 
traordinary, daring and revolutionary td 
those who do not know the fervor of his de-'l 
votion to safeguards which the common la J 
throws around the liberty of the subject. 

Martial law had been proclaimed in tha 
State, the military had arrested citizens] 
without due process of law, as understood by] 
lawyers, and incarcerated them, and thJ 
writ of habeas corjms, if not disregarded,; 
was not obeyed. The civil law was sus-^ 
pended, and martial law, which knows noth- ] 
ing but obedience to a commander and can- 1 
not respect rights, alone prevailed. It wal 
declared that the judiciary was incompetent 
f o coerce the executive, because the execu- 



1882,] 



CONTJRIB TJTIOm. 



tive power command the only means of co- 
ercion. 

The State was powerless to rescue the 
prisoners, the Executive of the nation could 
not interfere, because the conditions consti- 
tutionally required did not exist, and the 
cause seemed lost. In this situation it was 
determined to apply the Federal Judiciary, 
whose mandate for a posse comitatus would 
not be met by the reply, "non^osmmus" 

Judge Brooks was applied to for a habeas 
corpus to bring the prisoners before him. It 
was an extraordinary case. A Federal 
Judge cannot issue this writ for a prisoner 
committed to prisoD under a State law for 
an offence against the State. May he decide 
when the State law is violated ? May he 
decide whether the due process of State law 
has been complied -with ? These are deli- 
cate and dangerous questions for a Judge to 
determine. 

Judge Brooks did not decide these ques- 
tions ; his action was reached by another 
path. He said, "prima facie, here is a case 
in which a citizen has been deprived of lib- 
erty without due process of law. This is a 
' wrong and there must be a remedy. That 
remedy must be incorporated in some Con- 
stitution, and it must be effectual to reach 
every jurisdiction, and be heard before some 
tribunal." 

Turning to the Constitution of the United 
States, Section I, Article XIV., which had 
been but Recently declared adopted* he read 
these words., "npr;s%all any State deprive 
any person of life', liberty, or property, with- 
out due prbce'ss of law.'" 

As has 'been declared by decisions subse- 
quent to these events, the State acts when 
her officers act. In this case, the State had 
deprived several persons of liberty without 
due process of law. It is true that Con- 
gress has not yet seen proper to pass laws 
enforcing or defining this provision of the 
Constitution, though an effort had been 
made to declare a«d enforce some of its pro- 
visions. The saving grace of the . common 
Plaw hallowed this clause of the Constitution, 
and Judge Brooks fe^t that its injunction 



was addressed to him. It was not personal 
sympathy with the parties, that moved him, 
it was not a weak humanity that is unnerved 
at the sight of suffering and wastes its tears 
alike upon the guilty and the innocent. He 
thought it Avas the mandate of the law 
which had spoken to our ancestors for a 
thousand years, and whose voice to him was 
imperative. Surely the language of the 
Constitution is broad enough to warrant the 
interpretation he gave it, and in his view, it 
applied to this case. 

The office of district Judge had, before 
his time, been one of ease and almost un- 
known. During his time, with us, it came 
into prominence owing to the results of the 
war, and it will perhaps remain important, 
whilst the Internal Revenue Laws are in 
force, and until all. questions of State and 
Federal jurisdiction, growing out of the war 
are determined. We were happy in having 
the vast changes that have occurred, happen 
under one who wes thoroughly identified 
with the country, who saw each change with 
his own eyes, and whose fixed principles of 
of right and justice were unmoved by the 
bitterness of political discord, and unswerved 
by the venom of personal detraction. 

Counting by events, he was the first Fed- 
eral Judge that North Carolina has had, 
and in his peculiar sphere and the times in 
which he acted,. we well may apply to him 
the words of the poet. 

"He was a man take bin for all in all, 

"We ne'er shall look upon his like again." 

As we go to press, visitors to Commence- 
ment are coming in by hundreds. We trust 
that they will have a very pleasant time, 
and that the Commencement of 1882 will 
long be remembered for much real enjoy- 
ment to all. 

Rev. Dr. Dabney, of Virginia, in response 

to an invitation from the Young Men's 

Christian Association, preached and able 

and exhaustive sermon in the Presbyterian 

Church last Monday nigh^ He had a large 

audience. I 

' ~ ; \ J 



72 



EDITORIAL. 



[June 



THE 



UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 



PUBLISHED BY 



the Dialectic and Philanthropic Literary 
Societies cf the University of North Car- 
olina. 



Entered at the Post Office at Chapel Hill 
as second-class matter. 



TERMS: 

One Copy, one year, (of 9 months,) - - $1.00 
One Copy, six months, - .75 

Five Copies, to one address, one year, - - 4.00 



SATES OF ADVERTISING: 

One Dollar per inch for first insertion and fifty 
cents for each subsequent insertion of same adver- 
tisment. 

Address all communications to 

A. W. LONG, Business Manager, 

CHAPEL HILL, Orange Co., N. C. 



CHAPEL HILL, N. C, JUNE, 1882. 



The Monthly extends its heartiest wel- 
come to our Commencement guests and wish- 
es them a pleasant and profitable stay. 
There are many reasons why this annual 
festival should be a season of common re- 
joicing ; for now fair ones come among us 
to gladden the collegiate eye and quicken 
the beat of the collegiate heart. Comrades 
and class-mates meet upon the scenes of their 
former association for the mutual inter- 
change of good fellowship. 

We are a\ke to salute and congratulate 
each other upon the healthy growth and 
vigorous symptoms of our beloved institu- 
tion. Friends and patrons of the Univer- 
sity are afforded an opportunity to witness 
its closing exercises and judge of the work- 
manship of its hands. Well-directed and 
earnest effort meets its reward and those 
whose lamps have not been kept trimmed 
and burning, see t]ae error of their ways and 
are awakened to a new determination. Vis- 
itors to Commencement, Ave bid you welcome 
again ! 

V 



To the Alumni. 



In our initial number we addressed an ap- 
peal to this revered and august body of cit- 
izens, and with our latest journalistic breath 
we do likewise. Our first article did not 
seem to be clearly understood. We made 
the statement, that for one dollar, the Uni- 
versity Monthly would be deliver 3d at t'.e 
homes and firesides of the Alumni for nine 
weary months. Our supply of chromos 
will not permit of any more munificent 
proposition. We repeat this proposition 
and beg leave to remind our visiting Alum- 
ni what a splendid opportunity they have 
to enroll their names as subscribers to our 
publication and thereby aid a needed fea- 
ture in our college and make the Monthly 
more in keeping with the dignity and stand- 
ing of our institution and less like an alma- 



nac. 



Our Portraits. 



DAVID LOWREY SWAIN 

was born in Buncombe county, January 4th, 
1801, entered the University of N. C., in 
1821, but did not graduate. He studied 
law under Chief Justice Taylor, and obtain- 
ed license to practice in 1822. He served 
as member of the House of Commons in 
1824 and '25, and in 1828 and '29. He was 
elected, by the Legislature, Solicitor of the 
Edenton circuit in 1820, *nd in 1830 was 
chosen Judge of the Superior Court. He 
was Governor of the State from 1832 to '34, 
inclusively, was a member of the Conven- 
tion of '35. In the same year he was elect- 
ed President of the University, in place of 
Rev. Dr. Joseph Caldwell, and served until 
1868. He died August 27th, 1868. 

Governor Swain performed all his duties 
as legislator, Judge, Governor, University 
President, with eminent ability. He was 
distinguished for his knowledge of the his- 
tory of the State, and has left many valua- 
ble monographs in the University Magazine 
and other publications. 



1882.] 



EMTOJRIAL. 



73 



A New Feature. 



At former Commencements the entire 
graduating class has been allowed to speak 
and their speeches generally ranged from 20 
t3 25 minutes in length. Under this system 
only those possessed of that "charity which 
suffereth long and is kind " were able to en- 
joy themselves. Ordinary mortals w-ere 
ready to cry out, Hold, enough ! With this 
Commencement a new and pleasfht change 
is inaugurated. Only ten are permitted to 
speak and their speeches are not to exceed 
ten minutes in duration. The wisdom of 
this is apparent on every hand. It is a 
kind, thoughtful, considerate innovation and 
will be none the less appreciated by reason 
of its tardiness. Yet we think a still better 
change can be made, one that will be more 
pleasant to the audience and fairer to the 
speakers. Limit the number of speakers to 
six and give them fifteen minutes apiece. It 
is almost impossible to present any subject 
with any degree of exhaustiveness in the 
space often minutes ; that is, if any atten- 
tion be given to carefulness in articulation 
and elocution. The loss in variety will be 
more than compensated for by symmetry of 
expression of thought. Now we do not de- 
sire the speeches to be lengthy, w T e only want 
sufficient time given the speakers to enable 
them to fully and roundly express their 
ideas, and to afford opportunities to compe- 
tent critic to intelligently decide upon their 
literary .excellence, and to make the gradu- 
ating speeches something more than the 
grand, final war-whoop of the Senior class. 
While the Faculty are restricting, they 
might as well restrict so as to to allow 7 the 
representative graduates a chance to show 
their hand. It is insisted by some that the 
incidents of Commencement Day will not 
permit of unity and roundness and logical 
arrangement being taken into consideration. 
If such be true, it is deplorable, but not to 
be taken in consideration. The speech of a 
Senior writing under the influence of this 
idea, would be a lamentable production and 
would justify inattention. 



The adoption of the system, we propose, 
would enable those who do pay attention to 
form an intelligent opinion ; real merit could 
show itself; the fittest wouid survive and clap- 
trap and gush and stagey tricks could no 
longer be mistaken for eloquence. The 
standard of graduating speeches would be 
raised and it would take more labor to pro- 
duce less effect. 



Valedictory. 



After this issue, the University Month- 
ly passes into new hands. It is the pur- 
pose of this article to say farewell and give 
some advice. The Monthly made its first 
appearance in February. Behind it lay a 
disastrous failure, before it, a threatening- 
future. Without experience, without pecu- 
niary aid, without any basis, we assumed 
control. We sent forth a publication lim- 
ited in space, unpretentious in appearance, 
and inadequate to the purpose for which it 
was instituted. Yet everything must have 
a beginning, even if an humble one ; and 
there is nothing more impressive than a lof- 
ty failure. What has been done? How 
feebly we have done our duty is known to 
our readers, and we hope is covered by the 
mantle of their charity. But this much we 
have done. We have kept the Monthly 
out of debt, and have succeeded in inducing 
the Societies to contribute a sufficient sum 
to enlarge it at its next appearance. We 
did not hope to do more, and we feared we 
would be the agents in doing a great deal 
less. We would say to the Societies, en- 
courage this venture. It is needed here and 
needed in more ample form. In its present 
form it only serves to hamper, and gives no 
scope for originality. It has been all along 
thoroughly inconsistent with the dignity and 
intelligence of the Societies of which it is the 
mouth-piece. Then do not be content with 
the improvement which is to take, place next 
term, but continue to improve it, until it is 
placed on an enduring foundation and does 
credit to this institution. In quitting the 
sanctum, we desire to return thanks for 



74^. 



PERSONAL. 



[Juiid 



Commencement Notes. 



\ 



Our intention was to have had our paper 
out and distributed on Commencement day, 
but it was unavoidably delayed. Hence we 
take the opportunity to give some notes and 
incidents of Commencement. 

The literary exercises of the Commence- 
ment of 1882 were of a very high degree of 
excellence. Competent judges say that the 
Address before the Societies, delivered by 
Hon. Wm. M. Robbins, and the Baccalau- 
reate Sermon, preached by Rev. Dr. J. G. 
Armstrong, have never been surpassed by 
any one at this institution. The speeches 
of the Representatives and of the members 
of the graduating class were considerably 
above those of the average coilege-boy. 

The Willie P. Mangum medal for oratory 
was awarded to Mr. Edwin Anderson Al- 
derman, of Wilmington. The Monthly 
feels proud of the success of her editor. 

Mr. W. D. Mclver, of Chatham county, 
received the gold medal for best Greek 
scholar in the Sophomore class. Mr. Sam'l 
B. Turrentine, received the medal for great- 
est improvement in Greek in the same class. 

We tender our congratulations to Mr. J. 
Thomas Strayhorn, of Hillsboro, for the 
honor he received in being awarded the 
medal for best oration among the Represen- 
tatives of the two Societies. Mr. -Strayhorn 
has always been considered one of the best 
declaimers in the University ; and his many 
friends will not be surprised to learn of his 
successful effort on the night of May 31st. 

Mr. T. A. Wharton, of Greensboro, the 
second Representative from the Dialectic 
Society, delivered an oration on the "Peace 
Victories of the 19th Century. His speech 
was so much in accordance with the views 
held by the Society of Friends, that cne of 
their number, (Mr. James Craig, of Orange) 
presented him with a prize, as a token of es- 
teem. 

The Monlhly will be suepened during 



vacation. The next number will appear 
October 1st, at which time it will be enl 
larged and otherwise improved. 

The chairman of the committee appoint- 
ed, by the Board of Trustees, to investigate 
the condition of the University, made ai 
gratifying report. The fact is, ou r institu- 
tion is attaining a degree of eminence and 
excellence that is unsurpassed by any insti- 
tution oiglearnbig in the South. 

The Campus is now still and deserted. 
From our buildings have departed all those 
who, for the last ten months, have made the 
walls ring with shouts of laughter and pleas-; 
ant conversation. Some have departed not 
. to return ; others will again enliven us at 
the beginning of next term. To those who 
return, we wish success in the pursuit of 
their studies. To the others, we can only 
wish that the rest of their lives may be asj- 
full of joy as their hearts can desire, and 
,that their future may realize all the prom- 
ises of their present. To one and. all, we 
make our best bow and sever forever our 
connection with this periodical. 



PERSONAL. 



Among the arrivals this week we arej 
glad to see Mr. W. A. Jenkins, one of our 
old men. 

Five hundred thousand dollars reward is 
offered for the gentleman, who so. kindly, 
the other night, "belted', a student with a 
rock. The favor was appreciated, we un- 
derstand, and the recipent is embarrassed 
by not having an opportunity to return the 
same. 

We are pleased to learn that 'Genie Har- 
ris ('81) recently carried off an art medal 
at the Cooper's Institute over about two 
hundred and fifty contestants. We always 
said so, and hope that he will grow more 
perfect as he grows older. 

We were glad to see, last month, a me- 
morial address by Jim Forbis of ours, very 
highlv spoken of. 



1882.] 



EXCHANGES. 



Id 



We regret to announce that the menag- 
erie is no more, not from the decease of any 
of the original members, but because one or 
two of the most curious animals have changed 
their appearance totally ; we might almost 
say their nature is changed. Nevertheless, 
Three-legs is not one of the above mentioned, 
his appearance is the same rusty affair it 
used to be. 

Mr. John Walker is back with us again 
looking as hearty as usual. 

Locusts are having a right hard time, as 
they have both Seniors and Preps working 
on them. 

Why ! Confound it ! What do you 
mean ? 

The "Tuneful" has kept rather still late- 
ly, but there is an immense reserve force of 
lies, which he will pop out at a moment's 
notice. Especially champagne lies. 

The "furriner" has shed his coat of toil 
and study and appears, glowing and resplen- 
dent, in pumps and is a devoted disciple of 
the Terpsichorean art. We wish him suc- 
cess, but the future is dark. 

Mr. Lucien Walker, C81) we are told, is 
teaching school near Marion, S. C. We 
congratulate that community on the teacher 
they have. 

Ichabod! Ichabod ! The glory hath de- 
parted out of Israel ! The gent bearing a 
striking resemblance to a gravel-train after 
dark, has fallen from his high estate. 



EXCHANGES. 



For the last time we come to our ex- 
changes, and with this issue bid them fare- 
well. We only hope for our successors the 
same amount of kindly feeling and cheer- 
ful encouragement which has been extended 
to us. 

With each and all our exchanges our re- 
lations have been of the most friendly kind, 
and it is with real regret that we come to 
this pleasant duty, knowing it to be for the 
last time. 



Outside work pressing upon us so heavily 
has not permitted that amount of attention 
to be paid to this column as is its due. A 
college magazine is intended to be an expo- 
nent of the life and thought of the students 
at that institution, and our idea of the ex- 
change column is that it affords a means of 
picturing and contrasting the life at other 
colleges, as represented in their periodicals. 
This would be greatly aided by "clipping" 
or giving a synopsis of articles, etc., but for 
most papers, this would consume too much 
space. 

This is our idea of the true aim of this de- 
partment, and we confess that we have fail- 
ed somewhat in coming up to our own stan- 
dard. Still, we have endeavored to give a 
general idea of the character of each paper, 
and this should give a very good idea of the 
character of the institution. 

We received the Hamilton College Month- 
ly "just in time to be too late " for our last 
issue. This is another paper which claims 
young ladies as its editors. It is neatly 
bound, well arranged and printed, and con- 
tains many short articles on various subjects, 
such as "Patriotism," "Use and abuse of 
Novel-reading," etc. They are all well 
written and the manner in which they are 
handled redeems the choice of subject. We 
consider it an acceptable addition to our 
list. It has a column devoted to fun which 
seems to derive most of its interest from the 
mistakes, etc., of the young lady' Seniors. 
These, we trust will pardon our smiles while 
we express our sympathy for their "long 
suffering." 

We have been pleased to receive several 
copies of the New South, the weekly recent- 
ly started at Wilmington. Having seen the 
prospectus, we looked for something good, 
nor were we disappointed. We not only 
compliment the young editor upon his laud- 
able enterprise with its high aim and noble 
purpose, but we also congratulate him upon 
the energy' and success with which he bes 
labored. Not Wilmington alone, but the 
State should encourage this new, and thus 
far worthy candidate for public favor. 



76 



COLLMGM n^colti). 



[June 



We give below a programme of th? Com- 
mencement exercises : 

Tuesday, May 30, 8 p. m. 
Annual meeting of the Dialectic and Phil- 
anthropic Societies. 

AVednesday, May 31. 
10 a. m. — Address before the Societies by 
Hon. W. M. Robbins, of Statesville. 

4 p. m. — Baccalaureate Sermon, by Rev. 
J. G. Armstrong, of Richmond, Va. 

8 p. m. — Orations by the Society Repre- 
sentatives, in the following order : 

1. L. Vann, of Madison, Fla. 

2. Jno. W. Hays, Jr., of Oxford, N. C. 

3. T. A. Wharton, of Greensboro, N. C. 

4. A. R. Shaw, of Robeson co., K C. 

5. Thos. Radcliffe, of Wilmington, N. C, 

0. J. T. Strayhorn, of Hillsboro, K C. 

Thursday, June 1. 

10 a. m. — Orations by the following mem- 
bers of the graduating class : 

1. Jonathan W. Jackson, ofPittsboro. 

2. Allen T. Davidson, Jr., of Asheville. 

3. Emile: A. deSchweinitz, of Salem. 

4. David S. Kennedy, of Magnolia. 

5. George G. Wilson, of Greensboro. 

6. Frederick K Skinner, of Edenton. 

7. Alex. W. McAlister, of Ashboro. 

8. Chas. W. Worth, of Wilmington. 

9. Albert Sydney Grandy, of Oxford. 

10 Edwin Anderson Alderman, of Wil- 
mington. 

At 4 p. m., the diplomas will be delivered, 
mrdals awarded, reports read and degrees 
announced. 

On Wednesday night, after the orations 
by the Society Representatives, there will 
be a German. On Thursday night, the Com- 
mencement Ball takes place. We have 
never seen the Bail-Room more tastefully 
or more beautifully decorated. We -con- 
gratulate the Ball Managers and Mr. Wrenn 
on their success. 

A called meeting of the students of the 
University was held on the afternoon of 
May 6, 1882, Mr. A. T. Davidson, Jr., be- 
ing chairman. He stated that the object of 



the meeting was to award a medal to that 
member of college who had proved the 
greatest bore during the present collegiate 
year. Several gentlemen were put in nom- 
ination, but Mr, C. E. Shober, of Salisbury, 
was the successful candidate. There is a 
rumor that the election will be contested on 
account of irregularity in the voting. While 
not more than 150 boys were present, be- 
tween 250 and 300 votes were cast. 

The Y. M. C. A. have elected as officers 
for the next session, the following gentlemen: 

J. U. Newman, President ; N. F. Heit- 
man, Vice President ; B. F. White, Secre- 
tary ; J. F. West, Treasurer ; J. A. Bryan, 
Corresponding Secretary. We bid them 
God-speed in their work. 

Scene, anywhere in the campus. Enter 
student, just from examination room, look- 
ing extremely vexed and perforated. Enter 
second student.- 2nd student : "Heigh, A. 
B., how did you come out ?" 1st student 
(very dolefully) : --Busted ! but I reckon 
I'll get through." 

We have been requested to publish the 
following extract from the Roanohe News : 

A GOOD REPLY. 

The following little poem was written in 
the balmy days of Chapel Hill, about 1861. 
A devoted swain had returned to college af- 
ter a brief visit, stolen from the faculty and 
his- friends, to his Dulcinea. His room-mate, 
a short time thereafter, followed his exam- 
ple in stealing a vacation from college, and 
having not, perhaps, the fate of his chum, 
asked the lady if she could not send by him 
some kind word to his disconsolate prede- 
cessor. The lady said she would in the fol- 
lowing language : 

TO A SPRING VIOLET. 

"Go little flower with eye of heavenly blue, 
"And tell my lover till death I'll faithful be ; 
"Bid him in soft petals' azured hue 
"Bead all the dreamy bliss of memory. 
"In the rich depths of this celestial dye 
"Each budding hope becomes like an angel's eye, 
"Love's tender thoughts forever tbere will lie." 
It will be observed the above was ini. 



1882,] 



COLLEGE HECOJRD. 



77 



promptu ; yet it is an acrostic, the most dif- 
ficult poetry. But by those to whom mem- 
ory recalls those clays, it will be recognized; 
and by those who value sentiment in verse 
will be considered a gem. 

Through the kindness of Mrs. C. P. Spen- 
cer, aided by Mr. E. L. Harris and the 
young ladies of the village, the Chapel has 
been most tastefully decorated for Com- 
mencement. Every one seems to be endeav- 
oring to make'the Commencement of 1882 
the most enjoyable occasion of the kind in 
the annals of the University. In the name 
of the students and of the graduating class 
we return thanks to all for their kindness. 

So far as heard from, the following medals 
have been awarded : To Mr. J. M. Eeese, 
of Yadkin county, the Medical Prize ; to 
Mr. J. E. Herring, Jr., of Scotland Neck, 
for Proficiency in English ; to Mr. E. A. 
de Schweinitz, of Salem, for best work in 
the Chemical Laboratory; to Mr. J. L. 
Love, of King's Mountain, the Math. Med- 
al. We think Mr. Love deserves especial 
mention for his excellence in this depart- 
ment, but we have no words to express our 
opinion of a person that gets 100 (perfect) 
on both Trigonometry and Analytical Ge- 
ometry. We never heard of the like before. 
The Greek medals will be made known at 
Commencement ; as will the Rep. and Man- 
gum medals. 

We take pleasure in announcing that the 
following gentlemen have been elected as 
our successors as editors of the Monthly. 
From the Dialectic Society : Thos. M. 
Vance, of Charlotte; Turner A. Wharton, 
of Greensboro ; and Walter W. Vandiver, 
of Asheville. From the Philanthropic So- 
ciety ; Frank S. Spruill, of Littleton / M. 
C. Millender, of Selma ; and J. IT. Newman, 
of Suffolk, Va. We tender them our con- 
gratulations, and can assure all interested 
that we hand over our Monthly to persons 
who will . fully sustain the reputation of 
their predecessors, and, we believe, surpass 
them in their efforts to make o.ur little peri- 
odical interesting, useful and a success. 



The Committee, appointed by the TrusZ 
tees to visit the University and make a r^ 
port of its condition, did not make their ap- 
pearance until last Friday morning ; and 
then, only two, Col. Steele and Hon C. M. 
Cooke, came. We have no doubt that, af- 
ter their warm and hearty reception by the 
students, they will present a very favorable 
report. 

Commencement is here. The woods and 
halls, which have for the last month been 
reverberating with the speeches of the ora- 
tors, will now have some rest. Within a 
very few days, we will cease to hear the 
echoes and re-echoes of the praises of Flori- 
da, Lafayette and Webster ; our ears will 
uo longer be deafened by the demand for 
Peace Victories, Freedom of Religious Dis- 
cussion, or an Inter-oceanic Canal ; the De- 
velopment of the South, the effects of Trades- 
Unions, and of Railroads will cease to wea- 
ry our patience and to assist us in forming 
a magnificent condemnatory vocabulary. 
The comparisons of Law and Justice, of the 
Puritan and Cavalier ; the Internal Reve- 
nue question, and the Duty of a State to its 
Citizens, with other topics too wearisome t ) 
mention, will be heard for the last time, or 
we don't know. 



If the English language were divided into one 
hundred parts, sixty would he Saxon, thirty would 
be Latin, including, of course, the Latin that has 
come to us through the French, aud live parts would 
be Greek. 

On Monday, May 1st, all the buildings of the 
celebrated Bingham School were destroyed by fire. 
The loss is estimated at $30,000, and the insurance 
is $20,000. This is a sad calamity, but Maj. Bing- 
ham, with his accustomed vigor and enterprise, 
proposes to have new buildings up and ready for 
occupancy by the first of August, when his next 
scholastic year will begin. 



CRAYON PORTRAITS 

Enlarged to any size from any kind of small pic- 
ture. Prices reasonable. Satisfaction is guaran- 
teed and the safe, return of the original. The fin- 
est portraits are thus placed in the reach of all-* 
who desire portraits of themselves or fr/ends. 
For further particulars, Address 

W. G. RANDALL, 

Crayon Artist, i 
Chapel Hill, -N. (| 



78 



AD VMRTISEMJENTS. 



■ h j e" i S2 \<*^\^^w*^^^*9rm 



THE MOST POPULAR i 

• or ALL' * _ 

SEWING 




30 UNION SQ.NEW YORK 
CHICAGO ILL.-e- , ( 

<^9 Orange mass. \ 



EOR S ALE BV 



NATIONAL TEACHERS" AGENCY. 

ScllOols And families supplied with 
first-class Teachers without 

ch f rge - West 

Teachers ^ Vil1 nnf * tlie central location 

and "Mutual Plan" of this and 
Agency make it the best ave- 
. nue to situations in the South 

(^Everything a school or teacher wants at a 

la ge discount. 

: . . 

Send stamp for application-form to ;. " -" 
NAT..IEACKERS' AGENCY, Cincinnati, 0. 



£ 



NORMAL BOARDING HOUSE. 

Chapel Hill, x. C. 

MR. and MRS. JAMES WILLS 

Are prepared to take a limited number of Normal 
students as boarders. House is pleasantly located 
and adjoins the campus of the University, being 
thus convenient to the School. ®gg» Terms 
Fifteen Dollars per month. *®g 
Address as above for particulars. 



NORMAL BOARDING HOUSE, 

CHAPEL HILL, X. V. 

Mrs, J. B. Martin 

Will give board, furnished rooms, servants, lights 
all first class, for Fifteen Dollars per month . 

House is located in a quiet part of the town, but 
near enough to the University to be convenient. 
Address as above for further particulars. 



Change of Schedule of North Carolina 
Railroad. 

WEST. 

STATIONS. 
Goldsboro, 
Raleigh, p. m. 
"^University, - 
Greensboro, - 

■''Connects with the State University Railroad 



Arrve 


Leavei 


A. M. 


10 00 


12 20 


3 55 


5 31 


P. M. 


8 05 


P. M. 



STATIONS. 

Greensboro, 

^'University, 

Raleigh, 

Goldsboro, 



EAST. 



Arrive 

A. M. 

12 02 

140 

6 30 



Leave 
9 30 

P. M. 

4 05 

P. M. 



^Connects with the State University Railroad 



State University Railroad. 

TRAINS GOING NORTHWARD. 

No. 1. 

Leave Chapel Hill at - - _ 10 40 am 

Arrive at University Station at - 1140am 

TRAINS GOING SOUTHWARD, NO. 2. 

Leave University Station at - - 12 10 p m 
Arrive at Chapel Hill at - - - 1 00 p m 

TRAINS GOING NORTHWARD, NO. 3. 



Leave Chapel Hill at 
Araive at University at 



- 4 10 pm 
5 10 p m 



TRAINS GOING SOUTHWARD, NO. 4. 
Leave University Station at - . - 5 35 n m 
Arrive at Chapel Hill at - - - 6 25 p m 

• These trains connect with trains on the North 
Carolina Railroad. 



•/J • 



Vol. I. 



SEPTEMBER, 1882 



No, 5. 



THE WORLD BALLADS. 



THE WIERD OF THE FIEND FRESHMAN AND THE 
SURPRISED SOPHOMORES. 

(From the New York World. ) 

I. 
Beware, beware of Fiend Freshman, 
That sitteth on yon gray stane, 
Wearing an altitudinous hat 
And carrying a cane. 

n. 
I love the merry, merry Freshman — 
He is a joyous thing, 
Though worried sore by the Sophomore 
At each succeeding spriug. 
As many spurns the patient Fresh 
Doth of the oppressor take, 
They cannot tire his spirit proud 
Nor his keen courage break, 
For he himself will be a Soph 
Sure as doth tadpole turn 
To frog, and 'gainst the Fresh unborn 
His righteous wrath shall burn. 
Whene'er he seeth that Fresh appear 
A-eutting of it lat 
Alwith a supercilious cane 
And a continuacious hat, 
Then he will to his fellows call 
And shrill the battle-cry, 
And do unto that Freshman as 
When Fresh he was done by. — 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 

in. 
It was a hapless Fresbman 
The Sophs had worried long - , 
Aud who had learned in suffering 
What I shall teach in song:. 
His proud spirit it had been eowetl 
Beneath their bitter yoke 
Till he was never known to smile 
And very rarely spoke. 
He was not seen in Pi Delta's halls, 
Nor at the dazzling scene 
When, silly moths, the students swarmed 
Round Emily Soldene. 
Soon as the day's tasks had been done 
He to his room would creep 
And toil at some mysterious task 
While all were wrapped in sleep. 
The curious student that did at 
The keyhole air his ear, 
A clank as that of hammer on 
Some metal used to hear, 
Anon the rasping of a file, 
So that though nought was seen. 
The impression got abroad the Fresh 
Was making some machine, 
And daily when that Fresh came home 
Were seeu to bulge his pockets 
With turn-cocks, screws and safety-valves 
And rods, and balls and sockets. 
And he read the works of Vaucausson 
And Smith and Maskelyna 
But locked his secret in his breast — 
He lived and made no sign. 
But sometimes to a brother Fresh 
He'd breathe mysterious things 
Of Moses, and the Servile War, 
And overthrow of Kings, 
And Jacquerries, and wonders wrought 
To tribes in bondage sunk 
Till his companions thought that he 
Was either mad or drunk. 
Bet he was neither drunk nor mad — 
I' faith he would not jest 
The haughtiest Soph if he should know 
What is in that Freshman's breast ; 
And when he draws the rasping file 
Or the clanking hammer swings, 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



A wild, fierce light is in his eye 
And ever he hoarsely sings : 

" Beware, beware of the Fiend Freshman 

Who sitteth on you gray stane 

Wearing an altitudinous hat 

And carrying a cane F 

rv. 
It was nine haughty Sophomores 
Were quaffing the Weiss beer 
All at the dusking of the day 
fn the spring time of the year. 
From the lattice of the wiudow 
The eldest cast his eyes, 
Aud he rubbed them hard and looked again 
And shouted in surprise : 

" Is 't a Fresh I see before me, 

All with a hat and cane, 

Or a Fresh of the mind, proceeding 

From a beer oppressed braiu — 

Down in you quiet corner, 

Sitting on yon gray stane?" 
Then up and spoke the eight other Sophs: 

*' 'Tis but an idle dream; 

As sings the poet Longfellow 

Things are not what they seem. 

What Freshman would come here to dare, 

No matter how insane, 

The contumacious hat to wear, 

To bear the fatal cane f ' 
From the lattice of the window 
They looked out and cried : u It is — 
Aud he hath a cigar to boot, 
Let's go up and do his biz.'' 
They go, the haughty Sophomores, 
Aud above, on drooping wings, 
Their guardian angel sad deplores 
While mournfully she sings : 

u Beware, beware of the Fiend Freshman 

That sitteth on yon gray stane, 

That hath a supercilious hat, 

Aud a contumacious cane!'' 

v. 
Forth sallied those bold Sophomores 
And ran adown the lane, 
And they were aware of a Freshman there 
That sat on a gray stane. 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



In the gathering gloom bis features 
Could never a one descry, 
But be bad a cane of fathom long, 
And a hat ten inches bigh. 
Calmly he sat iu a corner 
And from bis cigar each Soph 
Could see the abundant vapor 
In measured clouds pass off. 
His breathing was asthmatic ; 
They asked him one by one 

" Why comeat thou here with hat and cauel' 
But answer made he none. 
And those bold Sophs went nigh to where 
He sat on the cold gray stane 
And smote upon bis lot'ty hat 
And grasped his daring cane. 

VI. 

There came of wheels a whirring, 

And the hindmost Soph with awe 

Two kicks and knock down blows at once 

Given by the Freshman raw. 

Out shot again his fists and feet 

Like rod ot driving wheel 

And the fifth-eighth Sophomores went down 

Ere they could turn on heel. 

And the Freshman towered above them 

And fell with awful crash 

And with arms and legs his prostrate foes 

Relentlessly did smash. 

* * * * * # * * 

He flieth for help to the city, 
His hair meanwhile turning white. 
They come unto the battle-field 
And see an awful sight. 
"What hath been here my masters I" 
" There hatb been here I ween 
A mighty sausage chopper blent 
With a shoddy griuding machine.'' 
But no— on the bloody, muddy 
And thickly rag-strewn clay, 
His driving-wheel faintly moving, 
The automaton Freshman lay ! 

Beware, beware of the Fiend Freshman 

That sitteth on yon gray stane, 

That hatb an altitudinous hat 

And a contemptuous cane ! 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



A SHORT SKETCH OF THE LIFE AND CHARACTER OF 
THOMAS CARLYLE. 



In the little towu of Ecelefechan, 
I Scotland, on the 4th day of Decem- 
ber, five years before the dawn of 
the present century, Thomas Car- 
lyle, the subject of onr sketch, was 
born. In the veins of the tiny in- 
fant flowed some of the best blood 
of Scotland,which though inherited 
trom the body of the modest brick- 
layer, was yet destined to re-assert 
itself in the inimitable writing and 
gigantic intellect of his famous 
son. The name of Carlyla was one 
well known to Scottish Nobility, 
and, during the 14th aud 15th cen- 
turies, one that stood high in King- 
ly favor. As time went on less and 
less notice of the name is made in 
the Scottish history of that time, 
until the beginning of the 18th 
century finds the wearers thereof 
only humble peasants, severely 
pious in principle and sternly aus- 
tere in disposition. It is probably 
from the ancient house of Tothor- 
wald, which was founded by the 
Carlyle family, that Thomas Car- 
lyle was remotely descended ; but 
the continued reverses of a capri 
cious fortune gradually wrought 
the change, and Tuonias Carlyle, 
fitted by nature and education to 
adorn the unsullied shield of Scot- 
tish nobility, is the humble son of 
an obscure stone-mason. 

We have ourselves seen, in our 
own short experience, practical il- 
lustrations of like changes from 
wealth to poverty, from distinction 
to obscurity, wrought out by inno 
\ation and adversity, and have 



noticed the almost prophetic pecu- 
liarity, that some man down the 
line of posterity, inheriting tbe 
spirit of his forefathers, redeems 
the fallen fortunes of his house,and 
builds a new name upon the ruins 
of the old one. Thus did Thomas 
Carlyle, and the humble mason's 
son, who sprang from the homely 
farmers of Haddam, was greater 
than tbe proudest lord in the illus- 
trious line of his distinguished 
forefathers. 

The unusual severity of disposi- 
tion which characterized Carlvle's 
father (a severity which was the 
fruit of a close adherence to those 
Puritanical principles that formed 
his religion )began early to imprison 
aud hem in the active power of the 
son, and though Carlyle himself 
alludes with regret to the almost 
unnatural austerity of his father's 
disposition, yet after-events have 
proven that he was fortunate in his 
parentage, for from the very aus- 
terity and resolution which were 
essential elements of the father's 
character, sprang that inflexible 
obstinacy which evinced itself 
throughout the son's whole life,and 
caused him to persist, after all hope 
had been buried in his wife's grave, 
without thought of success or care 
for applause, iu pouring forth on 
paper the restless, suffering soul 
that had no longer a natural outlet 
close at hand. 

At the early age of fourteen, Car- 
lyle, who from the age of six years 
had been attending school in his 



8 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



native village, entered the Univer | married to Jane Welsh, a womL. 
sity at Edinboro, where the first ! iu every particular worthy of the 
evidence of his taste and talent for J man whose name she had chosen to 



literature began to display itself. 
Though he failed while there to 
take any degree, yet at the time 



bear. Pretty, vivacious and strong- 
ly intellectual, she was the model 
of the helpmeet necessary to make 



when, as he expresses it, " He broke f Oarlyle's lite productive of some 
the neck-halter that had so long I happiness to him. 
wellnigh throttled him," the im I Of the effect of Carlyle's writings 
ineuse amount of reading that he [ it is needless for me to speak. The 
had accomplished independently of vigor that characterized them made 
his University course, had placed j them iu argument resemble a re- 
him far ahead of any of his school- j sistless flood of uuloosed water 
fellows in knowledge. [in criticism aud ridicule, they wer 

For a short time after leaving the j like iuce ssant flashes of vivi 
University, he taught school, and [lightning, scathing and burnin 
rue cruel rigor with which he treat- f with resistless power. We all kno 
ed his pupils showed that the stern j that he introduced England to th 
discipline of the father had left its [ hidden intellectual treasures 
imprint on his youthful mind. But [ German poetry. His translation o_ , 
not long could the monotonous f'Wilhelmu Meister" which he gave 
work of a schoolmaster claim the | to the world, conveyed every shade 
attention of this restless man, laud delicacy of meaning which the 
struggling against his own fate and \ original was intended to convey.— 
living an iutensely ideal life. Soon | Under his magic pen, Frederick the 
the allurements of literary excel ! Great is possessed of a sublimity 
lence began to attract him, and he [of character that exalts him to a 
turned aside into the thoruy path i seeming divinity, and Oliver Crom- 
which was to lead him up the steps [ well, by one stroke of his wondrous 
of the ladder of fame. In begin- ! wand, stands clothed iu all the ba- 



uing he chose to depend entirely 
upon his own resources. He asked 
aid from no one, nor sought recog- 
nition except through merit, and 
his first labors were but fragmen- 
tary pieces, only sufficient to show 



biliments of rude grandeur. Some 
parts of his " Sortor Resartus" are 
but vivid descriptions of the trials 
by which his early life was encom- 
passed, and illustrations of the 
struggling of his great, brave soul 



that there lay hidden a mine of [to break the bonds that pinioued 



literary gold, destined to be reveal 
ed in the rough simplicity of his 
'• Frederick the Great " aud in the 
sublime pathos of his " Worship of 
Sorrow." 



him down. We do not yet know 
what Car lyle's doctrines were: per- 
haps he did not know himself; but 
through all his works we see the 
constant aim of bringing contempt 



Shortly after his entrance upon upon falsehood and of exalting the 
a literary career, he took the most truth. As abiographer he may have 
momentous as it was the most for- been partial ; it was a fault of the 
tunate step of his life, and was heart and not of the head. But 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



we must acknowledge that as long 
as truth and meaning, not fancy 
and sound, are the fundamental j 
principles of all literature, he mustj 
stand an acknowledged leader. As 
a historian Oarlyle dealt with char- 
acter, not with political facts or so- 
cial development. The brave spirits 
and dauntless souls who persisted, 
in defiance of all discouragement and 
in spite of all adversity, in accom- 
plishing their own ends and aims, 
were to him the moving geniuses of I 
all history. Knox and Cromwell j 
were his ideals, aud all characters 
which savored of the rigid de- i 
termination, which characterized 
them,were attractive to him. They \ 
and their surroundings made up , 
history for him. We will leave his 
literary works to speak for them 
selves and him. They are fit mon- 
uments of their authors greatness. 
It was after his literary honors 
had been won, when after years of 
toil he was enjoying the climax of 
his fame, that he was struck to the 
heart by the one blow that life had 
in reserve for him ; the only blow 
which could make his strong na- j 
ture reel and sway with the agony 
it inflicted. This was the death of 
his wife. The love for her which 
had cheered his youth, had with 
advancing years grown stronger, 
and each wrinkle that age bad ad 
ded to her brow had clothed her 
anew to him in all the grace and 
beauty of her earlier days. Then 
it was that he poured forth the 
troubled agony of his soul in keen 
and bitter invectives against the 
human race. Miserable in mind 
and body, the well-springs of his 
affections dried up and his heart 
lacerated with the bitter anguish 



of irrepressible grief, doubtless the 
strokes dealt so heedlessly, the 
sharp words spoken so thoughtless- 
ly, were a kind of bitter relief to 
his overcharged soul. But depp as 
is our pity, earnest as is our sym- 
pathy for him, we will not attempt 
to palliate this greivous error by 
any proffered excuse. None ean be 
brought forward that will lessen 
the magnitude of his offence, 
Querulousness is ever blamable, 
' and egotistic cynicism is uupardon- 
; able. 

! On the otb day of February, 1881, 
after a life of disappointment and 
dissatisfaction, a continuous strug- 
gle of the material against the 
immaterial, the feeble flame of Car- 
lyle's life went out, and the literary 
world was plunged into darkness 
and into grief. 

Now of the character of this 
great man we desire to say some- 
thing, and to do justice to such a 
subject, we should have been 
touched by the mantle of the 
prophet himself. 

When but a boy a strange com- 
bination of cynicism and humor 
was noticeable in his disposition. 
Sometimes when pouring forth the 
full and resistless blast of his 
withering scorn for a man, he would 
suddenly stop, aud, apparently see- 
ing something iu his satire that 
was ridiculous, he would break into 
a hearty peal of mirthful laughter, 
which would for an instant drive 
away from his face every trace of 
the bitteruess and cynicism, an ex- 
pression of which it usually wore. 
No subject, biographic or historical, 
was ever too tragic for an occasion - 
; al touch of his marvellous humor, 
j and so delicately did he apply it 



TBE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



that there was never any seeming 
incongruity. Even those people 
who object to blending humor with 
seriousness, fail to be < ffeuded at 
the extremely delicate way in which 
he follows his humorous whims 
whithersoever they may lead him, 
always with the effect of deepen- 
ing and softening his infinite pa- 
thos. 

He had an unpleasant and un 
restrained peculiarity of saying the 
offensive things, regardless of 
whom they affected or to whom 
they applied, and his especial and 
lasting aversion to the Americans 
made him sometimes iusultiugly 
rude to those of that nation with 
whom he might be thrown. His 
unaffected repugnance to all iono 
vation, an acerbity of temper in- 
creased by ill health and the natu- 
ral Scotch and English prejudice 
against America, in all probability 
caused this disagreeable charac- 
teristic. 

Another culpable characteristic 
that stands out iu painful promi- 
nence was his constant depreciation 
of cotemporaries. Not one of the 
great literary men of his time es- 
capes souie contemptuous allusion 
or scornful nickname. Byron, Scott, 
Beittham and Coleridge are spoken 
of only to be derided. This char- 
acteristic seemed to emanate from 
a moral iuability to do any one jus 
tice who lived in what might be 
called the present. He lived in the 
past, worshipped the men and 
things of the past, and everything 
which pertained to the present was 
esteemed weak and despicable. 
Ever disparaging the efforts of 
others, he fed his own unworthy 
vanity till his boasts of his own 



literary excellence became blatant, 
and his frequent allusions to the 
magnitude of his work showed that 
he considered no other man living 
as competent to complete it. 

Slovenly in dress and careless of 
personal appearance, he seemed to 
be in a manner immersed within 
himself, and the profound abstrac 
tion of his mind as it soared into 
the new atmosphere of some unex- 
plored thought, or liugered sadly 
among unpleasant recollections ana 
bitter memories, made him obliv- 
ious of strangers and indifferent of 
acquaintances. Some writer has 
said " His whole life seemed to be 
grotesquely masked in order that 
the freedom for observing the fol- 
lies of other men, without himself 
participating in them, might be 
greater." Standing himself aloof, 
he despised mau as man, and the 
vein of misanthropy embittered all 
his actions and writings. If he 
could not find fault he would not 
approve, and he preferred to remain 
silent unless he could penetrate the 
armor of the criticised with the 
keeu edge of the sword of satire, 
and few were the armors that were 
impenetrable to his ready and skill- 
fully wielded weapon. 

Yet as a redeeming trait amid the 
cynicism with which he regarded 
the world, was his deep and abiding 
love for his mother, evinced by 
careful attention to her while liviug 
and by touching devotion to her 
memory after death. His reveren- 
tial obedience to even the smallest 
of her commands, and respectful 
heed to her most trivial advice, 
show plainly that beneath the ex- 
terior of misauthropy and bitter- 
ness, there beat a large heart, 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



seared and saddened it mi^ht be, 
yet capable of holding a wealth ot 
affection. As his writings eotnand 
our admiration, so let the unhappi- 
ness which was crowded into his 
long and weary life, extract from 
us that reverent pity " that's akin 
to love.'' 

He is described as a fearless, 
taciturn, toiling, half-loved, half- 
feared man, with an intensity of 
isolated emotion and a sombre ven- 
eration almost inconceivable. A 
man of untiring perseverance and 
unceasing energy, he revised and 
corrected his works, substituting 
more piquant words in place of 
plainer ones wherever he could, 
until his filial manuscript was some- 
times almost illegible. The mor- 
bidness of his desire to complete 
any work when commenced made 
his efforts and struggles partake of 
a fierceness that savored of feroci- 
ty, causing him to crush the work 
of years into months, sometimes 
with the view of forgetting self, 
but ottener with no view, only be- 
cause he was impelled by the un- 
governable eagerness of his dispo- 
sition. When any work was begun 
he seized upon it with a persever- 
ance that was almost savage in its 
intensity, and at these times the 
slightest change or interruption 
called down the most severe rebuke 
upon the offender. His life was 
always regarded by himself as an 
unreal and unrealized dream, a 
species of imprisonment, the only 
release from which was a release 
irom self, and the power that drove 
him forward was not cheerful hope, 
but, as we have said before, a dog- 
ged resolution and a grim stead- 
fastness to strive regardless of 



promise or reward. Yet in spite of 
this every message he gave to the 
world was replete with the idea of 
living alike indifferent to what was 
productive of pain or pleasure ; of 
rising superior to the mean varie- 
ties and petty egotisms of the weak 
and foolish ; of being humble in 
adversity and brave in misfortune, 
and we cannot help feeling some 
disappointment and dissatisfaction 
that he who had so forcibly ad- 
vanced theories of such perfection, 
should, when the test came, fail so 
signally in applying them: that 
after so brilliant an external tri- 
umph we find him inwardly bank- 
rupt and deficient of those quali- 
ties whose excellence he had ap- 
plauded ; that we see him looking 
at the world with the moody anger 
of querulous cynicism. Carlylehas, 
however, been allotted a place 
among the world's great men which 
puts him above, not only criticism, 
but even his own weaknesses and 
vices. The world as a whole is too 
wise to quibble at men in high 
places. Distinction begets partial- 
ity, and greatn ess covers a multi- 
tude of defects. 

The indifference that Carlyle al- 
ways manifested for the opinions 
of the world concerning his own 
life and writings, was the offspring 
of the confidence that he had in 
his own judgment. Extremely in- 
tolerant of those views that differed 
from his own, he thought that un- 
less all men agreed with him in his 
standards and ideals ot excellence, 
they were all wrong; as for himself 
he was never wrong ; in his opinion 
he never mistook, never erred. 

His few friends feared while they 
loved him j his many admirers 



10 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



avoided while they reverenced him, 
and his numerous enemies respected 
while they hated him. All men 
were held in one common thrall of 
awe for the gigantic intellect that 
dazzled while it intimidated and 
commanded reverence while it be- 
got awe. Against friend and foe 
alike he sometimes turned the point 
of his envenomed weapon, and re- 
gardless of rank or station, he would 
denounce their aims and discour- 
age their hopes. ' He would, as the 
fancy seized him, humble a king to 
a beggar, or exalt a mendicant to a 
prince. Whatever his imagination 
presented was unquestionably ac- 
cepted; whatever his fancy sug- 
gested was instantly acted upon. 
He judged or felt only as he saw 
one side of a subject. He never 
stopped to look at both sides, and 
so, with biassed judgment and pre- 
conceived opinions, he allowed 
himself to become more and more 
misanthropical and bitter towards 
the world, because that world did 



not correspond with the measureof 
his feelings. He was a strange 
spiritual survival of an extinct 
moral world. 

There were radiaut sublimities, 
depths of love in this man, which 
though seared over and hidden by 
misanthropy, yet sometimes flashed 
forth with meteoric brilliancy. He 
struggled to teach the world a les- 
son of patience, and while teaching 
forgot to learn himself. The phy- 
sician who prescribed for his patient 
allowed himself to die from want of 
the very physic he would have 
others take. 

However defective in some of the 
attributes of mauhood Carlyle 
might have been, his intellect must 
command our admiration as his 
sufferings do our reverent pity. 
Death has clothed him in a halo of 
glorious remembrances, and, asone 
of the noblest of English men of 
literature, we offer homage at his 
shrine. F. S. S. 



ONLY ME. 



A little figure glided through the hall ; 
" Is that you, Pet V — the words came tenderly ; 
A sob— suppressed to let the answer fall— 
" It isn't Pet, mamma; it's only me.'' 

The quivering baby lips !— they had not meant 
To utter any word that could plant a sting, 
But to that mother heart a strauge pang went ; 
She heard, and stood like a convicted thing. 

One instant, and a happy little face, 
Thrilled "neath unwonted kisses rained above ; 
And, from that moment, Only Me had place 
And part with Pet in tender mother love. 

Caroline Mason. ;j 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



11 



THE COLLEGE SKEPTIC, 



Historic doubt is fast becoming a 
disease of modern minds. Facts of 
history — old and gray with the rev- 
erence of ceuturies — iu steadfast 
belief in which thousands of un- 
prejudiced and calmly reasoning 
minds have lived aud died, are, by 
the modern critic and disguised ra- 
tionalist, branded as false. 

They are shoved out of the do- 
main of truth to wander over the 
earth, staff in hand, as idle fables 
or idle nursery tales. 

Eve's aesthetic taste and its ac- 
cursed consequences are but the 
silly creations of unfettered fancy. 
The Euphrates aud the Tigris 
washed the sandy shores of no fra- 
grant, flowery Eden. Henry the 
Vlllth was a great man and a con- 
summate statesman; a shining ex- 
ample of conjugal tenderness, and 
no Blubeard. Elizabeth was a 
fiend iu regal robes. Mary, Queen 
of Scotts, a staiuless heroine and a 
martyr. The redskin maiden, Po- 
cahontas, never saved the life of 
Jno. Smith, but on the contrary 
hankered after his scalp with a 
great hankering. Washington the 
statesman and christian gentleman 
swore like Jack Falstaff. These 
examples might be multiplied ad 
infinitum, and they would all go to 
show that the tendency of to-day 
is to affirm to be false many facts 
which history declares to be true, 
and affirm to be true facts which 
history declares to be false. It is 
not at all strange then that the 
christian religious, too, should be 
an object of the subversive ten- 
dency of this revolutionary craze, 



and still less strange that at col- 
leges, where the ideas that sway the 
world are born and nurtured, many 
— m>y most — of these amature skep- 
tics should be found. Many reasons 
combine to sow the too fertile seed 
of skepticism and subsequent infi- 
delity. The novice goes to college 
with a mind untrained and unde- 
veloped, and totally unable to cope 
with the gilded sophistries of fame, 
seeking anti Chnsts, and with the 
more awful and hideous blasphemy 
of avowed infidelity. The college 
libraries open to him a field of lit- 
erature in which so many wander 
from the extreme of orthodox faith 
to a like extreme of hopeless and 
blinded atheism. 

The solid, methodic reasoning of 
christian defenders, too uufrequent- 
ly relieved by any golden gush, 
fails to captivate the yet unpropped 
mind. On the other hand the shiu- 
ing Rheto ic of skeptical writings, 
their pages glittering and gleaming 
with all the jewels of brilliant fan- 
cy, ensnare his youthful imagina- 
tion. At first uneasy, doubts, and 
then, alas ! he denies. And I think 
it is doing christian writers no in- 
justice to say that their works, so 
far as mere rhetoric is concerned, 
cannot be compared with the writ- 
ings of many of their unorthodox 
brethren. Find me, if you can, in 
all literature, pages that glow like 
those of Draper, Lecky and Froude. 
This great trio constitute perhaps 
the most dangerous enemies of the 
christian religion. They are most 
dangerous because seemingly they 
are not dangerous. They rob th& 



12 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



Bible of its inspiration and miracles 
so stealthily and so disguised under 
the cover of a fascinating rhetoric, 
that the strongest minds waver 
when reading them. Like vampires 
which fan their victims into calm, 
untroubled slumber while stealing 
from them their life's blood, so do 
these soul vampires lull their vic- 
tims into serenity aud dangerous 
ease by their golden fancies and 
soft, wooing thoughts, all the while 
stealing from them hope and 
Heaven. Men like Shelley and Iii- 
gersoll do no harm ; their unmask- 
ed and hideous blasphemy is self- 
defeating. 

Freighted with the dangerous 
notions of these skeptical rhetori- 
cisms, the unfortunate young man 
casts his bark loose upon an un- 
known, tempestuous, seething sea, 
pilotless, rudderless, anchorless.— 
How sadly frequent is it the case, 
when one's character becomes taint- 
ed with the leprosy of skepticism, 
that the zeal of intolerant religion- 
ists concentrates all its forces to 
annihilate the skeptic, but not so 
much his skepticism. Instead of 
pity, they lavish hate j instead of 
sympathy, they mete out condem- 
nation ; instead of reaching a help- 
ing hand they give a blow. Usurp- 
ing the power of God Almighty, 
they damu the poor unfortunate 
before he dies. How differently 
the riseu Lord whom Thomas dared 
openly to doubt, The lightning «f 
outraged Omnipotence struck him 
not dead at his Savior's feet, but He 
who knows the frailty of our frames, 
pointing to thescars of thecruelnails 
and sword, answered his doubt in 
tones of pity whose thrilling tender- 
ness yet echoes down the centuries. 



Always less black than painted, 
the young skeptic is, perhaps, the 
most conscientious of his fellows; 
not a " whited sepulchre," but an 
open, honest, candid thinker. This 
man is yet in the eyes of the world 
a villain, dangerous, contemptible. 
But the young man who never cists 
a single thought on the subject of 
his soul--a subject the grandestand 
most momentous of all to him— 
whose negligent folly constitutes a 
crime ten-fold more hideous than 
skepticism, is yet a moral, steady 
young man and a useful citizen. I 
repeat that thoughtful skepticism 
is better infinitely thaa no thought 
at all. 

In nine cases out of ten, howev- 
er, this period of skepticism is a 
period of transition from listless 
indifference to active belief. It is 
but the germ of superficial thought, 
which ultimately grows and ripens 
into strong unswerving faith. 

This is generally the history of 
the college skeptic. Grilfillian, the 
famous Scotch divine,reasons thus: 
" We say not that he should ever 
have crossed the boundaries of un- 
belief, but that he should have 
neared them. And unless he has 
neared them it is clear that he has 
never thought at all, and although 
we could accept an angel who had 
only seen, we could not accept an 
apostle uulese he has reflected, 
reasoned, doubted and then be- 
lieved." This at first may seem un- 
true, but biography will uphold me 
in saying that the majority of the 
greatest defenders and expounders 
of the christain creed were once 
skeptics or infidels. A Paul disbe- 
lieved once, and ever afterwards 
pitied but never abused infidelity. 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



13 



A Coleridge doubted once and be- 
came the spiritual father of many 
bewildered doubters. A Hall was 
once a materialist and buried ma 
terialism (gravely and reverently) 
in his father's grave. An Arnold 
! fought for years with doubts and 
his last words were the words of 
doubting Thomas. 

It is a significant fact that Om- 
nipotence in selecting a man who 
was to be for all time the greatest 
champion aud exponent of the 
christian religion, should have se- 
lected an infidel— Paul of Tarsus. It 
is a sad fact that what should be a 
preventative— the pulpit— is often 
the cause of this skeptical tendency. 



It seems now to be the case when 
one is selecting a profession for 
himself, if a self-consciousness 
teaches him his inability to make a 
lawyer, doctor, farmer or business 
man, then he thinks it follows as a 
matter of course that he is cut out 
for a minister. In other words he 
thinks the Almighty has called him 
to preach simply because he has not 
called him to do anything else. So 
long as this state of things contin- 
ues, skepticism will continue. The 
great ueed of to-day is a pulpit 
filled with brain— with men of great 
heart-power and tongues of flame. 

J. J. 



WILL RUSSIA BE DANGEROUS TO EUROPE. 



We know that long before the 
dawn of history the home of man 
was in the mountains of Central 
Asia, From this point successive 
swarms of mankind were sent out 
in all directons, chiefly Westward ; 
each one subduing or pressing for- 
ward those in advance. History 
also teaches that nations, though 
powerful aud advanced in civiliza- 
tion, may be forced to give way to 
the hardier races of colder climes. 
Then, to give one of numerous in- 
stances, Rome was humbled to the 
dust from time to time by over- 
whelming invasions of thew T arriors 
of Gaul, of Germany, and of Scan- 
dinavia. 

Now did this Westward march 
of nations, so momentous in the 
history of Europe, cease forever 
with the Dark Ages? Even the 
civilization of the niaeteenth cent- 
ury may not possess such force as 
is necessary to shield it from in- 



vasion by a ruder people. Hence 
attention is now invited to some 
suggestions in support of the idea 
that, at no distant day, there may 
be danger of an invasiou of Western 
Europe by the hordes of Russia. 

The growth of Russia in the last 
two centuries has been marvellous. 
Two hundred years ago she was a 
mere Asiatic power, with no in- 
fluence on European politics ; her 
inhabitants were little better than 
savages ; her rulers only short 
sighted tyrants. 

At length Peter the Great wield- 
ed the sceptre and Russia entered 
the list of civilized nations. He 
it was who imported the arts of 
Europe aud placed the throne of 
the Czar on its adaman tine basis. 
His motto was " God has made but 
one Russia and she must have no 
rival." The great but wicked 
Catharine II followed up his work 
with wonderful wisdom and energy. 



u 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



Not till this century, however, did 
Russia begin to show the greatness 
of her strength and the wealth of 
her resources. The flames of 
Moscow proved to be Napoleon's 
funeral pile. The Russians drove 
him from their eapital and hurled 
back his shattered columns until 
Cossack lances glittered triumph- 
antly in the streets of Paris. The 
phantom of French surpremacy, 
which had so long terrified Europe 
vanished. 

In its place there has gradually 
arisen a dark and threatening 
cloud. The strong hand of the 
Czar has been felt in many regions; 
now suppressing revolt for Austria, 
now stifling the last yearnings af- 
ter freedom in Poland, now crush- 
ing in Turkey, uow grasping in 
Persia. 

Russia is the only absolute mon- 
archy in Christendom. The cause 
that upholds this sysem is to be 
found in her social economy. In a 
Slav family the father is surpreme; 
his word is undisputed law. The 
Russian Empire is one large family, 
of which the father is the Czar. A 
representative form of government 
would be perfect anarchy. How 
could it be established in a society 
in which nothing is done that is 
not ordered from above ? Autoc- 
racy seems necessary to create out 
of the Russian people a civilized 
nationality. 

Devotion and submission to the 
throne are interwoven from the 
very birth in the hearts of all. At 
the present time we know that a 
wide-spread discontent exists, the 
cause of which may be readily ex- 
plained. The reign of Nicholas, 
grand father of the present Czar, 



was a long, severe tyranny, a sys- 
tem of continuous exaction and 
repression, Alexander II began 
his reign with a series of reforms 
in favor of liberty. Trial by jury 
freedom of the press, and represent- 
ative assemblies were partially in 
troduced. Freeing 40 ,000,000 serfs 
out of a nation of slaves, he created 
a nation of men. When after this 
sweet taste of freedom, the people 
raised a clamor for wider reforms 
they soon found, to their grief, that 
real liberty was never intended 
All ti_ is led to the present discon- 
tent which may be termed the 
violent but temporary reaction from 
the tyranny of Nicholas; a re- 
action promoted by the reforms of 
Alexander. The revolutionary plots 
of the Nihilists, on the contrary, 
are cou fined to comparatively a 
very few. But even if the present 
Czar should follow his father to a 
bloody grave, the Russian people 
will demand a new Autocrat— a 
new father— because all their iu- 
stincts demand a single patriarchal 
ruler. If Nihilism should gain the 
ascendant and overthrow the gov- 
ernment, it might happen, as iu 
the French Revolution, that a 
grand usurper, a second Napoleon, 
will seize the throne. 

The history of Russia is just be- 
ginning. She bears the impress of 
a young, vigorous state and doubt- 
less will have a momentous future. 
Her territory is nearly three times 
as large as that of the United 
States, comprising one-sixth of the 
habitable globe. In the main it is 
composed of vast undulating plains, 
watered by noble rivers. This 
sameness of territory begets simi- 
lar productions, interests and 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



15 



character, so that the inhabitants 
have common views and feelings 
as to religion and government. 
Hence we find from the Wall of 
China to the banks of the Vistula 
the strongest national union. 

Over all this country extends 
the authority of one man. Like 
Augustus Csesar, as Imperator, he 
wields the physical force of his 
people as one vast army ; and, as 
Supreme Priest, he also controls 
all the spiritual influence. He 
com mands the resourses of a rapidly 
increasing population, now num- 
bering 100,000,000, more than twice 
that of any other nation in Europe. 
He wields bis power without re- 
striction, without responsibility. 
This autocracy involves centraliza- 
tion, the great stronghold of na- 
tional power. Russia is behind 
the civilization of Europe in every- 
thing except the arts of war, in 
which she keeps abreast with the 
foremost. A standing army of 
nearly a million men, capable of 
almost indefinite increase, noted 
too for bravery and endurance, is 
ready to carry out the commands 
of their chief. The Black Sea, 
likely to be an immense Russian 
lake, offers a safe harbor for the 
construction and exercise of her 
ever increasing navies. Her vast 
wheat plains are sufficient to sup- 
ply all nations. The hordes of 
Cassacks furnish with little train- 
ing the best light cavalry in the 
world. 

Since the time of Peter the Great, 
when her history really begins, 
Russia's power and territory have 
been in war and in peace, con- 
stantly increasing. She has shown 
herself to be a conquering nation, 



ever advancing, never retreating. 
In her onward march she has al- 
ready absorbed the best of two 
kingdoms, Poland and Sweden, and 
also parts of Germany, Turkey 
and Persia. Twice in this century 
have her eagles entered Paris. 
Twice have they drawn so near 
Constantinople that they beheld 
the long coveted prize snatched 
from their grasp only by foreign 
interference. Her line in Asia has 
steadily moved forward, till on the 
confines ot India she finds herself 
face to face with Englaud. 

The present outlook is dark and 
gloomy, and at times, the Eu- 
ropean aquilibrium seems to be 
tottering. It is not impossible that 
the present complications may lead 
to a war which would shake the 
foundations of the world. Fuel is 
by no means lacking for the luried 
fire. England is now straining 
every nerve to reduce the fractious 
Egyptians to submission and slavery 
and has seized the Suez Ganal with 
a strong hand. The continental 
powers watch her with a jealous 
eye. Turkey refuses to co-operate 
with her. It is said that England 
and Russia have formed a secret 
but strong league. Russia is cer- 
tainly restless and is now making 
warlike preparations ou her South- 
ern borders. The Italians make 
no secret of their hatred towards 
England. France with her regular 
army of half a million men sor- 
rowfully views her tarnished honor; 
while Alsace and Lorraine, so rude- 
ly torn from her bosom, supplicate 
readmission into the Republic. 
She doubtless would gladly join 
any league which would enable her 
to avenge her defeat. Bismarck, 



1G 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



the statesman of the age, appreciat- and of Europe, we may offer a 
ing the danger by which divided conjecture as to whether there is 
Europe is threatened, has effected an «Y reason to fear invasion. We 
an offensive and defensive alliance [have found Russia to be an im 
with Austria. All the great conti- 
nental powers are continually for- 
tifying their frontiers and increas- 
ing their armies. A few days since 
two French officers were arrested 
in Berlin while making drawings 
ot the city fortifications. There 
may be no immediate danger, but 
such a state of things cannot con- 
tinue. The greatest bulwark of 
Europe consists in the unity and 
strength of Germany guided by its 
master hand. 

The present Czar avowedly joins 
his people in hating the Germans. 
In a few years Germany may be 
transformed. It may be that her 
present unity is national and en- 
during ; or it may be that it requires 
the powerful influence of a Bis- 
marck to perpetuate this union of 
seperate interests and principali- 
ties. If so, the union of Germany 
will cease with this generation ; 
and then her national strength will 
topple and fall. History clearly 
shows that Europe is so broken up 
by mountain chains and seas as to 
require separate nations and gov- 
ernments. The Empires of Char- 
lemagne, Charles V, and Napoleon 
soon fell to pieces. 
After this short survey of Russia 



mense country, a vigorous, united 
conquering people with rapidly in 
creasing population and resources 
aud as well developed in the arts 
of war as any nation on the Globe. 
We have found the boundless pow 
er of this immense nation concen- 
trated in the hands of the Czar, 
unto whom, by religion and by in 
stiuct, the inhabitants render the 
utmost reverence and obedience. 

On the other hand, we see Europe 
divided, destined to remain divid- 
ed ; while jealousy and hatred 
rankle in the breasts of defiant 
rulers and hostile people. Can di- 
vided freedom forever stand against 
united despotism U 

Russia may never boast her 
Demosthenes, her Raphael, or her 
Milton. But the time may, prob- 
ably will come, when a Csesar or a 
Napoleon will sit on the throne of 
the Romanoffs and command the 
resources of their great empire ; 
will combine the military science 
of civilization with the bliud devo- 
tion of barbarians, aud will march 
with irresistible force against the 
armies of divided and discordant 
Europe. 

Thos. H. Battle. 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 17 



[For the University Monthly. 
THE FERN LEAVES O'ER THE SPRING. 



To childhood's scenes and happy hours 
My memory loves to cling, 
And often now I s«ee again 
The fern leaves o'er the spring. 

How sweetly drooped their verdant heads 
To hear the wavelets sing, 
How soft the throbbing waters swayed 
The fern leaves o'er the spring. 

And where the spreading beech tree loved 
Its cooling shade to fling, 
I've often watched in summer time 
The fern leaves o'er the spring. 

When breezy morn had filled the air, 
And birds were on the wing, 
How bright the sparkling dew-drops decked 
The fern leaves o'er the spring. 

When zephyred eve with cooling breath 
The lengthening shades would bring, 
How lightly did the breezes toss 
The fern leaves o'er the spring. 

And when at night the moonlit dell 
With mystic songs would ring, 
The fairies loved to gather 'neath 
The fern leaves o'er the spring. 

And round my heart when age comes on 
Oh ! may there ever cling 
The pleasant memories of my youth 
Like forn leaves of the spring. 



18 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



TOUSSAINT L'OUVERTURE. 



Toussaint L'Ouverture, the Hay- 
tian Patriot, was born in 1743. His 
parents were both native Africans, 
and his father is said to have been 
the sou of an African king. Tous- 
saint lived, while a slave, on a plan- 
tation near Cape Traneois and was 
noted for his intelligence and fideli- 
ty, two qualities so rarely possessed 
by one in his station of life. Tous- 
saint was given important trusts ; 
-and, having learned to read from a 
fellow slave, his leisure time was 
spent in self-improvement. By 
some means he obtained possession 
of a copy of Raynal's "Histoire 
Philosopbique des dux Indes," in 
which is painted in glowing colors 
the horrors and injustice of slavery 
and the cruelty of the masters. 
Raynal prophesied that " one day 
a black shall appear who will be 
commissioned to avenge his out- 
raged people." Fifty years of Tons- 
saint's life have come and gone ; he 
is yet a slave ; his people's wrongs 
are yet unavenged; but the hour of 
retribution is near. There had 
sprung up in Hayti a third class in 
society, a mongrel race, whose num- 
bers were great and whose influence 
and resources were not to be des- 
pised even by the aristocratic slave- 
owners. Annoying social laws were 
established to maintain the distinc- 
tion between them and the whites; 
and the " men of color,'' as they 
were called, became a powerful dis- 
satisfied element in the Haytiao 
population. In 1790 the French 
Assembly granted him, in the colo- 
nial assembly, equal representation 
with the whites. This the whites 



indignantly refused to submit to ; 
put themselves in open revolt and 
declared their independence of 
France. The " men of color " pre 
pared to oppose them, and appealed 
to the slaves to rise, slay their mas 
ters and become free men. The 
masters were now at the mercy of 
the brute they had created, and 
which for so long a time had shown 
only the peaceable, obedient sid 
of his nature. Once aroused they 
were brutes indeed, and alas, the 
slave-owners had been too success 
ful in their efforts to debase and 
degrade those who bore the sem 
blance of their Maker. The slave 
raged like madmen ; with fiendish 
exultation they saw their masters' 
blood redden the earth they had 
been chained to ; conflagration and 
desolation marked their footsteps, 
and a reign of terror was begun. 
Toussaint played no part in these 
bloody murder-laden scenes, but 
after conducting some of the colo- 
nists to places of safety, he joined 
the insurgents. The blacks were 
headed by a cruel, vindictive chief 
named Biasson, and Toussaint, by 
virtue of his intelligence, was soon 
made his aid-de-camp. France sent 
over a commission to secure peace, 
there was a temporary lull, and 
then the red storm of murder 
and outrage swept on. News of 
the death of Louis XVI reached the 
Island and the blacks went over to 
the service of the King of Spain. 
The French Republic and the blacks 
were now at war, and Toussaint, 
who was now Brigadier General, by 
a vigorous campaign, captured the 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



19 



army of the French general Bran- 
dicourt, and several important posts 
also fell into bis hands. Toussaint's 
wish aud aim was the freedom of 
the slaves, and believing this eouiri 
be attained by a permanent alli- 
ance with Spain, he determined to 
remain under the colors of that 
country. The French Assembly, 
on the 14th of February, 1794, 
passed a decree proclaiming the 
freedom of the slaves, and Tons 
saint immediately hauled down the 
Spanish colors atid hoisted the tri- 
color of the French Republic. 
Spain no/v wars against him, he 
drives her troops from every posi- 
tion, and then turns to hurl his 
feeble, half-savage army against 
the trained veterans of the misti- 
est nation on the globe. In the be- 
ginning of the war the planters had 
appealed to England for help, and 
she, ever ready to strike a blow at 
France, sends them troops and 
ships. Toussaint, at the head of 
his troops, meets the British, re. 
pulses them again aud again, aud 
soou drives them from the Island. 
He is now made Commander-in- 
chief of the army of Hayti and 
peace is restored. The ''men of 
color" now rose and after a furious 
and bloody war, peace again reigns 
in unhappy, battle-scared Hayti- 
Every obstacle in the way of the 
freedom of the slaves Toussaint 
had removed. He had battled 
against England, France and Spain, 
and in a measure against the slaves 
themselves ; and now the great 
work was accomplished. He was 
made governor, and under his wise 
administration, industry was again 
abroad in the land, churches and 
institutions of learning were rebuilt 



and opened, and thrift and economy 
began to show themselves. He had 
a constitution drafted that was suit- 
ed to the wants and habits of his 
people and sent it to Napoleon for 
his approval. Napoleon was then 
fast acquiring power and distinc- 
tion, and should he who aspired to 
be the head of a universal kingdom 
consider the wishes of a governor 
of such a Republic as Hayti ? No! 
•'He is a revolted slave whom we 
must punish, the honor of France 
is outraged," was the answer he 
gave to Toussaint's embassy. To 
accomplish the punishment of the 
revolted slave he sends a vast army 
aud powerful fleet to peaceful, im- 
poverished, struggling Hayti. This 
is one of the most disgraceful pic- 
tures in the whole panorama of his- 
tory, the son of Christianity and 
enlightenment battling for the en- 
slavement of his fellowmau, oppos- 
ed by one who had himself been a 
slave for fifty years, and whose only 
heritage was the superstitions and 
ignorance of a savage land ; one 
actuated by motives of self advance- 
ment, the other by a desire to see 
his people free and enjoying the or- 
dinary pleasures of life. Toussaint 
could not believe that France would 
break her word with him, and he 
issued a proclamation in which he 
said, "Our liberty is our own and 
we will defend it or perish," to calm 
and reassure his disturbed and al- 
most panic-stricken people. The 
French landed and became masters 
of the coast towns; but they found 
drily heaps of ashes— the blacks 
had ^applied the torch when they 
saw resistencS useless. The French 
General LeClerc tried to persuade 
him to lay down his arms, but his 



20 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



duty to his people was his controll- 
ing motive, and knowing that in the 
mountain fastnesses the war could 
be continued indefinitely ,Toussaint 
refused all terms of peace that did 
not grant freedom to the inhabi 
tants of Hayti. Leclerc assured 
him that he would remain governor 
and that the liberties of the people 
would not be interfered with. This 
last was all Toussaint had ever 
fought for, and peace was soon de- 
clared. This was the first step to- 
wards enslaving the people and in 
it the French Army had done all 
Napoleon designed. Napoleon 
knew that it would be impossible 
to restore slavery while Toussaint 
remained on the Island, and he had 
him arrested on trumped up charg- 
es of treason, and brought to 



France. Here he had him in hi 
power and could do with him as he 
wished. Immediately upon his ar 
rival in France, he was carried to 
the Jura Mountains and thrown in 
the Castle of Joux. He addresse; 
letter after letter to Napoleon, be<* 
ping for justice. They were never 
answered. Bonaparte had decided 
that he should die, and ordered tha 
his meagre supply of food should 
be made still smaller. His keeper 
left him unattended for a few days, 
and Toussaint was found dead i 
his dungeon— starved to death 
Thus in April 1803, in the cold 
damp dungeon of the Castle of Joux 
died Toussaint L'Ouverture, one o 
the few immortal men whose epi 
taph can be " He loved his fellow 
man." " Jake. 



THE STUDENT'S GRAVE. 



In a spot where the weeping young willow tree grows. 
When the ever-green cedars their slender limbs wave, 
And the clear running brook, babbling on as it goes, 
By the old churchyard gray, is the poor student's grave. 

He sleeps, from his once happy home far away, 
From his comrades so kind, and the loved ones so dear, 
Where the wild bird his requiem chants with blythe lay, 
And the daises so meek deck his cold tomb so drear. 

All lonly he sleeps ; no friend kind aud true, 
No fond weeping mourners draw sighing around 
To mingle their tears with the morn's early dew, 
No compassion, no sympathy, hallows the ground. 

His forehead was pressed by no mother's fond hand, 
No sister angelic was hovering o'er, 
But by strangers surrounded, and in a strange land, 
Cast homeward his eyes, aud knew sorrow no more. 

Ah ! little he thought, when the light from above 
Like the bright glow of fire was kindling his eye, 
That he should ne'er return and eujoy the pure love 
Of his kindred and friends, when he bid them good-bye, 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



21 



WHOLESOME HINTS TO COLLEGE STUDENTS. 



In the outset let us say tbat we 
do not arrogate to ourselves any 
superiority of perception or any 
unusual originality of thought, 
that we venture to offer these sug- 
gestions to your minds. We do 
not wish to be considered pre- 
sutnptious critics, nor do we care 
to assume the enviable position of 
College mentor, that we make the 
few remarks that are made here. 
We are not ambitious of distinction 
attained by pointing out the errors 
of our friends, or by proposing a 
new code of morals for their gov- 
ernment. We esteem every man 
as far more eminently qualified to 
take care of his own morals than 
I any one else is qualified to take 
care of them for him, yet if thought 
lessness shall have induced ob- 
jectionable habits in a friend or 
even acquaintance, we should not 
hesitate to remind that acquaint- 
ance of the nature of such habits. 
There are habits and tendencies 
among us, begotten by thoughtless- 
ness no doubt, whose effects are so 
objectionable and productive of so 
much evil that we feel it our duty 
to ourselves and college mates, to 
gently and good-humoredly call 
them to their attention. It is not 
from any selfish motive that we are 
induced to inveigh against these 
prejudicial customs; they can affect 
us very slightly and for a very lit- 
tle longer time. Our stay at Col- 
lege is drawing to a close, and it is 
only now in our last year that we 
have summoned up courage to 
speak out boldly in condemning an 
evil that can be so easily remedied. 



There is not enough formality 
and etiquette among; us. We seem 
to have forgotten that we are fast 
approaching man's estate when it 
will be necessary for us to assume 
the dignity incident to manhood. 
We should begin to deport our- 
selves with courtesy and deference 
towards each other. We are nearer 
men than children in all respects, 
except the manner of our inter- 
course one with another. Do not 
mistake our meaning. We do not 
desire a return of those days of 
Quixotism, when the faintest ap- 
proach to familiarity was resented 
as inconsistent with knightly cour- 
tesy, or even manly dignity. Such 
is far from our meaning, but we 
do contend, and not without cause, 
that there is not enough gentle- 
manly polish and punctiliousness 
among us. Our manner of speech 
to each other is most generally un- 
dignified, often abusive and not 
seldom obscene. We thoughtlessly 
apply the most approbrious epi- 
thets to each other, forgetting that 
<< Familiarity breeds contempt," 
and that a gentlemanly, dignified, 
courteous demeanor with one an- 
other is the only method of gener- 
ating mutual respect and esteem. 
It were far better for us to border 
on conventionality than to so as- 
siduously cultivate familiarity and 
easiness in our manners, as to for- 
get the rules of common politeness. 
We do not, hewever, wish to rush 
into the other extreme, and become 
guilty of punctilious puppyism. The 
cold, polished manners of a Lord 
Chesterfield, repelling acquaint- 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



ances by their disgusting foppery, 
are much less attractive and desira- 
ble than the Quiet urbanity of a 
George Washington, fascinating us 
with its unobtrusive simplicity. 
We do not desire the natural bouy- 
aucy and freedom of youth to be 
immersed in the cold gravity of 
assumed manhood? but far less do 
we wish to see manhood clothe it- 
self in the inappropriate garb ot 
childish familiarity and careless- 
ness. The time is not far distant 
when we will have to encounter the 
difficulties and responsibilities of 
life as men, and we should bespeak 
the good wishes of the world by 
attractive manners and universal 
courtesy. We should throw aside 
some of our childish tendencies and 
propensities,, and cultivate that 
quiet, manly dignity that is in itself 
a passport to good society. 

Another objectionable habit is the 
promiscuous and indiscriminate vis- 
iting among all college students. 
The aim and end of our attendance 
at college is ostensibly the improve- 
ment of our minds by application 
to our text-books, occasionally un- 
bending and recreating by pleas- 
ant intercourse with our friends 
and school-fellows ; yet if it were 
asked what was the object with 
which we attended college, a truth- 
ful answer would require from the 
most of us, exactly the inverse ot 
the proposition— to bore my fellow- 
students by going at inappropriate 
hours to see them, while occasionally 
1 refresh my mind with a little 
study. There is hardly an hour in 
the day that the college student 
can call his own. There should, by 
all means, be stated times for visit- 
ing and cultivating social inter- 



course so that these intervals mights 
be anticipated with pleasure and 
prove a source of benefit and relief 
to the student. There are some- 
recitations the preparation of which 
requires continued and uninterrupt- 
ed study, and it is an imposition on 
the student to force him 7 under 
such circumstances to entertain us. 
We should recollect that probably 
not all the men in college have the 
same amount of leisure time that 
we do, and should, at least, give 
them credit for the accomplish 
ment of a larger amount of work 
than we ourselves perform. Som 
visitors utterly disregard thegentl 
hint of a locked door and will con 
tinne their importunate and noisy 
| demands for admittance, till the 
poor harrassed student turns him in 
deemiug his presence the "lesser 
of two evils." 

Frequent and indiscriminate vis- 
iting begets an indolence on the 
part of the students that is preju- 
dicial to their interests all their 
lives. It may be that there are 
| many sacrifices made by loving pa- 
rents to keep the son at college, and 
many bright hopes are built high 
upon his future life; but by our fre- 
quent and inopportune visiting we 
are often, in all probability, stealing 
from him eternal fame, and from 
his anxious parents hope and peace 
of mind. It is impossible to fasten 
the attention under such tempta- 
tions to idleness. All disposition 
to study, all ambition for success, 
that incites the boy when he first 
enters college, is swallowed up in 
the desperate indifference that 
takes possession of him. Again do 
not misuuderstand us. It is far 
from our intention to discourage 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



23 



the cultivation of friendship. No 
one more firmly believes than we 
do, in " Burnishing the links of the 
golden chain' 7 that should bind the 
bearts of college boys together. It 
is to those whose only business 
seems to be to bore his fellow-stu- 
dent that we make allusiou. There 
is nothing more essentially elevat- 
ing than the pure affection of dis- 
interested friendship, but if the 
cultivation of this friendship must 
be at the cost of parental happiness 
and hope, at the sacrifice of indi- 
vidual ambition and success, let it 
not be cultivated. "We do not, how- 
ever, feel that it is evidence of a 
man's regard or esteem for us, to 
monopolize our time and attention ; 



to intrude himself upon us at all 
hours and times, regardless of our 
convenience or comfort^ to take for 
the theme of his conversation some 
subject that can not amuse us or 
benefit him. It seems to us the 
reverse of what friendship should 
prompt a man to do. Unselfishness 
is Ihe fundamental principle of this 
platouic affection, and this charac- 
teristic surely is not exhibited in 
our college visiting. 

We hope that these remarks may 
be accepted in the spirit with 
which they are intended. No per- 
sonalities or acrimonious criticisms 
are indulged in, and what we have 
said applies, no doubt, to all col- 
leges alike. * l Joe." 



LEONAINIE. 



The following beautiful posthumous poem 
from the pen of the erratic poet, Edgar 
Allen Poe, we believe has never before been 
published in any form, either in any pub- 
lished collection of Poe's poems or in ary 
magazine or newspaper of any description, 
and until the critics shall show conclusively 
to the contrary, the Dispatch shall claim the 
honor of giving it to the world. 

Leonainie— angels named her ) 

And they took the light 

Of thelaughingstars and framed her 

In a smile of white ; 

And they made hei hair of gloomy 
Midnight, and her eyes of bloomy 
moonshine, and they brought her 
to me 

In the solemn night. 

In a solemn night of summer, 
When my heart of gloom 
Blossomed up to greet the comer 
Like a rose in bloom, 

All forebodings that distressed 
me — 
I forgot as joy caressed me — 



rJFrom the Ko-Komo (Indiana) Dispatch.] 

(Lying joy that caught and press- 
ed me 
In the arms of doom !) 



Only spake the little lisper 

In the angel tongue ; 

Yet ^listening, heard her whisper— 

" Songs are only sung 
Here below that they may grieve 

you — 
Tales are told you to deceive you, 
So must Leonainie leave you 

While her love is young.'' 

ThenGod smiled and it was morning, 
Matchless and supreme ; 
Heaven's glory seemed adorning 
Earth with its esteem ; 
Every heart but mine seemed 

gifted 
With the voice of prayer, and 

lifted 
Where my Leonainie drifted 
From me like a dream. 

E. A. P. 



u 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



A DEFINITE PLAN OF ACTION NECESSARY. 



" Every man is the architect of 
his own fortune '' is a trite and false 
adage. Yet, without doubt, it will 
now admit of more general appli- 
eat ion than at any former time. — 
This is a live age, and there is a 
demand for live men — strong and 
valiant men who ever look upward 
and carry "banners with the strange 
device, Excelsior,'' There is no 
room lor drones and "weak-knees."" 
For now it is the prevailing cus- 
tom, not to protect, but to strike 
the man that is down. The race is 
to the swift, the battle is to the 
strong. The problem of the hour 
is how to be fast, and how is the 
necessary strength to be acquired. 
Earthly success is the grand center 
around which the hopes and desires 
of most men collect; it is the goal 
that all would attain, but many 
grow weary and are forced to bend 
their shoulders, as a step, to the 
powerful. Indifference seizes them, 
and they frustrate the noble pur- 
pose for which they were created. 
For, 

"Life was lent 
For noble duties, not for selfishness; 
Not to be whiled away for aimless dreams, 
Bat to improve ourselves and serve mankind" 

We cannot improve ourselves by 
silent, moody dreaming and mag- 
nificent resolutions; we cannot 
serve mankind by waiting for some 
tide to bear us on to fortune ; but 
work is necessary. An incentive to 
work is needed. Such an incentive 
is ambition, which alone can arm a 
man for the battle of life. Not such 
as drew from Wolsey the plaintive 
exclamation : " I charge thee Crom- 
well, fling away ambition, for by 






that sin the angels fell ;' r but tha 
praiseworthy and noble ambition 
which is the life giving element to- 
that principle in man, that raises 
him above the brute and causes 
him to procure for himself an in 
heritance in that "mansion not 
made with hands;" still, though one 
be as desirous of fame as was Riche- 
lieu, if that fixed and definite pur- 
pose is wauting, his life will be a 
failure, and no more appropriate 
epitaph cau be iuscribedon the slab 
erected iu his memory than, bom 
lived and died. 

We should determine that the 
sad and mournful strain, it might 
have been 7 shall never express the 
result ot our lives. Fleeting time, 
the " chrysalis of eternity, 7 ' is swift- 
ly bearing us to our destiny. We 
hold our fate in our hands. It does 
not depend upon circumstauces. — 
We, and not eternal agencies, are 
to determine whether we shall enter 
Fame's temple, or live in obscurity. 
Science may affirm that for every 
one there is a special vocation, and 
that for each individual there is 
only one avenue to success, but gen- 
erally 

fr 'The attempt is all the wedge 

That splits its knotty way 

From the possible to the impossible." 

But this splitting the way from 
the possible to the impossible, all 
grand achievements, must be ac- 
complished by singleness of aim 
and tenacity of purpose. Our as- 
pirations should be harmonious,and 
should be in some certain and well- 
defined direction ; otherwise dis- 
cordant views may interfere with 
our expectations and thwart our 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



25 



plans. The tiny suowflake, with 
the regular and sj nitnetrical ar- 
rangement of its crystals, evinces 
the uniformity of nature. This at 
tribute of nature furnishes an im- 
portant lesson. The artist has been 
successful when the natural has 
been faithfully reproduced. With 
out this conformity, will life be a 
success? 

God did not intend man to be a 
restive, passive being. " Have you 
ever seen," says the eloquent F. W. 
Robertson, " the marble statues, 
in some public square or garden, 
which art has finished into a peren- 
nial fountain that through the lips 
or through the liands the clear 
water flows in a perpetual stream 
on and on forever ; and the marble 
stands there passive, cold, making 
no effort to arrest the gliding drops. 
It is so time, flows through the 
hands of meu, swift, never pausing 
till it has run itself out and there 
is the man petrified into a marble 
sleep, not feeling what is passing 
away forever." It should not be 
forgotten that, duriug these flying 
moments, characters are being 
formed ; that the morals and man 
uers of subsequent ages are being 



moulded $ and that the acts of the 
present generation are being writ- 
ten in characters of living light 
upon a scroll which will be unfurled 
to the gaze of scrutinizing posterity . 
Hence the demand for thorough 
culture and the urgent necessity of 
impressing the fact upon others. 

Are we then to be drones in the 
hive of nature % No ! we desire to 
be otherwise, and by the assistance 
of Him who favors the deserving, 
we will be otherwise. Remember 
that to look far over the plain, the 
mountain heights must first be 
climbed. If we cannot pave our 
paths with diamonds nor gild their 
edges with gold, we can leave foot- 
prints on the sands; and, as these 
foot-prints will be monitors of pos- 
terity, they should lead to splendid 
reputation and princely fortune. 
We will then live for something, 
fame will not be our ideal of suc- 
cess ; for Schiller says, " Worth is 
the ocean — fame but the fruit along 
the shore. He who penned the 
following, was impressed with the 
reality of life ; he knew that to- 
morrow would never come, and felt 
the corresponding necessity of im- 
proving the present : 



Oh, listen to the watermill through all tho livelong day, 
As the clicking of the wheels wears hour by hour away ; 
How languidly tne autumn wind doth stir the withered leaves, 
As on the fields the reaper *' sing while binding up their sheaves; 
A solemn proverb strikes my mind, and as a spell is cast, 
"The mill never grind again with water that is past." 

The summer winds revive no more leaves strewn o'er earth and main, 

The sickle never more will reap the yellow garnered grain ; 

The rippling stream flowes ever on, aye tranquilly deep and still, 

But never glideth back again to busy water mill ; 

The solemn proverb speaks to all with meaning deep and vast, 

« The mill will never grind again with water -that is past." 

Oh ! the wasted hours of life that have swiftly drifted by, 
Alas ! the good we might have done all gone without a sigh; 
Love that we might once have saved by a single kindly word, 
Thoughts conceived but ne'er expressed, perishing unpenned, unheard j 
Oh ! take the lesson to thy soul, forever clasp it,fast, 
"The mill will never grind again with water that is past." 



28 THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



THE DAY IS DONE. 

H. W. LONGFELLOW. 

The day is done, and the darkness 
Falls from the wings of Night, 
As a feather is wafted downward 
From an eagle in his flight. 

I see the lights of the village 
Gleam through the rain and the mist, 
And a feeling of sadness comes o'er me 
That my soul cannot resist: 

A feeling of sadness and longing 
That is not akin 10 pain, 
And resembles sorrow only 
As the mist resembles the rain. 

Come, read to me some poem, 
Some simple and heartfelt lay, 
That shall soothe this restless feeling, 
And vanish the thoughts of day. 

Not from the grand old masters, 
Not from the bards sublime, 
Whose distant footsteps echo 
Through the corridors of Time. 

For, like strains of martial music, 
Their mighty thoughts suggest 
Lite's endless toil and endeavor ; 
And to-night I long for rest. 

Read from some bumble poet, 
Whose songs gushed from his heart, 
As showers from the clouds of summer, 
Or tears from the eyelids start ; 

Who, through long days of la-bor, 
And nights devoid of ease, 
Still heard in his soul the music 
Of wonderful melodies. 

Such songs have power to quiet 
The restless pulse of care, 
And come like the benediction 
That follows after prayer. 

Then read from the treasured volume 
The poem of thy choice, 
And lend to the rhyme of the poet 
The beauty of thy voice. 

And the night shall be filled with music, 
Aud the cares, that infest the day 
Shall fold their tents, like the Arabs, 
And as silently steal away. 






THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



27 



Editof-ial Department, 



The new editors step before the 
Monthly's readers with this issue. 
It is with feelings of pleasure not 
unmingled with pain that we bash- 
fully bow ourselves in. We find a 
pleasure in contemplating the lofty, 
dazzling height on which our high 
ambition and your sufferage has 
placed us. We find pain reflecting 
upon our total inability to do jus- 
tice to the Monthly. Had our 
predecessors been less brilliant and 
less endowed with all those qualities 
which go to make successful editors 
and writers, then had we been less 
embarrassed when we found our 
selves for the first time in your criti- 
cal presence. 

But now that the guardian care 
of able physicians has preserved our 
Magazine through its perilous in- 
fancy; — administered stimulants 
when its pulse beat slow and feebly; 
drugged it with new life when 
weakened by its struggles with 
childhood's twin demons, — teething 
and whooping cough — surely you 
will not desert it now that it can 
almost stand alone. 

With your cordial co-orperation, 
which we have a right to expect 
and which we therefore demand, 
the Monthly can be made a source 
of credit to the two Societies, an 
outlet for their slumbering talents, 
and ultimately a source of revenue. 

In ante bellum days the Old 
University Magazine " grew up 
and flourished like a green bey 
tree." Upon its spread branches 
" the fowls of the air" alighted, 



and beneath its grateful shade the 
gentle freshman softly whistled, 
" ruck me to sleep mother.''* 

Why can we not bring our Uni- 
versity Magazine up to its ancient 
standard of excellence ? Surely 
the young man of to-day is in no 
sense inferior to the polished and 
booted slave aristocrat of old. 
Brains and money seldom keep 
company. The lack of the latter 
develops the former. 

We can make our journal a suc- 
cess and we will. You who have 
talent lor writing send us your con- 
tributions. You who are not thus 
blessed, dive down into your own 
or your neighbor's pantaloons and 
give us of your much needed lucre. 
In conclusion we earnestly hope 
that our modest efforts to advance 
your Magazine will meet with a 
kindly appreciation, and our mis- 
takes and shortcomings with a still 
more kindly charity. The new 
editorial staff gives cordial greeting 
to all friends and patrons. 



All communications to the 
Monthly should be addressed to 
Mr. Z. B. Walser. His office is 
always crowded with persons ap- 
plying for the Monthly and every 
mail brings him subscriptions, but 
Mr. Walser is a very careful person 
and no one need fear that his ap- 
plication will be overlooked. Terms 
for one year only one dollar, six 
months seventy-five cents. 



The present Senior Olass numbers 
sixteen : eleven Di's and five Phi's. 



28 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



Our readers of last year will 
doubtless notice the changes made 
iu the editorial staff. Of the six 
editors elected last year, the hand- 
some faces of three alone now 
adorn the college campus. Messrs. 
T, M. Vance and Chas. Vandiver 
of the Di. Society and Charley 
Millender, of the Phi., " came up 
missing." Mr. T. M. Vance is go 
ing to the Columbia law College to 
fit himself for the bar. His strictly 
studious habits arid sober demean- 
or will win f r him golden opinions 
among his new associates. Tom's 
place in the University will never 
again be filled. The college fa- 
vorite,— his good heart and posses 
sion of all that is contained iu the 
word li clever," has endeared him 
to us all, and long will he be re- 
membered by his college mates. 
He arrived at the dignity of an 
editor of the University Magazine 
at an early age, thus giving evi- 
dence of a wonderful capacity for 
future greatness. All honor and 
long life to one of our best and 
noblest men, Thomas M. Vance ! 

The witchery of political strife 
^nd the charm of office has woed 
thee, Vandiver from '' going in and 
out among us." He stumps his 
county as candidate for county 
clerk. When last heard from, he 
had made one thousand speeches 
and kissed five hundred and thirty- 
nine ladies. Go it Vandiver! It 
you can make use of the Monthly 
as a campaign document you are 
welcome to it at reduced rates. 
The Monthly wishes your success, 
Charley ! 

Charley Millender is engaged "on 
the young idea" at Bingham's. 
His square actiug, manly conduct 



won for him here deserved popu- 
larity, and the highest office iu the 
gift of his Society— that of chief 
marshall. His success is assured 
and we wish him joy in the posses 
sion of it. 

Messrs. Ratcliff and Walser were 
elected to fill the vacancies made 
by Messrs. Vance and Vandiver. 
N. J. Kouse was elected to fill Mr. 
Millender's position, a press of 
business urged Mr. Bouse to resign 
and L. Vann was elected. 



One of our sister colleges, Peace 
Institute, boasts a rising literary 
star. While but a young lady of 
comparatively few Summers, yet 
her recent work exhibits the thought 
and deep experience of advanced 
age. Her unlimited modesty and 
desire of avoiding everything like 
publicity has hitherto' prevented 
the publication of her work. But 
it has been our happy lot to be 
among the few to whom access to 
this production was granted, and 
we are not rash when we claim ex 
traordiuary merit for the young 
lady's effort. It is true that it be 
gins iu the usual way: " One even- 
ing when the sunshine was flooding 
hill and vale with a golden glow, a 
solitary horseman might be seen 
making his tedious way up a dis- 
tant height. The beautiful symetry 
of his unrivaled figure was set off 
by a magnificent blue sash, etc. 
Yet notwithstanding this dramatic 
and common introductory the work 
is totaly unlike anythiug we have 
ever seen before. The young lady 
possesses a sublime originalty, and 
long may she live to honor her 
native State. 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



29 



This number of the Monthly 
comes forth in a new, and we hope 
111 an improved form. In order to 
extend its influence we earnestly 
solicit the contributions and sub- 
scriptions of the Alumni. We are 
quite sure that your affection for 
whatever pertains to the University 
could be crystalized into a silver 
dollar, and if this were timely remit 
ted wolud serve to advauce the 
common object of our efforts, the 
fame of our Institution and the 
worth of our grand old Societies. 
The Alumni of the University are 
found wherever fame has a refuge 
and honor a home. It is in their 
power then to make the Monthly 
creditable to their Alma Mater, or 
by their listless indiference to al- 
low it to perish by inches, thus 
leaving a stain upon theliterary Societies. 
Which will you do ? 



Ye who burn midnight oil and 
drive the midnight pen give 
heed ! In order to stimulate con 
tribution and to awaken a more 
lively interest in our infant Month- 
ly, the members of the editorial 
staff have passed the following 
resolution : 

Resolved, That a copy of Shake- 
spear, handsomely bound in gilt 
and Morocco, be awarded to any 
subscriber who is a member of the 
University and who shall contribute 
the best essay. The article to be 
contributed by the 18th of Novem- 
ber 1882, The award shall be 
made by the editorial staff. Com 
petitors are required to give real 
name to the editor of the literary 
department." 

It is earnestly hoped this action 
of the staff will have the desired 



effect Indepent of the benefit 
that the magazine will derive from 
this contest of wit and talent, will 
be the advantage gained by the 
writers themselves. This country 
is ruled by the pens of hergreat 
writers and writers become great 
only by constant practice and trials 
of strength. Remember that the 
prize is not restricted to any class. 
Law students, medical students 
and even freshmen are alike eligi- 
ble. . 

EXCHANGES. 
There are fewer exchanges on our 
table this month than usual, owing, 
doubtless, to the fact that we have 
been away on our Summer vacation 
of fun and frolic. However, we 
have returned, and this copy is to 
inform all our contemporaries that 
the Monthly is still in the land of 
the living, and intends to be vigor- 
ous and wide-awake. 

The September number of At 
Home and Abroad is before us. It is 
an especially entertaining one, and 
reflects much credit on its editors. 
Its contents are varied, having 
something for young and old— for 
thetrained thinker and the thought- 
less romance reader. This is a 
bona fide Southern periodical and 
should be in the hands of every 
one. 

The New York Sun of the 7th in- 
stant has an interesting article on 
the speeches of Brewster and In- 
gersoll in the Star Route trial. 
Compariug the two speakers, their 
manner and eloquence show that 
they are disciples of totally different 
schools ot oratory. Ingersoll's de- 
fense of Mrs. Dorsey's being at her 
husband's side during the trial is a 



30 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



gem. "There is, 7 ' says he, "a paint- 
ing in the Louvre— a paiuting of 
desolation, despair and love. » It 
represents the "Night of Crucifix- 
ion." The world is wrapped in 
shadow, the stars are dead : and 
yet in the darkness is seen a kneel- 
ing form. It is Mary Magdalen, 
with loving lips and hands pressed 
against the blessed feet of Christ. 
The skies were never dark enough 
nor starless enough, the storm was 
never fierce enough nor wild 
enough, the quick bolts of heaven 
were never lurid enough, and the 
arrows of slander never flew thick 
enough to drive a noble woman 
from her husband's side. And so 
it is in all human speech— the holi- 
est word is "woman." 

Though this is an off-year in pol- 
itics, yet from what we can gather 
from the State papers— and they 
are brim full of politics— a very hot 
and exciting campaign is ahead. 
Even such big guns as Senators 
Eansom and Vance are on the 
stump making telling speeches. The 
Asheville Citizen quotes a person 
who heard Ransom at Waynesville 
assaying: "Such a speech from 
such a man will carry any party 
through triumphantly." 

No college journal has put in its 
appearance at our desk yet. We 
suppose our brother editors are, 
like us, late iu getting out the first 
issue of the collegiate year. 

The Fayetteville Examiner, Ashe- 
ville Citizen, New Berne Journal, and 
other State papers will please ac- 
cept thanks for courtesies extended. 



PERSONAL. 
Fresh I 

Fresh ! I Fresh 1 1 1 
Seventy-five " on 'em." 
Some smart, some not,most!y not. 

Some handsome, some un-hand- 
some, mostly un. 

Wilmington sends two, Charlotte 
three, and Raleigh two. The cities 
should do better. 

Upon the whole a remarkable lot; 
not for beauty, size, intelligence, 
quality or number, but remarkable 
right raw, se. Freshmen, we con- 
gratulate you. 

If there should be no drought, 
nor too much rain, it is very prob- 
able that the number of students 
this year at this Institution will be 
more than two hundred. 

Adams, "Galesi" is wrassling 
with the young idea in Tennessee, 
with the odds in favor of the y. i. 

The Tuneful Lyre has not re- 
turned, but when last heard from 
he was sweeping the responsive 
strings with his accustomed master 
strokes. 



Tom Vance is in Lenoir county, 
preparing for his examination be- 
fore the Supreme Court. 



"My son Joshua" is supposed to 
be teaching school in or near "Fed- 
vull. 7 ' We are not prepared to state 
whether he uses his eleventh Angel- 
as an assistantor his eleventh finger 
uses him as an assistant. Will en- 
quire. 

Emile Alexander de Schweinitz, 
we have been informed, will start a 
dancing school in Winston next 
Fall. His name would bring suc- 
cess to any one iu any business. We 
wish though he would drop the "de" 
it is so intensely useless. 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



31 



McFurgerson is studying law. 

Bill Erwin, '81, is doing the same 
iu Hendersouville. 

Ben Sharp will stand tor his 
license this Fall, 

Do you wish to be considered ec- 
centric? Don't study Law. 

Tom Mayhew is at Dick & Dil- 
lard's Law school, Greensboro. 

Bob Winborne is in Washington, 
D. C,, attending Columbia Law 
School. 

A dog sniffling a senior's heels 
was called a (s)centre of gravity, 
mighty poor joke. 

Allen T. Davidson, Jr., is scuf- 
fling with Blackstone in Asheville. 
He still longs for the q.t's. 

Et-tu-Brute Peebles is somewhere 
in Northampton county asleep. 
Down there the doctors prescribe 
liim instead of laudanum. 

A Freshman informs us that he 
hears so much u oussiu" in these parts 
that it makes him homesick. Kind 
reader, draw your own inference. 

Beaman, John R. Jr., some one 
tells us, is soon to enter Hymeus 
rosy-hued realms. That's right, 
John, we admire your pluck. 

William Alexander Jenkins, we 
hear, has joined the matrimonial 
army marching on iu solid phalanx 
to the poor house. Is it true ! We 
breathlessly await an answer. 

"Ex" Ransom paid us a short 
visit last week, on his way home 
from 'the western part of the State. 
He is looking very well, and has a 
moustache of the modest, retiring, 
backward kiu$, the only thing de- 
cided about it, is its location, being 



where moustaches generally are. 
Intends to read Law, (ex, not the 
moustache). 

David Amzi Hampton is doing 
nothing but suffering with a bad 
case of the name. His physiciaus 
are afraid they will be obliged to 
resort to amputation. 

Noble, M, C. S. , has charge of the 
Graded Schools in Wilmiuoton; 
Alderman, Ed., assistant iu Golds- 
boro Graded sehools; Jackson, Juo, 
in Raleigh 5 Mclver, Charles, fills 
the same position in Durham, and 
White, R. S., in Fa,\ eteville. Those 
interested iu education are begin- 
ning to recognize the excellency of 
the training given at this Institu- 
tion. 

McAlister, "Eck.'' and Charles 
Millender, assistants in Bingham's 
School. Another tribute to the 
University from one of the foremost 
Southern educators. 

A Freshman was seen standing 
in front of the chapel weeping bit- 
terly. A Soph enquired in a very- 
solicitous-f o r-t h e-Freshman's-wel- 
fare tone of voice, — '.' What y're 
sniffling 'bout V Freshman raised 
his tear-furrowed face, gave answer, 
and said — " I can't helf from crying 
every time I seethe chapel, it looks 
so much like my father's barn, and 
I get awful homesick." 

We are pleased to see among us 
again Bob Albertson, Will Adams 
and Jim Rouse, all of the class of 
'81. They are looking well, no per- 
ceptible change in any of them ex- 
cepting Will Adams who has a 
moustache, it's hardly perceptible 
though. They are in the law-class. 



32 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



i 



There is a Fresh in Colh ge who 
plays an aecardion. He will be 
dealt with aecordionly. Whew. 

Our .young friend 7 Dick Neal, is 
with as again this year. The blazed- 
faoe call-look clings to him with a 
pertinacity worthy of a better 
cause. 

Jim Ruffin, class '81, is with the 
Messrs, Fries in Salem, learning the 
cottou mill business. He is the only 
eccentric member of his class. 

Bill Slade, '80, is in the Insurance 
business in Augusta, Ga, We are 
anxious to know if he still wears 
his old I've-just come-t'romthe-bap* 
tiziu'-look. 

We will be glad to hear from any 
of the Alumni. Where they are ; 
what they are doing; what are 
their matrimonial prospects. 

"Sandlapper" hath returned con- 
siderably improved, but left the im- 
provements in his far mountain 
home, we relate with sorrow. He 
was offered the chair of Belles-let- 
tres in 'PossumCollege,but declined. 

samNevuie is not in good health ; be 
lost sixty five pounds during the 
past Summer; he is. still a chromo 
of health though, weighing 248 lbs. 
Give Sam a strong knife, and fork 
to suit, and he will breed a famine 
in any country in three days. 

Chapel Hill chickens are as fear- 
fully and as wonderfully made as 
ever. For the benefit of those who 
are engaged in collecting curiosities 
we will state that they consist of 
only backs and wings with necks 
which may be likened unto cabbage- 
stalks. Apply at Hotel. 



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1% §«iumiig 




Vol. I 



OCTOBER, 1882. 



No. 6. 



A YEAR'S COURTSHIP. 



BY HENRY TIMROD. 



I saw her, Harry, first in March — 

You know the street that leadeth down 

By the old bridge's crumbling arch? 
Just where it leaves the dusty town, 

A lonely house stands grim and dark— 
You've seen it ? then I need not say 

How quaint the place is— did you mark 
An ivyed window ? Well ! one day, 

I chasing some forgotten dream, 

And in a poet's idlest mood. 
Caught, as I passed, a white hand's gleam— 

A shutter opened — there she stood 

Twining the ivy to its prop; 

Two dark eyes and a brow of snow 
Flashed down upon me— did I stop ? 

She says I did — I do not know. 

But all that day did something glow 

Just where the heart beats, frail and slight, 

A germ had slipped its shell, and now 
"Was pushing softly for the light. 

And April saw me at her feet, 
Dear month of sunshine and of rain ! 

My very fears wGfe sometimes sweet, 
And hope was often touched with pain, 

For she was frank, and she was coy, 

A willful April in her ways ; 
And in a dream of doubtful joy 

I passed some truly April days. 



34 THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



May came, and on that arch, sweet mouth, 
The smile was graver in its play, 

And, softening with the softening South, 
My April melted into May. 

She loved me, yet my heart would doubt, 
And ere I spoke the month -w as June- 
One warm still night we wandered out 
To watch a slowly setting moon. 

Something which I saw not— my eyes 
Were not on heaven— a star, perchance, 

Or some bright drapery of the skies, 
Had caught her earnest, upper glance. 

And as she paused— Hal ! we have played 

Upon the very spot— a fir 
Just touched me with its dreamy shade, 

But the full moonlight fell on her— 

And she paused— I know not why— 
I longed to speak, yet could not speak ; 

The bashful are the boldest— I— 
I stooped and gently kissed her cheek. 

A murmur (else some fragrant air 
Stirred softly) and the faintest start— 

O Hal ! we were the happiest pair I 
O Hal ! I clasped her heart to heart I 

And kissed away some tears that gushed; 

But how she trembled, timid dove, 
When my soul broke its silence, flushed 

With a whole burning June of love. 

Since then a happy year hath sped 

Through mouths that seeined all June and May, 
And soon a Marc.li sun overhead, 

Will usher in the crowning clayv 

Twelve blessed mo6ns that seemed to glow 1 ' "■"' 
All summer, Hal !• my peerless Kate ! n ' 

She is the dearest-i'<Ahgel -?"— no I 
Thank God!— but you shall see her— wait. 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



r>5 



So all is told ! I couut on thee 

To the see the priest, Hal ! Pass the wine ! 
Here's to my darling wife to be ! 

And here's to — when thou find'st her — thine ! 



A GLANCE AT THE POETRY OF TIMROD. 



A change has taken place in the 
literature of the South. Compara- 
tive apathy as to books has been 
followed, of late years, by an 
earnest desire on the part of our 
people to speak in the enduring 
form of letters. Old methods are 
giving way to new. Doggerel and 
commonplace fiction are no longer 
applauded. The literary amateur 
of yesterday is eclipsed by the pro- 
fessional author of to-day. In a 
word, the field of literature is cul 
tivated with unprecedented dili- 
gence, and we trust that it will 
soon wave with the harvest of per- 
ennial success. 

We note with pleasure this indi- 
cation of progress in the South. It 
is the harbinger of great literary 
achievement. Our people have 
been slow to utilize their abilities 
in this field. Their part in the 
" making of books" is not reputable 
when we regard the power of the 
Southern mind. They have lightly 
esteemed literature as a profession. 
Nay, they have even suffered their 
own men of genius to languish and 
die through lack of recognition 
and encouragement. 
I Such was the lot of Henry Tim- 
Fod. His life was spent in pov- 
erty, and he died in the prime ot 
manhood, disappointed, neglected, 
crushed. Encomiums that were 



withheld from the fainting spirits 
of the living poet, are fruitlessly 
lavished upon his memory. We 
feel now that from an obscure grave 
has come forth a reputation instinct 
with immortality, It is meet, there- 
fore, that we should know some- 
thing of him who sleeps in this 
grave. It is not our purpose, how- 
ever, in this sketch to be either 
thorough or profound. Our only 
object is to revive an interest in 
the life and work of the ablest poet 
the South has yet produced. 

It is well known that Timrod was 
a disciple of the Woidsworthian 
school. While he undoubtedly 
drew inspiration from the Lakers, 
his thoughts, diction, and style are 
preeminently his own. What first 
strikes us in his poetry is its health- 
tulness. It is void of that morbid 
sentimentality and affected moodi- 
ness which crude rhymsters regard 
the one thing needful in poetry. It 
uniformly elevates the soul of the 
reader. In many instances it pre- 
sents a high style of the morally 
beautiful. That the production of 
one, the cup of whose life over- 
flowed with draughts of extreme 
bitterness, whose cherished hope 
sickened and ,died beneath the 
frown of dread poverty, should tell 
so little of Lis manifold cares 
seems remarkable. There is 



no 



36 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



arraignment of Providence, no mur- 
muring, no Byronism. He looked 
beyond these things of erth. He 
did lasting service in combating 
the false notion that God must be 
discerned only through the material 
universe. It is not uncommon in 
this degenerate day to see, even 
amongst poets and philosophers, a 
gradual change from religious fer 
vor into colduess, and from cold- 
ness into avowed unbelief. This 
turuing from the truth always af- 
fects the mind. Let those who 
doubt this fact recur to the works 
of Harriet Martineau and George 
Eliot. Even Tennyson, with all 
his godlike powers, has suffered his 
eyes to be blinded by what has 
been called the cross lights of op- 
timism and pessimism.' The dif- 
ference between the skeptical poet 
and the believing is this: the one 
looks upon the universe with a sort 
of abstract reverence j the other 
traces Omnipotence in earth, air, 
and sky— finding in the lush green 
j;rass, in the fantastic cloud, and 
in the domed firmament, a message 
from God to man. With such a 
message was Timrod entrusted, 
and right loyally did he serve his 
generation. 

Besides this spirit of healthful- 
ness which pervades all that he 
has written, we regard his admira- 
ble finish as a marked character- 
istic of his poetry. While he is by 
no menus "faultily faultless," he 
proceeds upon the principle that 
excellence in verse, as in all things 
else, is the result of work. It did 
not repent him to declare his dis- 
belief in the power of momentary 
inspiration over the limal labor m 
the attainment of perfection. En- 



dowed with the poetic sentiment, 
and with an intuitive judgment as 
to the true and the false, he never 
theless strove to subject his geuius 
to the highest canons of art. He 
wrote with ever increasing delicacy. 
He wished to clothe his gospel iu 
faultless attire, and steadily cher- 
ished the hope that his purpose 
might be effected. So he should 
have done. The poet cannot af- 
ford to ignore the beautiful. In- 
deed, Beauty is the " sole legitimate 
province of the poem,"—'- its at- 
mosphere and its essence.'' Espe- 
cially should this element not be 
disregarded when the writer has a 
definite object in view. The poet 
that would lead men must excite 
the imagination, elevate the soul, 
and take captive the will. This 
theory, we know, has often led to 
the gross folly of sacrificing sense 
to sound, of placing barren poetic 
finish above the all-important quali- 
ty of spiritual richness. Timrod 
was too genuine a poet not to 
escape this weakness. His scrupu- 
lous care as to artistic finish, how- 
ever, is relieved by an occasional 
insouciance, which adds greatly to 
the effectiveness of the poetry. 

Then, too, in some of his verses 
we catch glimpses of a delicate, 
sportive humor that intimate what 
the poet might have done had his 
aspirations not been checked. Alas 
for Southern pride, that want, ruth- 
less and stern, should have chilled 
the " genial current of his soul !" 

Let us now enter upon a general 
survey of our author's poems, with- 
out regard to chronological ar- 
rangement. We notice first that re- 
markable series relatiug to the war. 
Their place iu Southeru literature 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



37 



is unique. We know of nothing to 
which they may more aptly be 
likened than to one of the immortal 
groups of Phidias. "Through them 
all speaks a greatness of soul, and 
power of poetic expression that 
flows with such simple naturalness 
and so melodious a rhythm as wius 
its way to the htart at once, and 
has the air of springing spontane- 
ous from the impetus of noble 
thought within.'' 

Ethnogenesis— the birth of a na- 
tion—was written during the 
meeting of the first Southern Con- 
gress at Montgomery, February, 
1861. It was penned when the 
future of the Confederacy was all 
purple and gold. It recites the 
buoyant hopes, and the vague fears 
of the Southerner's heart. Exquis- 
ite in finish, opulent in the use of 
Saxon words, and high- wrought, 
yet uuimpassioned, it holds the first 
rank in Timrod's poetry. We give 
the concluding stanza : 

But let our fears— if fears we have— be still, 
And turn us to the future ! could we climb 
Some mighty Alp, and view the coming time, 
The rapturous sight would fill 

Our eyes with happy tears ! 
Not only for the glory which the years 
Shall bring us ; not for lands from sea to sea, 
And wealth, and power, and peace, though these 

shall be ; 
But for the distant people we shall bless. 
And the hushed murmur of a world's distress : 
For, to give labor to the poor, 

The whole sad planet o'er, 
And save from want and crime the humblest door, 
Is one among the many ends for which 

God makes us great and rich ! 
The hour perchance is not yet wholly ripe 
When all shall own it, but the type 
' Whereby we shall be known in every land 
Is that vast gulf which lips our Southern strand, 
And through the cold, untempered ocean pours 
Its genial streams, that far off Arctic shores 
May some times catch upon the softened breeze 
Strange tropic warmth and hints of summer seaa. 

Nowhere within the range of 
English literature can be found 



finer lyrics than "A Cry to Arms,*' 
and " Carolina." The lines on the 
latter, says Col. Hayne, " are des- 
tined perhaps to outlive the politi- 
cal validity of the State, whose 
antique fame they celebrate." We 
notice in this poem the adaptation 
of the metre to the thought. This 
is a quality of high merit, form 
often going for more than we think. 
Besides the tire of these lines, the 
delicate imagery, the graceful 
movement, and the splendid pause 
are admirable, as the following ex- 
tract shows : 

The despot treads the sacred sands, 
Thy pines give shelter to his bands, 
Thy sons stand by with idle hands, 

Carolina 1 
Call on thy children of the hill, 
Wake swamp and river, coast and rill, 
Rouse all thy strength and aU thy skill, 

Carolina ! 

I hear a murmur as of waves 

That grope their way through sunless caves, 

Like bodies struggling in their graves, 

Carolina ! 

And now it deepens ; slow and grand 
It swells, as rolling to the land, 
An ocean broke upon thy strand, 

Carolina ! 

Shout ! let it reach the startled Huns ! 
And war with all thy festal guns ! 
It is the answer of thy son s, 

Carolina ! 



" To the Unknown Dead," " Car- 
men T iumphale," and "Spring,'' 
although mingled with the " fire of 
war-like ardor,'' breathe, neverthe- 
less, a deep and genuine tenderness 
of soul. The last of these poems, 
especially, while the subject is trite, 
has an inexpressable charm. Who 
can read it without ever-increasing 
delight? It is bright and fresh as 
the morning sunbeam, musical as 
the voiceful brook, and tender as 
the patriot's love. Take, for in- 
stance, the last two stanzas : 

Oh ! standing on this desecrated mould, 
Methinks that I behold, 



ss 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



Lilting her bloody daisses up to God, 
Hiring kneeling on the sod, 

And calling, with the voice of all her rills» 
TJpon the aneient hills 

Jo fall and crush the tyrants and the slaves 
Who turn her meads to graces. 

It was maintained by Edgar Al- 
len Poe that a long poem does not 
exist. No poem that fails to excite 
by .- levating the soul is worthy of 
its title. The value of verse is 
measured by this elevating excite- 
ment ; and by a principle of psy- 
chology all excitements are tran- 
sient. The phrase "a long poem," 
then, is a contradiction in terms. It 
is natural to suppose that Titnrod 
accepted this dictum. With one 
exception, all his productions are 
short, The longest and most pre- 
tentious is called "A Vision of 
Poesy." Its purpose is to explain 
the nature of the poetical faculties, 
and the laws by which they are 
governed. We are sorry that the 
limits of this paper prevents us 
irom analyzing this poem as its 
length and merit demands. 

We have intimated that it was 
Timrod's fortune to drink a bitter 
cup. Sorrow and disappointment 
attended him through life. Poverty 
damped his energies, and checked 
the noblest aspirations of his soul. 
The rod of affliction was seldom 
stayed. The hand of fate led him 
along a dark path. But his pros 
pects finally brightened, and a hap- 
pier life, which had hitherto been 
only a cherished, hope, became a 
romantic realization. He had long 
been attached to Miss Kate Good- 
win, a young lady of English par- 
entage, but now a resident of 
Charleston. His love for her was 
deep and ardent. He embalmed 
her name in his verses ; he regard- 



ed her as 'the very pearl of woman- j 
kind," Having, as editor and pro- 
prietor of The South Carolinian, se- 1 
cured a moderate competence y he 1 
brought home his bride on the 16th 
of February, J8G4.. Christmas eve j 
afforded a new joy in the birth of 
! Willie, hi 8 only child. But the? J 
fathers song of welcome had hard- I 
ly died away when the boy was 
taken from him by the cold hand 
of death, Tim rod's happiness was 
now buried with bis child. Pat- 
riotism had struck a new chord in 
his bosom, but surely parental j 
love found utterance in verses ! 
sweeter than he had ever before I 
written. In ** A Mother's Wail," 
addressing his child, he thus sighs- j 
his sorrow : 

Where art thou now t If somewhere in the sky 
An angel hold thee in his radiant arms, 

I challenge him to clasp thy tender form 
With half the fervor of a mother'* love I 

Time would fail us to dwell on 
the sonnet which Timrod, as a dis- 
ciple of Wordsworth, ardently ad-, j 
miied, and the merits of which he 
admirably set forth. He claims 
for it a proud distinction. He 
claims that it is not more artificial 
than all forms of verse ; that it is 
not the offspring of a " mystical 
inspiration" or "sublimated mad- 
ness." It is the embodiment of 
one idea, unity being the law by 
which its length is determined. 
This, indeed, is one of its chief 
merits. '♦ Brief as the Sonnet is," 
says the author, " the whole power 
of a poet has sometimes been ex- 
emplified within its narrow bounds 
as completely as within the com- 
pass of an epic! Thought is inde- 
pendent of space ; and it would 
hardly -be an exaggeration to say 
that the poet— the minister of 






THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 39 



thought— enjoys an equal inde- 
pendence." 

Speculation as to what Timrod 
might have achieved had his life 
toeen prolonged, were a venture 
•equally difficult and uncertain. He 
wrote at an unfortunate period. 
Men were borne hither and thither 
on the surging billows of passion. 
Hate with its leprous hand pollut- 
ed every spring of happiness. 
Trifling amusements were forgot- 
ten. Professional duties were lost 
sight of in the all-absorbing effort 
to secure peace and revive the pros- 



trate South. It is natural, then, 
that literary merits should have 
been neglected, and that the poet 
in asking bread should have re- 
ceived a stone. But the time is 
fast coming when the dews of grate- 
ful and appreciative love will re- 
fresh the bays that crown the brow 
of Carolina's gifted son of song. 

" And therefore, though, thy name shall pass away, 

Even as a cloud that hath wept all its showers, 

Yet as that oloud shall live again one day 

In the glad grass, and in the happy flowers, 

So in thy thought, tho' clothed in sweeter rhymes, 

Thy life shall bear its flowers in future times." 

Ignotus. 



FAME. 

JTrom Detroit Free Press.] 

■" I don't wish to discourage you, but lately I've been filled 

With certain strong misgivings, sou, that somehow won't be stilled 5 

There's something tells me plain as words, that you, with all your wit, 
Have erred in marking out your course, and you'll repent of it 

*' The time will come when you will sigh, had I but only known 
What I do now, the good old farm, with ail its hills and stone, 

Would not have driven me away to find where hope is dead, 
That Fame does not bestow her wreath on any sort of head. 

*' I'm talking plainly, that I know, but, Ruben, mind you this, 
That Fame's a far off target that a million marksmen miss, 

Then, some fine <lay a shot is heard that rings throughout the land, 
And Genius pops the bull's-eye square, with steady eye and hand. 

" You may turn out a genius, Rube ^ I r'aly hope you will ; 

You know Fame's temple crowns the top of an enormous hill, 
And tens of thousands bound that way, with resolution stiff, 

Have found their way completely blocked by a stupendous l W 

u This ' If is very hard to climb, it seems to touch the moon, 

Montgolfier went over in his primeval balloon- 
But all along the way this side you'll hear the dreary moans 

Of the * rising'Smith and Jenkins, and the '* gifted' Brown and Jones. 

«'Now, Ruben, when you reach that 'If you^shows good judgment, son, 
By striking cross-lots (] for the farm and homefolks on a run; ■ ■. -. ;i 

Stay there and toil as I have done, and you may get to be . . , ; _ , , , 
A deacon in the church, perhaps, or, may be, a school trustee,- 

«' All that be blowedr Well, gOiyour tejjfe you'll have my earnest pray 'r^ 
We'll always keep in order, son, jjbur cozy bed up stairs, •,. '' u .,.„, 

For you may yet return, convinced 11 fhat wreaths of fame are rare, 
And that y out' old ^fisw^hat be^stlsuits the color of your hair." 



40 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE DECLINE OF PERSECUTION. 



To this favored age of civil and 
religious liberty it seems scarcely 
credible that the rack and fagot 
were ever numbered among the 
proselyting agents of the christian 
church. 

But the blood-stained pages of 
ecclesiastical history sdence the de- 
murs of a willing skepticism. ''The 
church of Rome,' 7 we find gravely 
recorded, "has shed more innocent 
blood than any other institution that 
has ever existed among mankind." 
Nor can Protestantism point to a 
record untarnished by the accusing 
stains of persecution. Luther, Cal- 
vin, Knox and Cranmer were alike 
zealous advocates of coercive 
measures, and to such methods of 
persuasion, we are forced to admit, 
is the triumph of their cause too 
largely referable. 

That the church of Christ should 
have thus for centuries lit up the 
hills and dales of Europe with tie 
sombre fires of martyrdom is a 
irightful inconsistency which it 
would be natural to stigmatize as 
the outgrowth of studied hypocrisy 
and wanton cruelty. But it is a 
superficial philosophy that brands 
with such a nature the intolerant 
policy of the church. The history 
of persecution, pagan or christian, 
proves incontestably the piety and 
benevolence of many of its most 
conspicuous characters. It was not 
the enibruted Commodus that tor- 
tured the helpless infancy of Chris- 
tianity, but the patriotic and saint- 
ly Aurelius. It was the devout 
and gentle Isabella that drove into 
cruel exile the Jew and Morisco, 
and surrendered to the sickening 



tortures of the inquisition the res- 
olute champion of heresy. 

It was, indeed, by the very ardor 
of their faith that men were warmed 
into persecution. The repressive 
policy of the church was inspired, 
not by unscrupulous ambition, but 
by the natuie of certain of her ten- 
ets and the vividness with which 
men realized their truth. The in- 
stinctive conservatism of a superior 
power had led the church to cling 
to every dogma that had received 
her sanctiou, and to braud the spirit 
of doubt and inquiry as the direct 
instigation of the devil. In an age 
of deep superstition and ignorance, 
she easily constrained men to regard 
blind credulty as clref in the hier- 
archy of virtues, and o refer every 
question of religion to the tribunals 
of tradition and established author- 
ity. 

It is not surprising that the easy 
creditor of the dogmas of patriotic 
and papal infallibility should be- 
lieve the most revolting dogmas — 
and to the devotee of a creed in- 
spiring absolute conviction no ordi- 
nance cau appear too rigorous An 
age of ardent faith in* the total 
depravity of human nature very 
naturally sought spiritual purifi- 
cation in the austerity of the anchor- 
ite. In such an age, when celibacy 
ranked high in christian ethics, St. 
Chrjsostom could even speak of 
woman, the most precious gem in 
the casket of creation, as being "a 
necessary evil, a desirable calamity, 
a deadly lacination, and a painted 
ill.'' Iu the ethical philosophy of un- 
reserved adherents to the doctrines 
of exclusive salvation and the guilt 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



41 



of error, the terrible Inquisition 
was consistently a legitimate insti- 
tution. The heretic, in the e.\es ot 
such men necessarily appeared a 
moral lunatic whose mad frenzy 
was inflicting on many around him 
a death of endless agony, and one 
whose career it was an imperative- 
duty in anywise to arrest. 

What mighty agents have achiev- 
ed the glorious revolution ot relig 
ious sentiment that has since made 
freedom of thought and conscience 
the most sacred and inviolable ot 
human rights? What subtle al- 
chemy has so transmutted the 
ethical nature of persecution that 
Theology herself now shudders 
with horror at the contemplation ot 
h^r ensanguined record f 

It is a mistaken view of Mr. 
Buckle that to a decline of Chris 
tian faith is society indebted for the 
priceless boon of religious liberty. 
Dogmas once universally credited 
have, most certainly, been exploded 
in the course of intellectual develop 
tneut. But unfalterieg allegiance 
to Gospel truth, as rationally inter- 
preted, still finds deep lodgment in 
the Christian heart. The devoted 
blood of martyrs would flow as 
freely in this century of progress 
as when the hideous bonfires of 
burning Christians illuminated the 
gardens of Nero. 

The decline of religious intoler- 
ance is not referable to a corres- 
ponding decline of faith, but to the 
spirit of liberality engendered,by a 
revolution in modes of thought. 
Questions ot religion have been 
removed, in the march of human 
intellect, from the original and exclu- 
sive jurisdiction of the priest to the 
concurrent arbitrament of the layman. 



Confidence in the truth and regard 
for it have not been abated. Men 
have simply learned to regard the 
exercise of private judgment as a 
right and a duty, and recognized 
the absurdity and injustice of brand- 
ing as criminal the conclusion at 
which it honestly arrives. 

The agents most influential in 
propagating the spirit of liberalism 
have been Philosophy and Com 
merce. Their beneticent influence 
began to operate in the same golden 
age of the Renaissance. The long 
slumbering intellect of Europe, re- 
vived and improved by the stimu- 
lating draughts of ancient wisdom 
then burst into new and wonderlul 
activity. Before the tribunal of 
awakened intelligence the claims 
of the church for temporal supre- 
macy no longer found a wonted re- 
cognition. Euglaud severed with 
indignation her incongruous rela- 
tions with the Roman See, and con- 
tinental capitals showed symptoms 
of growing insubordination. 

A great victory had been won for 
the cause of religious liberty. O' e 
link in the chains of priest-ridden 
Christendom was broken, and the 
complete emancipation of the cap- 
tive was an assured consummation 
of the future. 

The spirit of philosophical inqui- 
ry had been likewise liberated to a 
great extent from the fetters of 
dogmatic theology. The sublime 
speculations of Plato and Socrates 
had inspired men's souls to leap the 
narrow bounds of orthodoxy in the 
pursuit of truth. The Monk of 
Mittenberg dwelt with increasing 
scepticism on certain absurd ten- 
ets of the Church, and startled the 
world with his bold protestations. 



42 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



With the body and brain of Eu- 
rope thus freer! from the oppression 
of Rome, the death knell of relig- 
ious intolerance seemed already 
to have been sounded. But the real 
value of the Reformation was iu 
the new freedom of thought and 
discussion that it awakens. Luther 
prospered the cause of religious 
liberty more by influence of his ex- 
ample than by the creed he formu- 
lated. He rose in rebellion against 
a dogma, it is true, but shared him- 
self the narrow spirit of dogmatism. 
He overthrew one system of relig- 
ious tyranny but to succeed it 
with another. Iu the pointed an- 
tithesis of McCaula.y " he urged 
reason against the authority of one 
opponent, but, with guilty incon- 
sistency, urged authority against 
the reason of another. 7 ' 

It was reserved for Philosophy, 
seconded, it is true, by growing in- 
dustrial enterprise, to confer upon 
mankind the priceless right of 
worshipping according to the dic- 
tates of conscience and reason.— 
She it was that revealed the ab 
surdity of founding faith upon 
blind credulity and taught men to 
refer every question of religion to 
the impartial tribunal of reason 
The inductive logic of Bacon had 
warned the scientific investigator 
to set aside the ipse digit of ancient 
scientists, and to deduce no conclu- 
sion from an unverified premise. 
The method that inaugurated so 
glorious a revolution in science be- 
came speedily transferred to reli- 
gious iuquiry. Dogmas bearing 
patriotic and papal endorsement no 
longer gained credit until tested as 
well in the crucible of private rea- 
son. 



■ It was the inability to consider) 
questions from but a single stand- j 
point that had led men to regard : 
religious opposition as wilfully per-f 
verse. The two knights of the] 
story resorted to physical methods j 
of persuasiou because an exchange \ 
of positions did not reveal to their 
gaze the bimetallic nature of the J 
shield iu dispute. When questions I 
came to be passed upon by the in- 
dividualjudgment, the imaginative j 
faculty of men became capable of ' 
conceiving that difference of re- 
ligious opinion is compatible with j 
honest conviction and to this iutel- ] 
lectual development is the decline 
of persecution chiefly referable. 
The seuse of justice inherent in the 
heart has demanded and secured . 
for the orthodox and heretical alike j 
immunity for the expression of 
honestly entertained opiuious. 

It is sad for the (Jhrjstiau to re- 
flect that the cradle of religious 
liberty should have been rocked by 
the irreverent band of scepticism. 
But this law of re-actiou is opera- 
tive not iu the physical world 
alone. The French revolution 
against the grinding despotism of 
centuries could have been inaugu- 
rated ouly by a reign of terror. 
Even so "if one age believes too 
much it is a natural reaction that 
ano her should believe too little." 
It was inevitable that the long neg- 
lected cause of free thought should 
fire her votaries with intemperate 
zeal. The skeptical philosophy of 
Moutaigue, Discartes, aud Voltair 
but expressed the natural impa- 
tience of restraint of a newly 
emancipated intellect. But it was 
Rationalism that contemplating the 
immense variety of opinions held 






THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 



4a 



with equal confidence by men o f 
equal ability, first proclaimed the 
absolute innocence of honest error 
and the monstrous iniquity of per- 
secution. Let a grateful posterity 
view with charity her vagaries in 
remembrance of her inestimable 
services. 

But while the liberalizing influ- 
ence of philanthropy has been thus 
weighty, it is equally true that the 
change in man's religious tempers 
has been largely produced by the 
change in their occupations. The 
growth of industrial enterprise, in 
diminishing the frequency and 
cruelty of war, has naturally soft- 
ened the human heart and abated 
the horrors of persecution. As 
men have been brought into closer 
relations, they have been forced to 
recognize high moral qualities in 
adherence of opposing creeds— and 
we cannot remain intolerant to 
those whom we have learned to love 
and revere. The christian Richard 
could not regard as an infamous 
miscreant the infidel Saladiu after 
the chivalry and courage of the 
Arabian prince had won his admi- 
ration. 

The spirit of industry has like- 
wise promoted the cause of liberal 
ideas by reason of its emiuently 
practical character. In the fiercest 
days of religious persecution the 
Jew possessed a safeguard in his 
commercial importance and value. 
The worth of every industrious 
citizen to society has been the more 
clearly recognized in the progress 
of commercial enterprise, and the 
spread of utilitarian ideas has in 
sured his protection. " The habit 
of mind that distinguishes the in- 
dustrial character," so says an em- 



writer, u leads men to cars 



iuent 

very little about principles and very 

much about results.'' The market 

square takes but little heed of the 

religious character of vender or of 

vendee. 

But though the fires of martyr- 
dom have been thus long since ex- 
tinguished, the spirit of intolerance 
that kindled them has but weaken- 
ed its grasp on the human heart. 
In our own boasted land of civil 
and religious liberty,we yet behold 
narrow and besotted prejudice 
warping the judgment and iuflam- 
ingthe passions of men. 
In religion, the illiberal sentiment 
" Orthodoxy is my doxy and heter- 
odoxy is any otherdoxy '' excites a 
spirit of clannishness and rivalry 
in every denomination. How wide- 
ly even christian intercourse is af- 
fected by difference of creed is 
painfully revealed by inspection of 
the social sets and circles of any 
community. 

In politics, as well, the old spirit 
of intolerance is but the more con- 
spicuously displayed. It does not 
fulfil the conditions of political 
liberty that men should be allowed 
to vote and be held theoretically 
equal before the law. Where So- 
ciety does not absolutely indemnify 
the expression of unpopular politi- 
cal views, constitutional freedom 
becomes a bitter mockery. The 
tyranny of public opinion is far 
more intolerable than the oppres- 
sion of royalty. The heel of des- 
potism may, indeed, crush the body, 
but it is the spirit that writhes in 
the pangs of mortified pride be- 
neath the scoffs and sneers of a 
partisan society. In this most ad- 
vanced of centuries, the mass of 



44 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



mankind is yet unable to view po- 
litical opposition with charity and 
liberality. Men yet undergo, for 
conscience sake, martyrdom, not 
of ttie body, it may be, but of the 
soul. 

But we should not despair of tlie 
farther dissemination of liberal 
ideas, in contemplating the present 
narrowness of popular thought. 
Bigotry is, happily, not an inherent 
and irradicable principle of humau 
nature. Ignorance is, and ever has 
been, the citadel of intolerance. 
The long accepted principle of state- 
craft, that every state is the natu 
r.il foe of its neighbor, primarily 
obtained by reason of the slight 
intercourse between nations. It 
has steadily decayed as the peoples 
of the earth have been brought 
into more intimate associations. 
For centuries the French and Eu- 
glish had been accustomed to re 
gard each other in the light of nat- 
ural and hereditary enemies, and 
mainly because each persisted so 
doggedly in letting the other se- 
verely alone. But the Treaty of 
Commerce of 1787, which enabled 
the subjects of both countrios to 
reside and travel in either without 
license or passport, has put an end 
to the long standing feud; aud to- 
day the fiery Gaul and stubborn 
Saxon shake hands across a peace- 
ful channel. 



Hostility to others on account of 
their opinions likewise generally 
arises from lack of acquaintance 
with the facts upon which they are 
based. But few of mankind ever 
examine their own opinions— much 
less the views of others. With the 
many, it is a sufficient reason for 
the faith that is in them that their 
fathers so believed and taught, 
and hence it is that the spirit of 
intolerance so widely prevails. The 
faith of the ignorant is childlike in 
its earnestness, and opposing views 
naturally seem to them perverse. 

But the citadel of ignorance can 
be stormed, aud in that lies the 
hope for the elevation of the mass- 
es to the plane of intelligence and 
liberality. Educatiou .with her 
magic wand hath power to lay low 
the gloomy ramparts and to usher 
the benighted captives into the 
sunlight of truth and liberty, to 
teach them the true pitiableness of 
prejudice and intolerance, and to 
fill their hearts with a love for 
worth aud merit in whomsoever it 
may abide. 

" Then let us pray that come it may, 
As come it will for a' that, 
That sense and worth, o'er a' the earth 
May bear the gree and a' that, 

For a' that, and a' that, 
Ijfc'/s comiog yet for a' that, 
That man to man the world o'er, 
Shall brothers be for a' that." 

Robt. B. Albertson. 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY, 45 



LOST, A BOY. 

He went from the old home hearthstone 
Only two years ago, 
A laughing, frolicking fellow 
It would do you good to know ; 
Since then we have not seen him, 
And we say, with nameless pain, 
The boy we knew and loved so 
We shall never see again. 

One bearing the name we gave him 
Oomes home to us to-day; 
But this is not the dear fellow 
We kissed aud sent away. 
Tall as the man he calls father, 
With a man's look on his face, 
Is he who takes by the hearthstone 
The lost boy's olden place. 

We miss the laugh that made music 
Wherever this lost boy went ; 
This man has a smile most winsome, 
His eyes have a grave intent ; 
We know he is thinking and planing 
His way in the world of men, 
And we cannot help but love him, 
But long for our boy again. 

We are proud of this manly fellow 

Who copies to take his ph>ee, 

With hints of the vanished boyhood 

In his earnest, thoughtful face $ 

And yet comes back the longing 

For the boy we henceforth must miss, 

Whom we sent away from the hearthstone 

Forever with a kiss. 

— Albany Express. 



46 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



NINETY-SECOND ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 



The above is the title of a vol 
ume published in 1875 just after a 
reunion of this regiment. It was 
written by a committee appointed 
for the purpose. We quote an ex- 
tract which will interest our read- 
ers: 

" The Brigade comman ed by General 
Atkins went into camp around the little vil- 
lage of Chapel Hill, one of the prettiest, 
most lovely spots found in all the campaign- 
ing of the Ninety- Second during its three 
years service. The regiment remained in 
eamp three weeks at Chapel Hill, waiting 
for Johnston's surrender, which finally 
transpired. There is little to record in re- 
gard to the Ninety-Second during its stay at 
Chapel Hill. On the evening of the twen- 
ty-second of April, 1865, the Ninety-Second 
boys, with the baud proceeded to the head- 
quarters of General Atkins to serenade him ; 
and finding him absent, they proceeded to 
the residence of ex-Governor Swain, where 
the General was visiting, and strenaded hini 
there. After several pieces of music had 
been played by the Band, they called on the 
General for a speech, when he appeared 
upon the front porch of Governor Swain's 
residence and said ; 



"Soldiers, lam making a speech tor*' 
young lady here to-night, and I have no 
eloquence to waste— she requires it all. The 
war, as I told you it u ould, at Mount Olive, 
has played out, and in less than the ninety 
davs- I then named. I think speech making 
has played out also, except to the young; 
ladies. You must go to your quarters. 1 ' 

The boys went to their quarters 
very sullenly. It w^s the most un- 
popular speech the General ever 
made. Never before, when serenad- 
ed by the men of the Ninety -Second 
—and it had often happened— had 
lie failed to appreciate the compli- 
ment, and had always responded 
cheerfully to their calls for a speech. 
But the General was cross in those 
days to every one, except the girl 
he was making love to. He went 
alf through the war without being 
a prisoner, and was captured at 
last, after the war was over, by the 
youngest daughter of ex-Governor 
Swain, aud he has been her happy 
and contented prisoner ever since. 



A WALK IN OCTOBER. 



October is a good month in which 
to go walking in the woods, and 
along the creeks and through the 
meadows. The only drawback to 
one's felicity upon such occasions 
is in the determined adhesion to 
one's clothes of certain seed-vessels, 
burrs and needles of all sorts, so 
that we return from our rambles 
embroidered all over, so to speak, 
in green and brown. But a true 
lover of the woods will take no ex- 
ception to such tokens of attach- 



ment. I rather like it, for my part, 
that the weeds should clutch at my 
garments in passing, as considering 
me a friend and likely to assist 
their plans for forwarding their 
families in the world. In fact,they 
seem to single me out. I always 
come home with a larger assort- 
ment of "spanish needles" and 
such like on me than any other 
member of the party. 

Start from Chapel Hill in what 
direction you please, you cannot 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



47 



fail to fiud a good walk. Shall we on great freshness, and a uewly- 
go westward to "Huuter's Spring," dropped hickory-nut is clean and 
or the "Twin Sisters f Or shall i fragrant, and suggests winter eve- 
we go northward and roam over | nings. After a while we come upon 
Teuuey's farm, or eastward to the .1 a well-trodden path and strike into 



"Roaring" Fountain and the Presi | 
dent's hill and glen, or southward 
to the "Meeting of the Waters," 
and Morgau's Creek ! 

What I like is to have some one 
head the party and tell us where 
we shall go. When they make me 
the leader I always make a point 
of losing the way. I makedeflec 
tions from the original plan, which 
result in contusion and imbecility, 
and furthermore I i:ever succeed in 
getting what we set out to get. 

i went out the other day for 
grapes. We all carried little has 
kets. Grapes are a good thing to 
get, but it is necessary to kuow ex- 
actly where to go. We started gaily 



it at once, partly beeause I love a 
path, a way cleared for me, and 
partly because this leads us to a 
poor neighbor's cabin, and I want 
to ask how the sick are. 

But I thought we were after 
grapes. Never mind about the 
grapes now. We will climb this 
fence, or rather fall over it, and ad* 
vancing among red peppers and 
four o'clock's, and disregarding the 
unkiud receptiou given by a little 
yellow rice, will present ourselves 
under the Madeira vine over the 
door. 

One trait of our North Carolina 
poor is that they begin with being 
contented with very little, and they 



exulting in October sunshine aud I stay contented. They live all their 
mellowness— due East. I guess we j lives in the same log house with 
shall fiud grapes somewhere in this! the same rough flat stones for a 
direction. Autumn has been busy j hearth, the same absence of every- 
laying a fiery finger on the leaves— | thing like domestic conveniences 
and in some eases his whole hand, j and economies. No andirons; these 
The gums are the first to surrender j big stones ' will do well enough.' 
at his touch. There is a black gum ! No closet ; hardly even a shelf. No 
in the grove yonder below Prof, i window. I see no change for the 
Winston's that for years has been I better in the condition of our poor 
a fortnight ahead every fall in dye-j neighbors round Chapel Hill since 



ing itself a crimson which King 
Solomon's good housewife might 
have coveted for her household. 

Down the hill, .young ladies,if you 
please, and don't mind if it is steep. 



I was a child. They live as their 
fathers did, and are content, being 
absolutely without ambition. The 
number of empty little tin snuff 
boxes lying around suggests what 



There ought to be some fine ferns | course the small sums they make 
On the spring branch at the bottom, over and above what bare necessa- 
and plenty of asters on the oppo i ries call for, take. It all goes the 
site hill. Once 1 found a gentian Durham road. I asked one of this 
over there. Only once, but it might class the other day how much her 
happen again, so keep your eyes snufi cost her a week. "Twenty or 
open. Now the heart-leaves put | twenty -five cents a week," she re- 



48 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



plied. And how much is that a 
year? She could not telL So I 
told her she had spent hundreds of 
dollars in the course Of her life on 
her snuff— and what good did it do 
her. " O, I take it for my stomach," 
she said—" Seems like I ain't got 
nothing in my inside when I ain't 
got my snuff." 

Let us go down to their spring. 
A spring is a good place to go to. I 
have an intimate personal friend- 
ship with half a dozen springs 
around Chapel Hill, and a visiting 
acquaintance with about twenty- 
four. There are sixty springs on 
our hill sides. This one is three 
hundred yards from the house— all 
the way down hill. Think of car- 
rying a bucket of water up this 
steep incline several times a day all 
through the blazing summer, or 
through winter's sleet and rain! 

A spring always affects my im- 
agination. Something so coy and 



secluded about it; under a bank, 
under a rock, or under a tree, cool 
and clear and dark. "A gem of 
the first water" and no mistake. 
Look at this lovely little basin per- 
petually welling up and the spark- 
ling stream running away through 
a bed of mint, or over pebbles, or 
among tall weeds and bushes. I 
always pay my compliments to the 
presiding nymph by clearing the 
spring out and letting the water 
flow more freely. It is a real lux- 
ury to set to work with a stout 
stick and deepen the channel judi- 
ciously, and watch the water rush- 
ing freely along. It has every ap- 
pearance of being grateful. Yes, 
I love a spring. It is a sort of head- 
quarters. Now we will go down 
through this little meadow which 



three weeks ago was gorgeous with 
golden rods higher than our heads, 
now all withered and forlorn. But 
where are the grapes ? 

We will come to the grapes pres- 
ently, perhaps. Meanwhile observe 
the sumac bushes. Did you ever 
see such a blaze of scarlet, purple, 
green, crimson and yellow % What 
chemical process has been going 
on in the great laboratory around 
us to bring out those intensely 
vivid colors. And look at those 
dogwood berries— little tips of fire. 
And the arbutus hanging over the 
stream. 

Straight up the gravelly hill and 
through the weeds. A tolerably 
steep bank, and now the stream is 
far below us, out of sight in the 
thicket Of beech and dogwood, and 
~y es * grapevines. 1 was sure, we 
should find grapevines somewhere. 
Here are a dozen fine ones within 
fifty yards— and all the way along 
the edge of the cotton patch there 
are more. I feel quite exultant. 
Let us have no more murmuring 
against the leader of this expedi- 
tion. Grapevines abound. I was 
sure of it. 

And not one single grape / 
Let us turn our attention to the 
cotton. Cotton is a good thing to 
have. There are great possibilities 
iu a thousand acres of it. There is 
bloom and beauty and a plenty of 
worry in it in that state. I think 
I prefer it in bales. A bale of cot- 
ton commands one's respect.-^ 
It looks compact, firm and self- 
contained. You can lean upon a 
bale of cotton. It is good to have 
a thing to lean upon occasionally. 
How odd it is that there should 
be no poetry written about cotton 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



49 



or corn or wheator any of the plants 
that furnish the necessaries of life 
while the vine, the grape, and the 
juice of the grape have an imme- 
morial celebrity. They are not 
merely celebrated in literature and 
associated with our pleasures, but 
our religion has hallowed them, 
and more has been sung aud said 
and written about the vine than 
about any other member of the 
vegetable kingdom whatever. 

Compare it with tobacco. Neither 
are necessaries. They both belong 
to the luxuries, but how different. 
The one has a history— has poetry, 
song, romance, and religion inter 



twined with it. The other may 
soothe and comfort, but it also en- 
ervates and beclouds. You cannot 
sing about tobacco. A dull fat 
weed. 

Oome on — the sun is setting. 
Look at that pile of clouds, rose- 
color and grey. And what a glory 
those distant woods receive, just 
touched with bronze and gold. An 
October sunset is a good thing to 
observe. Let us fall over this fence. 
There we are not far from Prof. 
Winston's. 

Never mind about the grapes, 
weh ave had a good walk. 

C. P. S. 



LIVING GERMS AS A CAUSE OF DISEASE. 



Life, iu one or more of its varied 
forms or manifestations, must have 
been an object of man's study since 
he began to study. And naturally 
enough, as disease and death have 
been a never failing accompaniment 
of life, there has existed a desire 
to avoid the one and postpone the 
other. The efforts to accomplish 
this desire go to make up the his- 
tory of medicine. Iu many cases 
these efforts have been more or 
less successful, but from time to 
time, diseases assuming the form 
of plagues or epidemics, the true 
nature and cause of which were 
little understood, have visited vari- 
ous parts of the world, and baffling 
medical skill, have left destruction 
behind them. Some of these dis- 
eases, however, have already been 
classed among those now consider- 
ed as preventable. It has often 
happened, too, especially in time 
of war, that large numbers of 



wounded men crowded together in 
small " quarters," have died from 
putrefaction, rather than from the 
injury done by the bullet. And in 
many of these cases surgeons have 
appeared to be of little service ex- 
cept to afford temporary relief to the 
suffering. Let us see what recent 
investigation as to the nature of 
these diseases promise in the way 
prevention aud cure. Aud first as 
to putrefaction in wounds. A visit 
to a modern hospital, such as that 
under the charge of Professor Lis- 
ter, of Edinburgh, will reveal a 
somewhat different mode of treat- 
ment of wounds from that practiced 
in our hospitals and war camps a 
few years ago. Let us notice 
especially the precaution taken 
when the wound is exposed to the 
air of the room, and the rigid care 
with which every instrument and 
bandage used in dressing the 
wound is disinfected before being 



50 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



used. The operation is performed 
under a spray of carbolic acid and 
water. The knives, needles and 
thread, sponges, bandages, every 
thing in a word, to be brought into 
contact with the wound, already 
scrupulously clean, is dipped in a 
weak solution of carbolic acid. 
The bandages are so arranged as 
to exclude the air, and at each sub- 
sequent dressing the same precau- 
tious are taken as in the first case. 
But why this rigid care in exclud- 
ing the air from the wound % Why 
this use of carbolic aeidH In ans 
wer to these questions let us go 
back to notice a few steps in the 
progress of the work which led to 
the adoption of such methods. In 
1837, thirty years before Lister in- 
troduced the use of carbolic acid 
in his surgical operations it was 
discovered that the decay of animal 
matter was accompanied by the 
presence of living organisms, and 
that when a part of the same ani 
mal matter was kept surrounded by 
air which had been heated to a 
high temperature, no decay took 
place, and that no living organisms 
were found in connection with it. 
Various subsequent experiments 
confirmed these results, and the 
conclusion reached was that these 
living organisms were the true 
cause of the decay. Lister at once 
caught the idea that these living 
forms found in connection with de- 
caying animal matter, and which 
he discovered in a putrefying 
wound, were in like manner the 
real cause of these morbid pro- 
. cesses. He grasped the idea, too, 
that these living forms might be 
destroyed in the wound by applica- 
tion of an antiseptic like carbolic 



acid and thus putrefaction checked, 
and also that they might be kept 
out of the wound and putrefaction 
prevented by taking the proper 
precautions. The probable facts 
in the case, theu, were these : Float- 
ing in the atmosphere were liviug/ 
germs which if allowed to come in 
contact with the wounded surface 
would bring about morbid pro- 
cesses. These germs might be car- 
ried from place to place, from 
wound to wound, on surgical in- 
struments, sponges, bandges, &c. 
Carbolic acid it had been discover- 
ed would destroy these germs. Ae- 
• epting these as facts, the method 
to be followed was plain enough ; 
and the one decided upon was es- 
sentially that outlined above. 

The contrast between the care 
exercised in the old hospitals and 
the new, with regard to the points 
mentioned, is marked, and none 
the less marked is the difference in 
the death rate. The sad story is 
often told by soldiers, that owing 
to the rapidity with which the 
wounds had to be dressed after a 
battle, the scarcity of surgeons and 
materials, every precaution charac- 
teristic of modern hospitals was 
neglected. In the light of our pres- 
ent knowledge who can wonder at 
the great and rapid mortality con- 
sequent. 

This system of antiseptic treat- 
ment adopted by Lister some fifteen 
years ago, has already done much 
to lesseu the suffering and mortali- 
ty resulting from wouuds, and 
promises even more in the future. 
The results which attended Lister's 
practice have been confirmed in 
hospitals and on the battle field, 
by eminent observers and practi- 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



51 



tioners. And modified in one way 
or another— in the antiseptic used 
or the inocle of application— it has 
been adopted in every civilized 
country. And says Professor Tyn- 
dall, "This system based upon the 
recognition of living contagia, has 
revolutionized modern surgery.'' 

What is this something in the 
air causing putrefaction, which can 
be destroyed by carbolic acid or by 
heat 1 We have already answered, 
"living germs," but let us examine 
this subject more closely. Proba- 
bly every one has been in a room 
where the sunlight was admitted 
through a small opening, and has 
observed the dust floating in the 
bright line of the ray. Substitute 
for our room a tight box, and for 
the sun light substitute the intense 
beam of the electric lamp. With 
ihe aid of this apparatus it is seen 
that the air contains immense num 
bers of minute particles of matter 
which were before invisible. Heat 
this air to a moderately high temper- 
ature and our particles disappear. 
They are, then, largely, if not en 
tireh , organic matter. In one of 
his experiments Professor Tyndall 
found this matter to be " part liv- 
ing, part dead," "particles of 
grouud straw, torn rags, smoke, the 
pallen of flowers, spores of fungi, 
aud the germs of other things/' 
the true nature of which could be 
made out with the aid of the micro- 
scope alone. If this air has been 
collected near decaying animal 
matter, these ''germs" will exist 
in great numbers; and if we ex- 
pose to it a warm solution contain- 
ing freshly prepared animal mat- 
ter, this solution will be found in a 
few hours to contain swarms of 



nearly transparent minute, living 
rod-like bodies, from one-thou- 
sandth to fifteen hundredth of an 
inch long, moving about at a com- 
paratively rapid rate. Take a fresh 
portion of animal matter prepared 
as in the first case,and after examin 
ing it thoroughly to see that it con- 
tains already none of these living or- 
ganisms. Add to this second por- 
tion a very small part of a drop of 
the first solution and carefully ex- 
clude any further access of germs, 
by keeping it surrounded by air 
which has been heated. Keep this 
solution as the first one, in a warm 
place ; examine it in a few hours or 
a few days aud it will be found to 
contain myriads of exactly similar 
rod-like forms— such is the rapidity 
with which they multiply. Take 
now a third portion of a fresh so- 
lution and heat it in a glass tube 
to the boiling point of water so as 
to destroy any possible germs 
which it may coutain. While the 
tube is yet in the boiling water seal 
it tightly, so as to exclude all ac- 
cess of air, set it to one side, and 
after a day, a week or a year ex- 
amine the contents closely. If the 
result of our experiment accords 
with the results of recent investi- 
gations of Pasteur and Tyndall, 
we will search in vain for the rod- 
like bodies found in the first and 
second experiments, and the ani- 
mal matter put into this last tube 
will be found to have undergone 
little or no apparent change. Ex- 
pose it now to air containing the 
germs. In a short time the solu- 
tion will contain swarms of living 
forms and the animal matter begins 
to decay at once. 
Just here we are brought lace to 



52 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



lace with two questions which oc- 
cupy a place of no secondary inter- 
est in connection with medicine 
and biology— the germ theory of 
disease, and spontaneous genera- 
tion. Of the latter, it need only be 
stated here, that many recent care- 
ful experiments have failed to find 
any evidence of the development of 
life, when the living germs have 
been rigidly excluded; that life is 
generated from life alone, and with- 
out stopping to consider the inter- 
est attached to it, in connection 
with the origin of life, this question 
need only be mentioned in connec- 
tion with the relation it bears to 
"preventive medicine." In both 
surgical operations aud in the pre 
veutiou and treatment of conta- 
gious diseases it will be ot great 
value to know whether the germs 
which appear to be se intiwatel.y 
conuected with putrefaction aud the 
spread of contagious diseases are 
developed from other living forms, 
which might have been kept out of 
the system and thus ihe disease 
prevented, or whether as some in- 
vestigators believe they are, or may 
be, generated spontaneously in the 
tissues of the system itself. The 
methods to be pursued, in preven- 
tion and treatment, would involve 
some radical differences in the two 
cases. The time will probably be 
long before the question is deeded 
one way or the other, to the satis- 
faction of all parties, if indeed this 
can ever be accomplished; but as 
already stated, so far as the prac- 
tical application is concerned the 
bulk ot the results of recent ex- 
perimental research points stiougly 
to the former conclusion. 
The germ theory of disease is a 



theory, which based upon actrial 
demonstrations in some cases and 
an analogy in others, supposes that 
many at least, of the contagious 
diseases affecting man and the low- 
er aniinals,including epidemics ami ] 
"plagues" the growth and multi- 
plication in the system of liviug,are ■ 
caused by organised bodies. The 
germs, the living contagia from 
which these bodies develop, may be 
conveyed by the air, or they may 
be carried from place to place, from 
ptrsou to person on clothes or oth 
er objects, either in a dii^d coudi- i 
tion ur in liquids. Some of these j 
germs have been kept in a dried j 
state for months and even years, 
and when again brought under 
conditions suited to their develop- j 
meut, have shown themselves to be 
as active and dangerous as ever. 
If this theory be the true one, and 
it certainly has strong supports, j 
under its guidance we begin to see 
something of the true nature aud 
action of an " unhealthy atmos- 
phere," " bad sewerage aud drain- 
age," being "exposed to dis ase." 
Impure air, we are told, may aid in 
the support and distribution of 
these living germs, but it is the 
germs, and not the otherwise im- 
pure air, that is so much to be fear- 
ed. We begin to understand more 
clearly too, the rapid spreading of 
some of these diseases, over an en- 
tire country, at oue time, and their 
seeming total absence at auorher. 
When the climatic and other condi- 
tions are such as favor the full de- 
velopment of the germs of this or 
that disease, these germs multip.y 
rapidly aud widely, are spread from 
" healthy v to "unhealthy " sections 
and are epidemic results, extending 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



53 



to regions which before had remain- 
ed uninfected. The conditions 
change, become unfavorable, and 
epidemic is over with, the germs 
-can exist only in some favored spot. 
Recall now the great plagues and 
epidemics of history, and this theo- 



may be adopted by which these 
diseases may be either prevented 
entirely, or their injurious and fatal 
effects greatly lessened. The fu- 
ture of preventive medicine ap- 
pears bright indeed. But oue word 
of caution. Let us not accept theo- 



with its accompanying facts, ) ry for facts. With regard to a few 



»y 

furnishes at least a plausible ex 
plauation of the rapid and wide- 
spread mortality which accompa- 
nied them. 

According to this germ theory, 
oaeh disease is caused by its own 
peculiar organisms, which produce 
this disease and uoue other. Thus 
the small jk)x virus produces small 
pox and typhoid fever germs pro- 
duce typhoid fever, just as the seed 
of an elm produces an elm. 

The diseases just mentioned, 
searlitina and cholera, with possi- 
bly a few others, are those with re 
gard to which it has now been 
pretty clearly demonstrated that 
they are caused by exposure to 
their specific disease germs. There 
are 

now being carried on seem likely to 
add to the same class. Among 
these may be meutoued, marsh ma- 
laria, tuberculosis, in all its forms, 
including consumption and scrofu- 
'• lous diseases, (which alone is said 
to eause one seventh of all prema- 
ture hum;in deaths) diphtheria, 
• measles, scarlet fever, and other 
acute specific diseases of the hu- 
man subject. The work of inves 
tigation is beiiig pushed vigorously 
I onward, aud there is foundation for 
a hope that, in the near future, the 
true nature and cause of mauy of 
I our destructive diseases may be 
made known, and as a result of 
this knowledge gained, measures 



diseases the living organisms found 
to accompany them have not as yet 
been shown to " cause" the diseas-. 
In such cases let us accept the 
probability of the fact, but with- 
hold a final decision for further 
discovery. It would be unjust to 
forget the men, who by continued 
patient labor, and in a few cases at 
the sacrifice of personal healt , are 
working out these problems for us 
all. Pasteur who stands foremost 
among them, is justly considered, 
by those acquainted with his work, 
one of the great public benefactors 
of bis age. 

The importance of this subject 
in connection with the diseases of 
other animals can he but noticed 



others which investigations] now. A coutagious disease of the 

silk-worm, known as pebnne, caus- 
ed a falling off in the silk produce 
of France from fifty-two million 
pounds in 1853, yielding to the 
country a revenue of nearly twen- 
ty-five million dollars, to eight mil- 
lion pounds in 1865. Pasteur dis- 
covered the true nature of the 
disease and the results of his inves- 
tigations promise a restoration of 
the industry. A disease known as 
splenic fever or anthrax caused the 
death of over fifty-six thousand 
horses, sheep and cattle and five 
hundred and twenty eight persons, 
in a single Russian proviuce be- 
tween the years 1867-'70, and had 
proved destructive more than once 



54 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



before the results of investigations 
still in progress promise to so mod- 
ify this disease as to render it com- 
paratively harmless. These two 
examples answer the purpose. They 
show the need of thorough, care 
ful work^and the results it may be 



hoped to accomplish. They show 
beyond the possibility of a doubt, 
and from an economic standpoint, 
the value which may come of well 
directed pains taking, scientific re- 
search. " c." 



CO-EDUCATION. 



It is not our purpose to consider ceded 
the question of co-education in re- 
gard to its social effect f that is 
whether or not the mutual in- 
fluences of the sexes in the acquir- 
ing of education is good, and tends 
to elevate the tone of society. Nor 
Will we consider the economic ad- 
vantages, though this may be an 
important phase of the question 
lor country villages and small 
towns where that is generally the 
controlling influence. 

What we propose, is to consider 
briefly, co education in its relation 
to an connection with the develop- 
ment of the mental faculties of the 
race. Can Ihe best interests of ed- 
ucation be attained by co-education 
or by educating the sexes apart ? 

It is known that the highest type 
of teaching was the early method 
whei. teacher and scholar were 
friends and companions. The pu- 
pil receiving special traiuing best 
suited to his native ability, inclina- 
tion and quality of mind. Thereby 
preserving individuality, and being 
conducted and directed in the way 
most likely to secure success. 

In granting that this primitive 
method is the one qualified to in- 
sure the best interests of higher 
mental traiuing, one point is con- 



wbich should be borne iu> 
mind, namely: there is- an indivi- 
duality of mind, a difference in in 
herited or natural ability, inebria- 
tion and capacity. 

As the desire for education in- 
creased and became more general, 
the exigency had to be met— » 
compromise made. The former dif- 
ferentiated method had to be in- 
tegrated,, though not without the 
corresponding loss of force or ef- 
j ficiency. 

Thus for the sake of more general 
educatiou r the few lose the oppor- 
tunity of high and rapid attain- 
ments. 

But to accommodate as far as 
possible the more marked differ- 
ences in mental calibre and inclina- 
tion of those who desire education, 
institutions of learning of different 
grades and different methods of 
instruction have originated. Hence 
neglecting the minor differences iu 
mind, we cau classify those seek- 
ing mental development, in a man- 
ner, somewhat satisfactory at least, 
according to the greater differences. 
The past practice of the educa- 
tional world proclaims, and experi- 
ence sanctions the fact that there 
are differences in minds which can 
be best accommodated by differ- 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



"55 



<ences in manner of treatment. And 
aiow with the subject of co-educa- 
tion before us, the following ques- 
tions claim our consideration z 

1. Is there a difference between 
the minds of the sexes ! 

2. If there is a difference, is that 
difference sufficient to require dif- 
ferent institutions of learning for 
the sexes in order to itfsure the at- 
tainment of the end in view ? 

3. Even if there is a difference^ 
that difference noticeable through- 
out the whole of the development 
period of the mind ? 

Students of Biology, who have 
made special study of the relations 
the sexes bear to each other in pre 
serving the characteristics and 
special features peculiar to the 
species, and the introduction of 
individual peculiarities, are agreed 
in the conclusion that the female 
preserves and imparts the heredi- 
tary characteristics, while to the 
male is to be attributed the varia- 
tions or departures. She is there 
fore the conservative element, pre 
serving that which has been ac- 
quired 5 while to him is due the 
changes and additions. 

Now it is for us to enquire wheth- 
er this rule will apply to the char- 
acteristics of the mind of the 
human species. Will experience 
and observation sanction the belief 
that the female mind is a treasure- 
house filled with facts gained by | 
past experience, rules of aetiou, 
laws of conduct, intentions, habits, 
while the male miud adds to the 
knowledge already acquired, makes 
excursions over new fields and 
gains other rules of action, ob- 
serves different relations of facts 
and deduces new laws, in their 



turn to become rules of action, &c? 
Would not such a supposition 
account for the greater facility the 
female mind has in acquiring the 
truths already established,the won- 
derful quickness with which she 
decides the proper course of action 
in the many exigencies of oridinary 
life, which past experience has pro- 
vided for by rules of conduct ? 

Could we not, in the same way, 
account for her proverbial capacity 
of intuitive perception ? which 
means a rapid, correct and an im- 
mediate {without reasoning) insight 
into preseut facts. 

Then, too, it is conceded that 
woman excells in common sense, 
and that she is practical. 

These leading characteristics of 
the female miud,together with oth- 
ers that might be added,all tend to 
establish the assumption that it is 
the conservative element in the in- 
tellectual world. 

As we have already partially in- 
dicated wherein the male miud dif- 
fers from the female mind by com- 
parison, it will not be necessary to 
repeat, but add that man is specu- 
lative, possessing that faculty by 
which general principles are dis- 
covered. He has been described 
as " the cause-seeking animal,'' in 
whom a knowledge of facts incites 
a desire to know their relations to 
some cause or causes, and thus to 
discover new laws. When past ex- 
perience is lacking and there is no 
rule of action to direct in a special 
emergency, the judgment of man 
would be more valuable. 

If the few distinctions noted are 
accepted as facts, agreeing with 
the history of the growth of the 
human mind and sanctioned by the 



56 



THE TJjSTIVEKSITY MONTHLY. 



acquisition and extension of knowl- 
edge at the present time, then we 
may safely say that there is adif 
ferenee in the mind of the sexes. 

Conceding then that this differ- 
ence in mind of the sexes exists, 
we would then have the sexes com- 
plementary to each other in this 
respect also— the one supplying the 
deficiencies of the other j. and by 



By pursuing a similar Hue of 
reasoning with the special features 
of the male mind in view, we would 
be led to the conclusion that his 
education would be barren and 
fruitless were not technical train- 
ing combined with and added to- 
culture. 

In order that a forest tree may 
extend itself upward through the 



recognizing and cultivating these j branches of the neighboring trees 



special abilities we would have, by 
co-operation, the condition most 
favorable to attaining the ideal 
state of intellectuality. 

In order to answer the second 
question proposed, we must ascer- 
tain whether or not these differing 
capabilities require different meth 
ods of cultivation. 

We may classify higher educa- 
tion, as to its object, under two 
heads: general culture and tech- 
nical training. 

Culture, in its widest seuse, has 
been defined to be : " thorough ac- 
quaintance with the result of in- 
tellectual activity in all depart- 
ments of kuowledge, so far as they 
conduce to welfare, correct living, 
to rational conduct, 5 ' while tech- 
nical training is " concerned with 
methods and proofs, and values the 
results of the me hods and inves- 
gations of the past only as they 
contribute to new advances.'' 

Then as general culture is con- 
cerned with the acquiring of our 
present stock of kuowledge, and 
as it is the peculiar characteristic 
of the female mind to be able, readi- 
ly, to grasp and appropriate the 
facts of experience ; it would seem 
rational ihat their instruction 



ever growing, until finally it 
reaches the pure air and free space 
where it blossoms forth and bears 
fruit of its kind to be added to the 
harvest of the forest, it most have 
many roots extending deep and 
wide in a fertile soil j so, if tech- 
nical training is to be extended un- 
til it reaches the border of present 
knowledge in auy direction aud 
there in unexplored regions reap 
its reward, must it be founded up- 
on general culture and a fertile 
mind. And as the roots of the tree 
appear first, so must culture begiu 



first j but as the formation of the 
stein of the tree begins before the 
roots are fully developed, so must 
technical training begin before cul- 
ture is completed. With differing 
capabilities aud different euds to be 
reached,it would seem to necessitate 
different methods of instruction 
and different institutions for the 
sexes, in order to achieve the best 
results. 

Though we hold that the educa- 
tion of the individual should pro- 
ceed in the same order that the 
mental development of the race 
has followed ; that in studying the 
history of education we find the 
true order of the successive stages 



should be directed with the object and steps to be pursued in training 
ot culture especially prominent. the mind. 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



57 



We find that it has proceeded 
from tlie simple to the complex, 
from the concrete to the abstract, 
from isolated facts to generaliza- 
tions, from inspirieal rales to the 
sciences. Hence beginning at the 
same point, the sexes could be edu- 
cated together in the preparatory 
schools without impeding the pro- 
gress of each other. But as soon 
as the culture attained is sufficient 
to begin the teehuic 1 training, 
then will it advance the interests 
of education should the sexes prose- 
cute their studies apart. 

Whether or not the methods of 
instruction indicated are the proper 
ones, can be readily determined by 
ascertaining whether the course 
imparts pleasure or disgust to the 
student. We think that by apply- 
ing the test it will be found that 
the female mind will be pleased 
and satisfied with au acquaintance 
with the results of intellectual ac- 
tivity, or what has been defined as 
culture : Whereas we are satisfied 
that the male mind will not be long 
interested and pleased by such a 
course, for afrer receiving a certain 
amount of such instruction it be- 
comes wearisome, and a lack of 
enthusiasm follows; but as soon 
as you begin showing the relation 
these facts so far accumulated, 
bear to each other, how the results 
may be generalized, the proofs 
which established the truths enun- 
ciated and the methods of applying 
the proofs, then will facts and re- 
sults acquire new interest and the 
course of instruction become pleas- 
ant. For by applying these meth 
ods, results and facts follow ; he 
perceives that he has a key which 
holds under his command a host of 



separate truths, or which, if rightly 
plied mi^ht reveal new and undis- 
covered treasures. 

Such training as utilizes the past 
as a stepping stone towards the 
future, uses the method of demon- 
strating the known as a mode of 
proceedure in revealing the un- 
known, or as values the truths in 
searching for truth, is called techni- 
cal. 

And since the history of mental 
progress shows that it is man who 
has been constantly extending our 
sphere of knowledge ; should he 
not be educated with that distiu 
guishing quality in view ? 

Facts to the scholar are as ma- 
terial to the artisan, methods as 
tools ; and as the skilled workman 
knows how to apply the tools to the 
material to fashion an object of use 
and beanty so must the ripe scholar 
be able to apply methods to facts in 
order to discover law and har- 
mony, and add a treasure to the 
store of knowledge. 

We would not have it appear 
that the education of the female is 
to be depreciated. Far from it. 
Thorough culture is a most import- 
ant factor in the preservation and 
advancement of the intelligence of 
the race. It may be stated as a 
fact, unnecessary to prove,that de- 
scendants of educated families 
acquire education much more readi- 
ly than those who have not such 
an ancestry. Thus acknowledging 
that inclination, desire,capacity for 
study are transmitted by heredity 
from parents to children. Further- 
more it is conceded by observers 
that the offspring of talented moth- 
ers are more generally favored with 
mental ability than the descendants 



58 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



of gifted fathers. It only needs 
an application of these simple facts 
of observation to see that the edu- 
cation of mothers is a matter of 
prime consideration, independent 
of the good and happiness of the 
individual. 

Complete education should be to 
some extent utilitarian, and as nat- 
ure has decreed that the sexes 
have somewhat different avoca- 
tions in life it would necessarily 
follow that their instruction be dif- 
ferent from this view of the ques 
tion also. 

Then in order that the best in- 
terest of education be not thwarted, 
more attention should be paid to 



the individuality of mind of the 
sexes and to the sub classifications 
as far as possible. Mechanical edu- 
cation will not answer the purpose. 
We are not all endowed alike, neith- 
er can we all be educated alike. 

All the faculties we have should 
be cultivated, those most which are 
most susceptible. For all true edu- 
cation is alike profitable and practi- 
cal, as we should prepare ourselves 
not only to meet the necessities of 
life, but also to realize the higher 
forms of pleasure which the culti- 
vated mind alone can enjoy. And 
above all should we remember that 
this life is a training school for 
that which is to come. Q. L. 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 



59 



Editor al Department. 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY, 

Published under the auspices of 

DIALECTIC AND PHILANTHROPIC 
LITERARY SOCIETIES 

Of the University of N. C. 
TERMS: 

One copy one year, (of 9 months) $1.00 

One cop v six months •?•> 

Five copies to oue address, one year, 4-00 

RATES OF ADVERTISING: 

One dollar per inch for first insertion and fifty 
ce ts for each subsequent insertion of game adver- 
tisement . 



A ddress all communications to 

Z. B. WALSER, 

Business Manager, 
Chapel Hill, Orange Co., N. C. 



CHAPEL HILL, N. C., OCT., 1882. 



We are due our readers an apolo- 
gy for the lateness of our former 
issue. 

This was due to the changes 
made in the editorial staff, and the 
consequent inexperience of the new 
editors. Added to this the publish- 
er's inability to comprehend the 
jokes and puns of our worthy per-, 
soual editor, the latter causing him 
severe 'llness, thus delaying his 
wok. This difficulty will in the 
future be obviated as the publish- 
er has employed two competent, 
well tried, pun proof assistants. 
The absence of the College Record 
from the last number, is to be ex- 
plained by the publisher's not re- 
serving the requisite space. Here- 
after this omission will not occur, 
and the Monthly may be expected 
about the last of each month. 



It is with great pleasure that we 
acknowledge the many kind things 
said of us by our exchanges and 
patrons. The compliments paid 



us for our improved appearance 
are certainly very gratifying, eu- 
deavoring as we are, however, 
feebly to elevate the standard and 
enhance the value and interest of 
the Monthly. 

And while we appreciate fully 
all this kindness there still lingers 
a strong desire for something more 
substantial. 

It is our purpose beginning with 
this issue to send copies of the 
Monthly, as far as possible, to the 
alumni of the institution, with the 
earnest hope that they will send us 
iu return their subscription or con- 
tributions or both. It must be 
borne in mind that the former num- 
ber contained articles written sole- 
ly by the college boys. Hereafter 
we promise our readers productions 
of some of the ablest writers iu the 
State. Many of our most distin- 
guished alumni have promised to 
aid us, and on their promised assis- 
tance we express our belief that the 
Monthly's future is bright indeed, 
though well aware how frail is the 
tenure that a work like this has 
upon literary life. 

The article in the last number 
entitled " wholesome hints to col- 
lege students," by Joe, was of sound 
practical value. We earnestly urge 
all students who have not given it 
their attention, by all means to read 
it carefully. While we agree with 
Joe in toto, we yet disclaim the 
propriety of its being applied sole- 
ly to the University of North Car- 
olina, and this we know was not 
the author's intention. 



60 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



Some of Joe's shafts could not 
fail to strike our weak points, but 
we vet claim for the Chapel Hill 
boys a high-toned standard of hon- 
or inferior to none of any institu- 
tion. 

The University, like all else good 
or great, has her enemies— enemies 
too, among the most influential 
citizens of this State; men who 
from a predelection for sectarian 
institutions, let no occasion slip for 
magnifying oar slightest shortcom- 
ings, and who never tire of filling 
the mouth of rumor with slander- 
ous, false reports. So long as nar- 
row-minded prejudice continues to 
exist, just so long will the Univer 
sity have her enemies. 

For these, we can have no other 
feelings than that of tender com- 
passion. In all ages the narrow- 
minded bigot fettered with some 
one idea has been in a ten-fold more 
piteous plight than the object of 
his hate. 

But the fact that we are so close 
ly watched sh< uld make us very 
careful of our conduct, especially 
when abroad, and our upright, 
sober bearing should always give 
the lie to winged slander. 



who were in charge of Mrs. Bing- 
ham, behaved themselves admira- 
bly, or with what an awe-struck 
gaze they looked up to the beaming 
face of the graphically grare Chap- 
el Hilliau; how heroically they lis- 
tened to and patiently answered 
the standing questions : how long 
have you been here? how do you 
like Peace? etc. All this it is de- 
nied our too feeble pen to describe. 
The fair young ladies, unwilling 
that their smiles should be the only 
recompense for their guests being 
dragged an aggravated mile from 
the Yarborough, carried their visi- 
tors down into the gayly decked 
dining room and "set up" to a 
handsome supper. The excessive 
kindness of the nine lovely waiters 
we shall remember always. At a 
late hour the guests retired, leav- 
ing behind them many brass but- 
tons and pleasant recollectious. 

; •*-»-»■ 

COLLEGE RECORD. 



The Chapel Hill and Bingham 
boys who were so fortunate as to 
be at the State fair will doubtless 
recall the Peace Reception as the 
most pleasant event connected with 
their visit. We are confident that 
the present set of Peaceites is the 
prettiest that ever graced the halls 
of that famous institution. We 
venture to say, in point of beauty 
and sparkling wit, Peace has no 
peer. How fondly they gazed at 
the buttons of the Bingham boys, 



[The College Kecokd was unnecessarily, 
not to say provokiugly, omitted in the iabt 
Monthly. As a result, njuoh of interest 
must be left out of this issue.] 

The Annual Address before the 
Y. M. C. A. was delivered by R« v. 
D. A. Long, of Graham, N. C, 
Sept. 24. The address was good. 

Mr. Thos. Radcliffe, of Wilming- 
ton, N. C, has been elected orator 
for Washington's birth day. A 
place on our stall seems to be the 
stepping stone to higher honors. 
Here men are brought to the notice 
of the world, aud it is forced to ac- 
knowledge and reward their superi- 
or merits. It is almost impossible 
for us long to retain the same 
editors. We elected a corps for 
this year; but, before the first 
Monthly was issued, one was a 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



61 



teacher of Latin iu the first pre- 
paratory school iu the South; all- 
ot ber was prospective clerk of the 
-court of his eouuty. 

Dr. Maugum says the class inj 
Metaphysics surpasses those of 
previous years, both iu love for, aud 
coiuprebension of, this usually dry 
study. One reason of this is the 
judicious selection of a text book 
which the Prof, has made. Respect 
for the modesty of the class will 
not allow us to state other reasons. 
Oar dormitories seem to have 
gained new life during vaeatiou. 
They have been whitewashed and 
otherwise improved in appearance. 
Light, cherry rooms add to the 
longevity aud happiness of stu 
•dents. 

We have been passing through 
the ordeal of a '-series of interme- 
diate examinations." These "snaps" 
are becoming more Irequent 'aud j 
suddeu. There is an urgent and! 
imperative demand for the inven- 
tion of a barometer which will in- 
dicate their approach. These ex 
animations test one's ^skill in the 
ready expression and application 
of what he has learned. Only an 
hour allowed for a written exami- 
nation. 

We notice many College papers 
tieglect to publish matter which 
might entertain and interest those 
of its readers who have a mathe- 
matical turn of mind. We intend \ 
not to be guilty of neglecting any j 
class of readers. Having such a con- 
viction it gives us pleasure to state 
that a new and easy solution, by 
right triangles, has been discovered 
to the following problem, which is 
sometimes considered knotty: Two 
lighthouses, each oO metres above 



the sea and 500 metres apart, are 
seen by a ship iu a line with them 
to differ 1° in elevation abo,ve the 
horizon. What is its distance from 
the nearer, supposiug the ocean to 
a plane! Solutiou: Place the ship 
on top of the second lighthouse. 
The problem is then very simple. 
This solutiou emanated from the 
brain of a Soph. 

The Trustees reflected credit on 
themselves when they elected to fill 
the chair of Physics in this Insti- 
tution Prof. J. W- Gore. Prof. 
Gore is a graduate of Richmond 
College, University of Virginia aud 
Johns Hopkins University. He 
has filled with satisfaction to others 
aud honor to himself the chair of 
Physics in Southwestern Universi- 
ty, Teuu., and the chair of assistant 
Professor of Mathematics iu the 
University of Virginia. The Uni- 
versity is proud to welcome him. 
The Prof, is a handsome young 
bachelor. We make this statement 
lor the pleasure it will give our 
lady f i lends. 

Our young men possess, iu no 
small degree, one requisite for the 
acquisition of knowledge— inquisi- 
tiveness. This has been strikingly 
shown by the oft repeated inquiry, 
which has been the Question of .the 
Hour for the last three weeks, 
"Wheu will the Monthly comeF 

Four members of the law class 
were candidates for license at Octo- 
ber examination before Supreme 
Court. Members of Judge Man- 
ning's Law Class always acquit 
themselves with houor. 



Tom Vance is attending Colum- 
bia Law School, Washington, D. C. 
He says he is going to buckle down, 
aud studv for a " whet." 



62 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



EXCHANGES! 
There is a time, it is said, iu the 



when he yearns to be an editor — to 
write bis way, as it were, to fame 
But when lie has hud the control of 
a paper tor awhile and the novelty 
has worn off ami difficulty on diffi 
culty arises that he never thought 
of before, the bright halo that en 
circled the name of editor is dim 
raed, aud he arrives at the sad con- 
elusion that he was not born a Ben- 
nett or a Greely, as he once iin 
agined. Thus the fondest hopes 
decay! 

The new exchange editor of the 
Niagara Index is mad, on the war 
path. He threatens to lead a 
bloody career, to "bring terror to 
the dingy cabins of other exchange 
braves.'' He had only one college 
exchange on his table and he as- 
sailed it with his gloves off. He 
was pitiless. Ridicule and "sar- 
kazum'' were hurled against that 
little paper without stint. We 
hope there were many exchanges at 
his elbow unread when our humble 
production greeted his '-inexperi- 
enced optics." Be more gentle, Sir 
Chieftain. 



"I am tired of hearing the depre- 
ciating cry: We want 'Yankee 



life of "every ambitious young man j brains and enterprise.' We don't 



want any sucli thing; we want 
Southern brains aud enterprise. 
What the South wants is common 
sense aud action."— Vastus M. Clay, 
in his Article on Southern Industries. 



To the inexperienced the ex- 
change editor has a nice easy time 
doing nothing but reading the 
latest papers aud clipping a little 
here and there. Never was there a 
greater mistake. There is as much 
need of care, judgment and expe- 
rience iu the exchange department 
as in any other. 



We hail with pleasure an ex- 
change from the far West, The 
Wabash. It has not as showy an 
outside as some that we know of, 
yet it is fuller of what every one 
likes to see in a college paper. Its 
editors talk very proudly of their 

college, calling it the "Harvard ol lone mau kiks the ball and the other 
the West." That's right, gentlemen, side yells fowl; then they sware. 
"Blessed is he that bloweth his own My brother Bill before the game, 
horn/' What shall the University sed he was laying for one of those 
of N. C. be called? The Oxford of damfresh men. When he came 
America? down to the feeld in his sute the 



The September number of the 
Wake Forest Student has been re- 
ceived. It is a well conducted 
college journal. One article iu it 
especially attracted our atteutiou 
possessing considerable merit.— 
The subject, " Greek and Latin vs. 
English," was treated in a skilful 
manner, and showed that the writer 
was a good English scholar. 

I never saw a real, prize fite, but 
I saw a foot bail game. First a 
man kiks the ball: then the boys 
each each other round the nex and 
roll iu the mud; then one man yells 
hell and the men on the end they 
danse; then the boys on the fens 
they laf. When a man runs with 
the ball they each him aud sit on 
his neck; then he goze home and 
mother mau takes his place; then 






THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



63 



boys ou the fens they yelled, "it 
came up from New York on the 
breeze.'' When he came home with 
his leg broke I asked him if he 
fixed the freshman. And my sis 
ter's young man laffed and said, 
< k not this eve," and Bill he kust.— 
The Wabash. , 

Many college editors take up the 
pen only to copy extracts from the 
daily papers. This should not be. 
The college journal should not 
give what can be found in the pa- 
pers. The greatest part of the mat- 
ter should be original compositions 
from the pens of the best writers 
in college. If there is so little tal- 
ent in a college for composing origi- 
nal articles that editors are driven 
to newspapers to fill up their space, 
then that journal ought to be sent 
" up Salt River," to speak in strong 
but expressive language. It is the 
duty of the college magazine not 
to bring the latest political or re- 
ligious news to its readers, but to 
let the outside world, the 'old 
tolks,' know what ability there is 
in college, what the boys are doing, 
aud what may be expected from 
them in the great future. 

The North Western, Evanston Il- 
linois, is on hand. Nearly half of 
its space is given to personals and 
locals. In fact, it is noticeable only 
for its want of interesting matter. 
But this is a want common to the 
: first issue of the session, when new 
editors grasp the quill. 



Some of our exchanges are dis- 
cussing Prison Reformation. They 
find many defects in our present 
system of treating convicts. They 
object, and justly too, to placing 
young men in the same prison with 
hardened criminals. 



PERSONAL. 
Saddle boys, avaunt ! 
Who is Chapel Hill's boss ruuner? 
Echo, with a knowing look, an- 
swers, Dr. R 

Jim Taylor is with a mining 
company in Charlotte; Ike is in 
New York. 

Charlie Worth has returned from 
Europe, and is in business in Wil- 
mington. 

Frank Dancy has also returned, 
aud is at his post in the Experi 
meut Station. He's fat. 

Sam Osboru says, "It was a dog- 
gone mean trick,'' and two of Chapel 
Hill's numerous physicians •' jiue in 
the chorus.'' 

Since the massacre in the cotton 
patch it is regreted that some of 
the participants did not, then aud 
there, wing their flight from " this 
bank and shoal of time.'' 

It is the proper caper to address 
the comet as " Your Highness,'' ou 
account of his altitude (for the 
benefit of the Fresh.) 

Long, limp, lean, lauk, loose, lazy, 
lolling, leering, liieiess, loathsome 
" Lazurus" went to the Fair aud 
took 1st Premium in his specialties 
Brady, John E , has gone to 
Europe and expects to remain three 
years. He will study Greek at 
Leipsic, and hopes to come back a 
Ph. D. 

Where is Kitti tlilH When last 
heard from he was in the "Laud of 
Flowers, 1 ' and alligators. We have- 
n't sold his furniture yet. 

That flower of chivalry, Thour- 
oughgood Pate, was licensed by the 
Supreme Court this Fall. Will be 
in the Legislature in ten years. 



64 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



" Cb annoy' 7 has recovered from 
fbe "biff* (we refer fc> the biff), and 
sighs Alexander like for more 
worlds to conquer, provided they 
don't belong to the circus. 



w Necessity" continues to breatbe 
the breatb of gloom and despair into 
the room she frequents. Death, 
taxes, and u Ne'' are three sure 
things. 

The Seniors will not have beavers. 
They have decided that they would- 
n't be(a)ver(y) becoming. We con- 
gratulate ourselves on this one. 

We saw " Curneel" Ruffin the 
other day. He still wears his crab- 
apple look and No. 8 boots. Is 
iarming near Hillsboro. 

The sample of the Junior caps 
has come, been commented on fa- 
vorably and unfavorably, and re- 
turned. We were regaled with a 
sight of it. It's a cross between 
a red army canteen and a patent 
spit-toon, with something to hang 
it up by. 

The Sophomores have ordered 
their " plugs.'' It's an '• invisible 
green,'' very appropriate color, we 
think. It signifies that the.v haven't 
altogether recovered from their 
Freshman peculiarities. 

" Wild Hog'' was at the Fair. 
He didn't spend as much on the 
merry-go-round as be did last year. 
Ham Long accompanied him in the 
capacity of keeper. 

Lucien and Johu Walker are 
teaching in the Charlotte Graded 
School. Wilmiugton,Raleigb,Golds- 
boro, Durham, Fayetteville and 
Charlotte are supplied with teach- 
ers from the University. 






" General" Wilkes is a candidat 
for the Legislature in South Caro 
lina. He favors very radical 
changes in the manner of conduct- 
ing the affairs of the Insane- 
Asylum and it is thought will be 
elected. 

The Freshmen ire thinking about 
getting a '«* class cap" We sug 
gest the old-fashioned fie'd-schoo 
" dunce" as the one in which they 
will feel perfectly u at home.'' 

Why is Professor H. nothing of 
an epicure ? He cuts cats up. 

Lah-de-dah Pollock did not go to 
the Fair. Hence fewer busted 
hearts at " Peace" than when he 
graced last year's reception. 

We have a Fresh who parts his 
hair in the middle. Words fail us, 
but it is thought that the " part" 
is used to denote the amount of ter- 
ritory over which his cerebrum aud 
cerebellum are scattered. 

Is Bynum an appendage of his 
feet or his feet an appendage of 
Bynum ? Answers received until 
November 15th, and on account of 
the size of subject to be dealt with 
they can be written on both sides 
of the paper. Prize, one year's 
subscription. 

Lady Clara Vandi-vere is again 
with us. She is looking remark- 
ably well consideriung her natural 
resources, and gives promise of a 
beautiful dotage. She celebrates 
her 47th birthday in November. 

Prof. Charlie Mclver, of Durham 
Graded School had the pleasure of 
meeting us at the circus. His 
school is in a fine condition, having 
nearly four hundred scholars. Char- 
lie doesn't teach Physics, but 
claims to be heavy on declamation. 



Vol. I 



NOVEMBER, 1882. 



No. 7. 



THE BLIND BOY. 

(BY FRANCIS L. HAWKS.) 

It was a blessed summer day ; 

The flowers bloomed, the air was mild ; 
The little birds poured forth their lay, 

And every thing in nature smiled. 

In pleasant thought I wandered on, 
Beneath the deep wood's ample shade, 

Till suddenly I came upon 

Two children, who had hither strayed. 

Just at an aged beech- tree's foot, 

A little boy and girl reclined ; 
His hand in her's she kindly put, 

And then I saw the boy was blind. 

The children knew not I was near,— 
A tree coucealed me from their view ; 

But all they said I well could hear, 
And I could see all they might do. 

•« Dear Mary," said the poor blind boy, 
** That little bird sings very long ; 

Say, do you see hini in his joy ? 
Is he as pretty as his song V 

" Yes, Edward, yes,'' replied the maid, 
" I see the bird on yonder tree." 

The poor boy sighed, and gently said, 
" Sister, I wish that I could see. 

" The flowers you say are very fair, 

And bright green leaves are on the trees, 
And pretty birds are singing there,— 
How beautiful to one who sees ! 



66 THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



"Yet I the fragrant flowers can smell, 
And I can feel the green leaf's shade, 

And I can hear the notes that swell 
From those dear birds that God has made. 

" So, sister, God to me is kind, 
Though sight, alas, He has not given ; 

But tell me, are there any blind 
Among the children up in Heaven?" 

" No, dearest Edward, there all see ;— 
But why ask me a thing so odd V 

" Oh, Mary, He's so good to me, 
I thought I'd like to look at God." 

Ere long, disease its hand had laSd 
On that dear boy, so meek and mild, 

His widowed mother wept and prayed 
That God would spare her sightless child. 

He felt her warm tears on his face, 
And said, " Oh, never weep for me ; 

I'm going to a bright, bright place, 
Where Mary says I God shall see, 

"And you'll be there,— dear Mary, too ; 

But, mother, when you get up there, 
Tell Edward, mother, that 'tis you,— 

You know I never saw you here.'' 

He spoke no more, but sweetly smiled 
Until the final stroke was given ; 

When God took up the poor blind child, 
And opened first his eyes in heaven. 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



67 



DANTE. 



In scanning the world's pages 
we are all apt to come across char- 
acters that we admire, not lrom 
policy or partiality, but because 
their lives were mirrors of true 
virtue and intellect. 

Some have rendered their names 
immortal by the sword, some by 
daring and heroic deeds, while 
others, by their genius, have indeli- 
bly written their names high upon 
the lasting walls ot time. 

It is with such as the last named 
that Dante justly deserves to be 
classed. 

He was born of noble ancestry, 
at Florence, in the year 1265 A. D. 
It has been the fate of many 
Italian writers to have a reputation 
equally just and splendid in their 
own country while they were little 
known aud less appreciated in the 
rest of the world. 

Such has been more peculiarly 
the fate of Dante, one of the 
earliest, and if his countrymen are 
to say, the greatest of them all. 

We learn from the poet himself, 
that be was inspired, at an early 
age, with a pure and ardent love 
for Beatrice. 

The Middle Ages were now over. 
The long night of darkness, super- 
stition, and ignorance had begun 
to clear away, and the quickening 
rays of literature had beguu to 
dawn. 

It is well known that Europe, 
during the Middle Ages, had been 
plunged into barbarism wilder than 
that of ancient Greece. The popes 
had attempted to assume both 



the temporal and spiritual power. 
There were many reformers ready 
to tear to pieces the established 
government. No heroic age had 
intercepted this long time of muti- 
ny aud ignorance. The past was 
a blank. No time could be less 
favorable to geuius, whether we 
consider the age in reference to re- 
ligion, politics, or literature. Such 
was the spirit of the times when 
Dante began to set forth in words 
the inspiration of his mind. He 
had not passed his early life in idle 
fancy. He devoted himself to the 
study of philosophy aud theology, 
and found rest from his hardest 
duties in the cultivation of his 
talent for music and paintin-. 

At first fortune seemed to smile 
upon him, but his long cheerished 
hopes were soon blighted by the 
death of Beatrice, who was the life 
of his life and the star of his future. 
Now there was a sad change in the 
once bright aud talented youth. 
The very sun of heaven seemed to 
be dimmed to him over whom grief 
had become master. The little 
brooks no longer murmured their 
rural anthems as of old, and even 
the stars would feign hide them- 
selves from his eager gaze; in 
short, all nature, with her thousand 
agents seemed to retuse him com- 
fort. 

It was, no doubt, the evil teu- 
dences of his age, and the acute 
sting of grief that prompted Dante 
to give expression to his grandest 
thoughts. He began his work 
without a model and without an 



68 



THE UNIVEESITY MONTHLY. 



established language. At the off- 
set, he made his lauguage, to which 
all nations must unite in resigning 
the palm for harmony and flexibili- 
ty, and suited his words to a metre 
that arouses every impulse of the 
soul and delights all that speaks 
to the imagination. 

No original thought had been ad- 
vanced. It is true that the Trou- 
badours had invented the laws of 
versification and had composed a 
kind of amatory verse, but as yet 
no lute and harp had been caused 
to swell with the tender and sub- 
lime strains of grand and noble 
verse. All the old manuscripts 
were hidden in the monasteries, to 
which only the clergy had access. 
In attempting to do justice to the 
merits of the poet, we should for a 
moment contemplate the age in 
which he wrote. It was long be- 
fore our oldest poetry was com- 
posed in the now obsolete strains 
of Chaucer, that Dante presented 
to the world the first specimen of 
literature. Among his first pro- 
ductions is the Oommedia,in which 
we find hell and paradise vividly 
pictured to the eyes of the world. 
He was not backward in pouring 
forth his bitter invectives against 
the popes and their corruption. 
He coudemued the vices of his age, 
the despotism of rulers, the ex 
travagance of knignts, the injustice 
of some and the ambition of all ! 

Let us honor Dante as being first 
to draw aside the starry curtain 
which surrounds us, and to create 
fixed limits worthy the sublime but 
obscure conceptions Christianity has 
given us of the invisible world. 



It must be granted that Dante 
possessed one of the finest minds 
the world ever saw. At one time 
in the Commedia, we find him a 
moralist, theologian and astrono- 
mer; at another, the wanderer of 
hell, the companion of Virgil, and 
the pupil of the angel spirit of his 
departed love. 

He had both the faculty of 
thought and action ; and even in 
the most trivial duties, he adhered 
to the true politeness of his country. 
His style has been largely imi- 
tated even by our modern writers. 
His ideas have been the frame work 
! of many great and well finished 
poems; still, by some, he is charged 
with obscurity. 

Dante is frequently called the 
poet of hell and of love. If his 
imagination was such as to picture 
to his mind the ghastly scenes of 
hell, who could or would say that 
he did wrong by expressing him- 
self? Well might he be called the 
poet of love, whose gallant breast 
had swelled with the raptuous 
dreams of first love, and, too, 
whose heart had felt the sting of 
disappointment. Many have sung 
their impatient desires and fancies 
of bliss, the pains of separation 
and the joys of possession. Num- 
erous are the poets of love song 
and praise; but Dante alone has 
consecrated at the altar of grief 
the memory of his first and last 
love. He alone has elevated the 
passions into pensive joy, and fol- 
lowed the object of his love to the 
highest vaults of heaven aud down 
into the deepest caves of perdition. 
Could we blot out all such 






THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



69 



thoughts from the world's pages ? j 
Better would it be to blot out for- 
ever the grand aud ever-brilliant | 
Orion and Pleiades from the mir- 
rored vale of heaven. 

Those of our latter poets whom 
Dante most resembles are Shak- 
speare, Milton aud Cowper. 

With Shakspeare he is the poet 
of the natural world, with Milton 
of the dark and gloomy realms of 
death, of Cowper that of true 
molality. It is known that he was 
no equal of Shakspeare uor Milton, 
yet he resembles the former by his 
quick insight into the heart, in all 
its phases of emotion, by unmautle- 
ing nature and disclosing her to 
the world in her wildest and grand- 
est demonstrations, and comparing 
" i he nothingness of humanity with 
her awful couvulsious.' 7 He, like 
Shakespeare, could present many 
ideas in a single word. 

His similarity to Cowper can be 
seen in his moral strains, now lofty 
aud now tender, in his satires, aud 
in his pointed way of arguing. 
Why does Dante resemble these 
poets in such marked respects! Be- 
cause it is upon Daute as the first 
shaper ot literature, that the sub- 
sequent writers based their prin- 
ciples. He will resemble every 
poet so long as the true aim of 
poetry is sought after. 

The literature of to-day rose by 
regular gradatious from the efforts 
of Dante, increasing in purity aud 
sublimity as time advanced, until 
in the sixteenth century, it burst 
forth like an effulgent sun over all 
Christendom. It is to him we owe 
praise and gratitude for furnishing 



the first great stone to the temple 
of learning. 

Besides being a great poet he 
was a true and patriotic statesman. 
So great was his fame as a states- 
man that he is said to have filled 
no less than fourteen public offices. 
After having filled the chief seat 
of his country he was compelled 
" to taste how bitter is another's 
bread." He was banished from his 
native land on groundless charges. 
He wandered about from court to 
court in sore grief and poverty. 
He died in the 57th year of his age. 
Although exiled from his native 
home, yet, at his death all Italy 
seemed to go in mourning, crape 
hung on every door, aud the bells 
from the ancient spires chimed a 
requiem to his memory on that sad 
day. 

In Ravenna still rest the bones 
of the departed poet, 

"Aud Florence begs her banish- 
ed dead and weeps." 

Well might the world combine 
in erecting a monument to his 
memory, whose base should vie 
with the pyramids of Egypt aud 
whose summit should over-look 
the snow capped Alps ! 

In conclusion, we can safely say 
that Dante was first to disclose to 
the world the philosopher's stone in 
all its grandest colors, and now 
forms one of the brightest stars of 
the poetical firmament. 

He has left a precious legacy to 
mankind. He raised Italy from the 
bonds of superstition and ignor- 
ance., furnished Milton and Cowper 
their model, and left his own name 
as bright aud lasting as if it was 



70 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



written on every stone and pencil- 
ed on every flower. 

When you would retire from the 
thronging crowds for a few hours 
for sober contemplation, just follow 
Dante far beyond earthly objects 
and feelings, be with him when he 
confers with the angel spirit of. 
Beatrice, be with him when he con 



demns the vices and corruptions of 
his age, and judge for yourselves 
whether or not it was with Dante 
that 



" The sacred influence 

Of light appeared, and from the walls of heaven 

Shot far into dim night 

A glimmering dawn." 



Cecil. 



(We clip the following.) 

THE FUNERAL OF HOPE. 

[The following sad but beautiful lines were written by the late Richard i 
Lisles, Esq., of Danville, Va., a gentleman of genius, a fine scholar and 
a lawyer of some distinction. The lines speak the sad experience and 
fate of the author.] 

I have been to the funeral ot all my hopes, 
And entombed them one by one ; 

Not a word was saitl, 

Not a tear was shed. 
When the mournful task was done. 

Slowly and sadly I turned me round, 
Aud sought my silent room j 

And there alone, 

By the cold hearthstone, 
I wooed the midnight gloom. 

And as the night wind's deepening shade 
Lowered above my brow, 

I wept o'er days 

When manhood's rays 
Were brighter far than now. 

The dying embers on the hearth 
Gave out their flickering light, 

As if to say 

This is the way 
Thy life shall close in night. 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY, 



71 



I wept aloud in anguish sore 
O'er the blight of prospects fair ; 

While demons laughed 

And eager quaffed 
My tears like nectar rare. 

Through hell's red halls an echo ran ; 
An echo loud and long, 

As in the bowl 

I plunged my soul, 
In the might of madness strong. 

And there within that sparkling glass 
I knew the cause to lie ; 

This all men own 

From zone to zone, 
Yet millions drink and die. 



UNIVERSITY DAY, OCT. 12th, 1882. 



The following is an abstract of 
President Battles's address on 
University Day, 1882: 

After recapitulating the topics 
of his three former University Day 
addresses he proceeded to give the 
first organisation of the course 
of studies, and curicula, of the 
University. The committee ap- 
pointed December 4th, 1792, for 
repotting the same, was composed 
of men of culture and ability. The 
Chairman was Rev. Dr. Samuel E. 
McCorkle, from whose school at 
Thyatira, near Salisbury,under the 
name of Zion-Parnassus, suggest- 
ing a combination of christian 
with classic culture, was furnished 
the mental armor to many of the 
best men of that day. Next to 
him was David Stone, a graduate 
of Princeton, then a brilliant young 



lawyer, afterwards Governor and 
Senator of the United States. 
Then there was Alfred Moore, not 
many years subsequently a judge 
of the Supreme Court of the Unit- 
ed States. Then came Samuel 
Ashe, one of the first three judges 
under the Constitution of 1776, 
soon to be transferred to the office 
of Governor. One of his descend- 
ants, Thomas Samuel Ashe, is an 
honored Judge of the Supreme 
Court under the Constitution of 
1876; another, Samuel A. Ashe, is 
editor of one of our most promi- 
nent dailies, and still another is a 
Freshman of the University. The 
fourth committeeman was a promi- 
nent lawyer, John Hay, of Fayette- 
ville,father-in-law of Judge Gaston, 
whose name survives in the beauti- 
ful hill, Hayniount, on the west of 



72 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



Fayetteville. Lastly was Dr. Hugh 
Williamson, of Edenton, the histo- 
rian of North Carolina, once 
Professor of Mathematics in the 
University of Pennsylvania, one of 
the signers of the Constitution of 
the United States. The report of 
the committee recommends in addi- 
tion to the usual studies of colleges, 
the principles of Agriculture and 
Architecture, thus assimilating the 
course to those now in use in the 
University. Apparatus for instruc- 
' tion was to be purchased and the 
friends of the institution were 
appealed. to for donations of books. 
They liberally responded, the most 
prominent being James Reid, of 
Wilmington, Gov. Davie, Dr. Da- 
vid Ker, Richard Bennehan, Abra 
ham Hodge, of Halifax; Joseph P. 
Gautier, of Bladen; Joseph B. Hill, 
of Wilmington; Rev. James Hall of 
Iredell. Mr. Gautier presented 171 
volumes of French works. Much 
amusement was created by the 
statement, derived from the late 
Judge Battle, that in his time the 
ponderous tomes of the "Christian 
Fathers" were borrowed by the 
students and used as mouse-traps. 
The grave-digger's conjecture in 
Hamlet that the body of Alexan- 
der, having returned to dust, may 
have been used to stop a beer bar- 
rel, and that 



"Imperious Caesar dead and turned to clay, 
Might stop a hole to keep the wind away," 

was parodied. 

Oh that the sacred books which gave the 

at tieists dread, 
Should fall with deadly force upon a mouse's 

head ! 

The sale of village lots realized 
$3048. Thi3 added to other funds 



made a capital of $12,900, with accu- 
mulated interest, amounting to 
$300. With this small endow- 
ment available— the donations ofj 
lauds in Tennessee by Gov. Smith 
and of escheated land warrants 
were worthless for many years — 
the Trustees decided only to elect 
a "Presiding Professor. 7 ' A Presi- 
dent was not elected for several 
years afterwards. The title of the 
new Professor was ''Professor of 
Humanity," the latter word mean- 
ing "mental cultivation befitting 
man," or according to the ideas of 
that day, "languages and grammar 
and rhetoric and poetry, and especi- 
ally the study of the ancient clas- 
sics.'' 

The Presiding Professor was to 
be paid $300 per annum and one- 
third of the tuition fees. If an 
assistant should be found necessary 
he was to have 200 and one-tbird 
of such fees. There was to be, for 
Reading, Writing, Arithmetic and 
Book keeping, $8 per year; for 
Latin, Greek and French languages 
English Grammar, Geography, 
History and the Belles lettres for 
any or all, $12.50 per year; for I 
Geometry, with its practical 
branches, Astronomy and Moral 
Philosophy, Chemistry and ''the 
principles of Agriculture, for all 
or any of them, $15 per year. The 
students were to board at Commons 
at the cost of $30 per year. Judg- 
ing from the complaints of the 
students on record some of the 
stewards made money even at 
these charges. 

The Professor of Humanity was 
elected by ballot. The persons 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



73 



nominated were Rev. Dr. McGorkle, 
Dr. David Ker, Rev. George Michle- 
john, Rev. Robeit Archibald, 
Mr. John Biown, Rev. James Tate 
and Andrew Martin. President 
Battle gave short sketches of all 
these, but especially of the Rev. 
Dr. Ker, who was elected. He 
spelt his name with a single u r.'' 

He was a graduate of Trinity 
College, Dublin, a Presbyterian 
clergyman of Scotch-Irish desceut. 
A rapid but vivid description was 
given of the misgovernmeut of 
Ireland which reduced her to such 
poverty that only one hundred 
years ago the celebrated agricul- 
turist, Arthur Young, found in 
many parts of the island the ropes 
which drew the ploughs, harrows 
and wagons fastened to the tails ot 
the horses. Even when Ireland 
was permitted to have a parliament 
only members of the Church of 
England were allowed to have a 
voice in it. These formed only 
one-twelfth of the population, and 
of these a few great land-owners 
dominated the House of Lords 
and elected two thirds of the 
House of Commons. Such was 
the oppression that the Catholics 
and Presbyterians united some- 
times in vain revolt. 

But the the afflictions of Irelaud 
were a boon to North Carolina. 
They gave to us many of our 
greatest statesmen, warriors, law- 
yers, divines, physicians, agricul- 
turalists and especially wise and 
learned teachers of youth. 

Thence came Dr. McCorkle, Dr. 
David Caldwell of Guilford, Dr. 
Joseph Caldwell of the University 



and Wm. Bingham the progenitor 
of those enlightened teachers, 
Robert Bingham and Wm. Bing- 
ham Lynch. Thence came those 
early benefactors of the University, 
the McCauleys and Craigs. 

Dr- Ker was preacher aud teach- 
er for three years in Fayetteville 
before taking charge of the Univer- 
sity. He remained only one year 
in his new position. About one 
hundred students soon appeared 
but most of them were totally 
unprepared and it was found nec- 
essary to found a grammar school 
in connection with the University 
for their benefit. After his resig- 
nation Dr. Ker studied law in 
Lumberton and then in 1800 remov- 
ed to Mississippi Territory and 
settled at Washington near Nat- 
chez. His wife opened a school in 
which her husband taught in the 
intervals of his professional duties. 
A letter from him is in possession 
of the University. He describes 
the country as having an unexam- 
pled prosperity. An industrious 
planter in one year could clear the 
price of a negro. Being an ardent 
Republican he paints in rather 
black terms the opponents of that 
party. A large portion, he says, were 
British subjects and ceased to be 
go not by choice but by conquest. 
Others were Revolutionary Tories. 
Governor W. C. C. Claiborne 
appointed him to the office of 
Superior Court Clerk of Adams 
county and soon afterwards of 
Sheriff. The duties of these offices 
he filled with such ability that on 
the nomination of Senator Stone he 
was appointed a Judge by President 



74 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



Jefferson. His career in this office 
was short. He was cut off by 
disease caused by exposure wh : le 
holding court in an open house in 
cold weather. A gentleman who 
knew him well describes i_im as a 
man "of fine education, a classical 
scholar, well read in the principles 
of moral and natural philosophy, 
of law and religion. His principles 
were well formed and matured and 
his moral character of the best 
model, firm, stem, inflexible and 
unyielding.'' His good wife contin- 
ued her school, educated her chil- 
dren and they have left numerous 
descendants, the Kerrs, Terrvs, 
Nutts and Cowdens of Mississippi. 
President Battle continued. "The 
truth of history requires me to 
add, that about the time of his 
leaving the University Judge Ker 
became tainted with the infidel 
notions then so wide spread. The 
chuiches of many countries being 
united to the States, had became 
so corrupt that the popular mind 
imputed their evils to the Chris- 
tian religion— evils which were no 
part of that religion and had been 
foully grafted on it. Hence bad 
government and bad religion be- 
came associated together in a 
common odium, and on the other 
hand political freedom was suppos- 
ed to walk hand in hand with 
infidelity. The wild passion for 
liberty thus swept off from the 
true faith many good men who, 
after the delirium was over, went 
back to the true and undefiled 
principles of religion, as revealed in 
the Book of Books." 
"The records of the University do 



not show it, but it is altogether 
probable that this aberration of 
Dr. Ker was the cause of his want 
of success and short stay at the 
University. There were many 
devout Christians iu the Board of 
Trustees, and neither they nor the 
parents of the State would tolerate 
infidelity in the Presiding Professor. 
"The letter from which the quota- 
tion is made in regard to Dr. Ker's 
character leads us to hope that in 
his new field of duty he returned 
to the faith of his fathers. 7 ' 

"The history of the world shows 
many crazy "portions of infidelity," 
and arrogant mortals boast that 
Christianity is to be relegated to 
the superstitions of the past. But 
after every such assault the reli- 
gion of the Saviour rises with 
renewed vigor to soften the hearts 
of men, to tame their savagery, 
to ennoble their brutish ness, to 
change their natures, slowly it 
may be, but surely, into the like- 
ness of their Redeemer, kt this 
very day there is a more wide 
spread piety, a greater care of the 
poor aud afflicted, a more earnest 
effort to carry out the divine com- 
mands, than has ever been known 
before. When we see church spires 
pointing heavenward iu every 
neighborhood, new hospitals open- 
ed every day for the sick who 
cannot pay, schoolhouses for the 
poor everywhere dotting the laud, 
a thousand Howards working for 
the relief of mankind, a thousand 
Elizabeth Frys reading God's word 
iu the haunts of vice, dark and 
dismal places illumined by the Sun 
of Righteousness, missiouaries 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



75 



penetrating to the remotest wilds, 
civilization spreading over all 
lands, and eommeice whitening 
every sea, when we see how much 
more humanely wars are conducted 
than in olden days, when we reflect 
on all these tangible proofs that 
the world is growing better and 
wiser and that the principles laid 
down by the humble Nazarene are 
triumphing more and more, true 
christians can laugh to scorn the 
arrogant blasphemies of Voltaire 
and Tom Payne, repeated at second 
hand with serene plagiarism b\ 
the Bob Ingersolls of the day, 
thirsting for notoriety." 



President Battle closed by prom- 
ising to sketch for next University 
Day the character of a more inter- 
esting and worthy man thau Dr. 
Ker, one wh > would have attained 
eminence but for that insidious 
disease, consumption, which seems 
often to mark for its victims the 
best and loveliest, one of a family 
conspicuous always for solid worth 
and integrity and intelligence, the 
successor of Dr. Ker in the office 
of Presiding Professor, Charles W. 
Harris, one of the Harrises of 
Cabarrus. 



CANDOR. 



OCTOBER — A WOOD. 



[Harper's Monthly.] 

" I know what you are goiug to say," she said ; 
And she stood up looking uncommonly tall; 
" You are going to speak of the hectic fall ; 
And say you are sorry the summer's dead, 
And no other summer was like it you know, 
And can I imagiue what made it so. 
« Now aren't you, honestly f> " Yes,'' I said. 

" I know what you are going to say,'' she said ; 

" You are goiug to ask if I forget 

That day in June when the woods were wet, 

And you carried me"— here she drooped her head- 

"Over the creek; You're going to say, 

Do I remember that horrid day. 

" Now aren't you, honestly !" " Yes", I said. 



» I know what you're going to say,'' I said ; 
"You are going to say you've been much annoyed, 
And I am short of tact— you will say, "devoid — 
And I'm clumsv and awkward ; and call me *ed ; 
And I bear abuse like a dear old lamb ; 
And you'll have me any way, just as I am. 
Now are'nt you, honestly V " ye'es," she said. 



76 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



BACON AS A MAN AND PHILOSOPHER. 



The character of Sir Francis Ba- 
con has been attacked, and defend- 
ed by many able men. His French 
biographer has ably defended him, 
endeavoring to excuse his faults 
and palliate his crimes. His own 
countryman, Macaulay, has prose- 
cuted him with equal diligence and 
more success. The verdict has 
Mone forth that he was a bad man. 
Judging him by his actions alone, 
he was certainly behind the 'age in 
which he lived. The pioneer of 
modern philosophy, the leader of 
ihouyht in his country, he was the 
last and greatest Chancellor who 
forgot the sacred duiiesof his office 
and mered out justice according 
to the amouut of money received. 
Notwithstanding these facts, de- 
plorable as they may be, it is an 
a^e very base in its ingratitude 
that cannot find much in the life 
of Bacon to admire and praise. 
Posterity has decreed him the 
palm, and we applaud most heart- 
ily. As a youth investigating the 
causes of the echo and puzzling 
his brain over the philosophy of 
the juggler's trick, we admire him. 
We wonder at the spirit of inde- 
pendence and originality of the 
young man. Surveying the tro- 
phies, and enjoying the blessings 
of his works we are lost for words 
to express our admiration. When 
cares, misfortune, shame and dis- 
graces came upon him and hem in 
his spirit and shackle his genius, 
w d can but love him. The reader 
enjoying the beauties of his essay 
on Friendship, forgets the fate of 



the unfortunate Essex. The busi- 
ness man finds such advice from 
the essay on Riches as makes him 
forget that Bacon dealt in bad 
faith towards the commercial in- 
terests of his country. Tne philoso- 
pher, profiting by the precepts and 
principles of the great man, little 
regaids the tact that Bacon was 
the puppet of a haughty and cor- 
rupt court. All classes of people, 
finding the counsel of great wisdom 
in his works, have tacitly agreed 
to charge the faults to the infirmity 
of human nature, and will think of 
Sir Francis Bacon as the friend 
and philosopher of mankind. 

Some writers have endeavored 
to win his place for other great 
men. They have charged Bacon 
with bringing nothing new to the 
store of knowledge. Even Mac- 
aulay has devoted several pages in 
support of the fact that men in all 
ages have reasoned inductively. 
They claim tuat Bacon, made no 
great discovery, that he enunciated 
no truths that Aristotle or Roger 
Bacon had not noticed and pro- 
claimed. 

In spite of the charges of these 
popular and terse writers there is 
something about the works of 
Bacon that has giveu him immor- 
tality. There is a pointed ness and 
conciseness in his essays that con- 
trols the attention and wins the 
praises of the reader. There is an 
undercurrent in all his writings 
that makes him the companion of 
the thoughtful. There is the fruit 
of his works wherever we turn, so 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



77 



that we are are judging *« Manlius 
in sight of Rome." 

Now why is this? Has Bacon 
no just claim to all these things ? 
We must say that Bacon was 
fortunate in the time of his birth. 
Had he lived before the futility of 
the old systems of philosophy had j 
shown itself, he would not have j 
had so impartial a heariug. The 
people, once so enthusiastic in their 
support of the sublime Grecian 
theories as shown in the Realistic 
and Nominalistic schools, had seen 
their mistake. They had seen that 
they were systems which brought 
uo food for the mind, no alleviation 
for the ills of the body. The 
human mind had faltered in the 
mazy fields of unending dispute 
about words. They had no aim, 
they produced no results. The 
system had not stooped to alleviate 
the sufferings and minister unto 
the wants of man ; man refused to 
grant longer the degrading allegi- 
ance. 

The people were losing interest 
in philosophy and giving them- 
selves up to religious controversy. 
Ariniuianism and Calvinism had 
supplanted Norminalism and Real 
ism, at least as living issues. At 
this juncture Bacon opened up the 
potentialities of Scieuce. He an- 
nounced as the basis of his philoso- 
phy, utility and progress. His aim 
was progress, his end was to be 
fruit. He held that whatever was 
of benefit to the humblest was 
worthy the study of the wisest. 
He claimed that that was alone 
true philosophy which ministered 
to the wants of men. The old sys- 



tem would make man perfect', Ba- 
con would make imperfect man 
happy. The old system would ad- 
vise study for a mental exercise ; 
Bacon would have us study that 
we might gain useful knowledge. 
The old system condemning the 
plan of alphabetical writing, would 
have us with prodigious memories ; 
Bacon would have us with full 
note-books. In short Plato would 
raise us above wants; Bacon would 
minister to the se wants. We see 
that the two systems were in direct 
opposition. The one was theoreti- 
cal j the other was experimental. 
The one was an unending dispute 
about words-, the other was an un- 
ending investigation of the arcana 
of nature. The one was abstract; 
the other concrete. There was no 
rendezvous for word conflict be- 
tween these systems. The one had 
met the death of the useless; the 
other enjoyed the welcome of the 
useful. The system of Bacon was 
adopted without dispute. The peo- 
ple could not- object to a system 
that tended so strongly to benefit 
themselves. It requires no master 
logician to induce a sick man to 
test the merits of a medicine. It 
was no difficult matter to persuade 
a people crushed in misrule and 
bad legislation to enquire into the 
causes of these things. The simple 
command " to march'' was sufficient 
for the great phalanx of human 
minds that had been " marking 
time" for ages past. 

It was left for Bacon to give this 
command. Bacon says Mr. Bas- 
eom was the pivot upon which Eng- 
lish thought turned decidedly and 



78 



THE UNIVSRSITY MONTHLY. 



finally to the physical world. With 
his immense powers of comprehen- 
sion he directed research in every 
direction. Appreciating the mu- 
tual relations of all branches of 
knowledge, he has made mankind 
his eternal debtor. The iconoclasts 
of to-day, in all their arrogance, 
have not dared to profane the Ba- 
conian temple. Though his system 
has performed its mission and been 
supplanted by a better one, still 
these men are proud to own their 
frequent pilgrimages to its shrine. 
The rich graces of Bacon's style 
and his weighty aphorisms adorn 
the pages of many of the popular 
writers of to-day. 

A famous writer has well said 
that Bacon's style combines the 
strength of Demosthenes with the 
rhetorical beauty of Cicero. 

But we have not yet struck the 
key-note to Bacon's immortality. 
He was plainly no Copernicus nor 
Galileo. He is neither the greatest 



nor the most successful experiment- 
alist. Physical Science in its rich 
robes of to day has forgotten the 
time of Baconian knee-breeches 
and jackets. Where then is the 1 
secret of the charm of Bacon's 
name % It lies in the way in which 
he arrived at his ends. Bacon says 
Mr. Lewes is indebted to his method 
for whatever of fame he now en- 
joys. And although, adds this 
writer, Bacon had predecessors in 
the advocacy of the Inductive 
method, notably Albertus Magnus 
and Roger Bacon, yet to him be- 
longs the credit of co-ordinating 
into a compact body the elements 
of this method. These men had ! 
insisted on induction, but not the 
circumspect method of Science. 
Bacon not only advised the experi- 
mental method but told how these 
experiments were to be made. He 
distinguished " interrogation'' from 
',' anticipation." Tug. 



SOME MOUNTAIN VIEWS. 



It is not unusual to hear com- 
ments on the lack of communica- 
tion and intercourse between the 
western part of the State on the 
one hand, and all other sections of 
the State on the other. This be- 
yond—the Blue Ridge part of the 
commonwealth has always been, 
and is yet to a great extent, some- 
thing of an unknown land. Though 
thus unknown there be few, in any 
part of the State, who cannot tell 
one all about this hill country, its 
people and its peculiarities — the 



habits, customs and character of 
its population, What North Caro- 
linian who can not tell us all about 
these! To one familiar with the 
intermontaine section it is often a 
great source of information to hear 
most people on this subject. It is 
likely to remind one of the man 
who was examined by the counsel 
with a view to his competency as a 
juror, and who, on being asked if 
he had formed and expressed the 
opinion that the prisoner at bar was 
guilty, replied, " I have expressed an 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



79 



opinion, but have not formed one." 
We hope we will not be misunder- 
stood as reflecting on some peoples' 
knowledge (?) so full and complete, 
on this subject. Let us hasten 
to correct ourself by a fuller and 
more complete illustration of what 
we mean. Let us, for instance, 
outline the average house of the 
average mountaineer, as seeu by 
many of those who have never been 
among these blue hills. Tom Moore 
is said by the critics to have given, 
in a most wonderfully accurate 
manner, glimpses of that oriental 
clime of eternal summer, its people, 
their habits, customs and thoughts, 
although he never was in Persia. 
This only shows the clearness of 
vision with which one may observe 
and delineate the peculiarities of a 
country and a people, though he be 
separated from them by the diame- 
ter ot the globe. Then, as we were 
saying ; let us sketch an average 
mountain home and its surround- 
ings as it is often supposed to be by 
many who, though they have not 
visited the mountains, are so famil- 
iar (?) with life in the Blue Ridge. 
Imagine then a steep and rugged 
mountain road, over arched by 
thick, dense foliage, which shuts 
! out for a while the distant view ; 
but making a sudden turn in the 
winding roadway we find ourselves 
along side a mountain farm whose 
brush fence, running along up the 
steep mountain-side, embraces 
some score or more of acres inclin- 
ed at an angle of about forty-five 
degrees— that is to say " hung up 
by the heels." Bordering on the 
roadway is a small plot of level 



ground about one half of which is 
covered by a double-log cabin with 
a chimney of sticks and mud. 
There is a shed on the back side of 
the house, weather- boarded with 
" slabs,'' and in this shed the num- 
erous vsmall children are at night 
packed away like sardines in a box. 
On the shady-side of the cabin may 
be seen a huge ash-bank in which 
five or six of the smallest, dirtiest 
and raggedest of the children are 
alternately playing and fighting, 
cussin' and squalling. A hog pen 
is just in front of the door not so 
much for ornament, but mountain 
people are so sociable, you know. 
A sprinkling of hounds is notice- 
able, sleeping lazily around the 
doorway, and in the house. In the 
back-ground is seen the landlord 
of these tenements and heredita- 
ments. He is on a sort of a de- 
clivity above the house, slowly 
plowing a bob tail bull. 

This is a very common idea of 
mountain life. Thus it is often 
thought mountain people " live 
move and have their being." And 
Unchristian Reid has done a good 
deal towards giving currency to 
such opinions. Her God is ambi- 
tion and to this duty she has sac- 
rifised truth on the altar of fiction. 
She has added the indispensable 
charm of novelty to her work, by 
misrepresenting the manners, hab- 
its and circumstances of the people 
among whom the scenes of " The 
Land of the Sky" were laid. But 
we will leave her weak scribblings 
as a prey to the oblivion that awaits 
them, and which they so entirely 
deserve. 



80 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



But there is a more charitable 
class of persons than those of whom 
we have spoken. They do not 
think that the mountain people are 
so extremely primitive and rude. 
Tbey say, that there is scarcely a 
county West of Blue Ridge but has 
one or more houses covered with 
shingles and furnished with brick 
chimneys. They say, that there are 
cases known where kerosene lamps 
have been used, up there; and that 
it is a mistake about the whole 
household, and the stranger that is 
within their gates, all sleeping in 
one room — for among the best peo- 
ple, the houses tho' small are di- 
vided into several compartments 
and only five or six sleep in a room. 
And then they say, that this old 
plan of going to mill in ox- wagons 
is not so common as many people 
think, for the women carry the 
grain to mill while they are resting 
from their more arduous tasks. 
Neither do they believe that in 
many instances the Sunday Schools 
keep blood hounds for the purpose 
of chasing the children in from 
the woods of a Sunday morning — 
in order to teach them. 

These are some of the views of 
mountain life that we have some- 
times heard even North Carolinians 
express. Now we will not enter 
into a lengthy denial of these ab- 
surd notions, nor give way to a 
diatribe on those who are thus ig- 



norant of the West; nor shall we 
attempt the responsibility of en 
deavoring to give, in the limits of 
one short paj>er, accurate and just 
ideas of the land of the sky. This 
would be too ambitious an under 
taking for so humble a pen. 

We could tell something at least 
of the uusurpassed grandeur and 
beauty of innumerable cerulean 
peaks and hills, as tbey change 
their delicate bluish liuts with the 
caprice of the hour and of the sea- 
son; we might tell of the moonlit 
vistas, and cool glens where crystal 
fountains sing forever their mono- 
tones of melody in the ears of 
charmed lovers, or how the untold 
glories of a mountain twilight make 
bare existence a most intoxicating 
pleasure; but we forbear. 

We might tell too of the educa- 
tional boom, the railroad sensations, 
the fine farms with modern ma- 
chinery and advanced agricultural 
improvements, the wealth and cul- 
ture of certain localities, and other 
things of which the western peo- 
ple are proud. 

Yes, we could at length tell of all 
these things, but will desist for fear 
we might get our adjectives mixed 
up like a certain patriotic Kentuck- 
ian did on a public occasion when 
he said, "In my state they have 
the most beautiful horses and the 
fattest women." 

DOUBLETOU VEE. 






THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 81 



[The printing of the following poem, written ^ Joseph WHolden in 1867 will [be 
considered most appropriate just at this time, ^hile the dread ul fate gfcj^*" 
fresh in the public mind. A copy of it is furnished by General T. L. Uingman, wno 
thinks it equal to any American poetry.— Eds.] 

HATTERAS. 
The Wind King from the North came down, 
Nor stopped by river, mount, or town ; 
But, like a boisterous god at play, 
Resistless bounding on his way, 
He shook the lake and tore the wood, 
And flapped his wings in merry mood, 
Nor furled them till he spied afar 
The white caps flash on Hatteras bar, 
Where fierce Atlantic landward bowls 
O'er treacherous sands and hidden shoals. 

He paused, then wreathed his horn of cloud 

And blew defiance long and loud ; 

** Come up ! Come up, thou torrid god ; 

That rul'st the Southern sea ! 
llo! lightning-eyed and thunder-shod, 

Come wrestle here with me ! 
As tossest thou the tangled cane 
I'll hurl thee o'er the boiling main ! 

The angry heavens hung dark and still, 
Like Arctic night on Hecla's hill ; 
The mermaids sporting on the waves, 
Affrighted, fled to coral caves ; 
The billow checked its curling crest, 
And, trembling, sank to sudden rest ; 
All ocean stilled its heaving breast. 

Reflected darkness, weird and dread, 
An inky plain the waters spread-— 
So motionless, since life was fled ! 

Amid this elemental lull, 
When nature died, and death lay dull, 
As though itself were sleeping there- 
Becalmed upon that dismal flood, 
Ten fatal vessels idly stood, 
And not a timber creaked ! 



82 THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



Dim silence held each hollow hull, 
Save when some sailor, in that night, 
Oppressed with darkness and despair, 
Some seaman, groping for the light, 
Rose up and shrieked ! 

They cried like children lost and lorn : 
u Oh, Lord, deliver while you may ! 
Sweet Jesus, drive this gloom away ! 
Forever fled, oh, lovely day? 
I would that I were never born !'' 
For stoutest souls were terror-thrilled, 
And warmest hearts with horror chilled. 

" Come up! Come up, thou torrid god, 
Thou lightning-eyed and thunder-shod, 

And wrestle here with me !' ? 
Twas heard and answered : u Lo ! I come 

From azure Carribee 
To drive thee cowering to thy home, 
And melt its walls of frozen foam." 

From every isle and mountain dell, 

From plains of pathless ch apparel, 

From tide-built bars, where sea birds dwell, 

He drew his lurid legions forth — 

And sprang to meet the white-plumed North. 

Can mortal tongue in song convey 
The fury of that fearful fray ? 
How ships were splintered at a blow — 
Sails shivered into shreds of snow — 
And seamen hurled to death below ! 
Two gods commingling, bolt and blast, 
The huge waves on each other cast, 
And bellowed o'er the raging waste ; 
Then sped, like harnessed steeds, afar, 
That drag a shattered battle car 
Amid the midnight din of war ! 

False Hatteras ! when the cyclone came 
Your waves leapt up with hoarse acclaim 
And ran and wrecked yon argosy ! 



THE UNIVSRSITY MONTHLY. 83 



For e'er nine sauk ! that lone hulk stauds 
P^rnbedded in thy yellow sands— 
An hundred hearts in death there stilled, 
And yet its ribs, with corpses filled, 
Are now caressed by thee ! 

Smile on, smile on, thou watery hell, 
Aud toss those skulls upon thy shore; 
The sailor's widow knows thee well ; 
His children beg from door to door, 
And shiver while they strive to tell 
How thou hast robbed the wretched poor ! 

Yon lipless skull shall speak for me, 
This is Golgotha of the sea ! 
And its keen hunger is the same 
In winter's frost or summer's flame ! 
When life was young, adventure sweet, 
I came with Walter Raleigh's fleet, ? 
But here my scattered bones have lain 
And bleached for ages by the main ! 
Though lonely once, strange folk have come, 
Till peopled in my barren home 
Enough are here. Oh, heed the cry, 
Ye white- winged strangers sailing by ! 
The bark that lingers on this wave 
Will find its smiling but a grave ! 
Then, tardy mariner, turn and flee, 
A myriad wrecks are on thy lea ! 
With swelling sail and sloping mast 
Accept kind Heaven's propitious blast ! 
Oh, ship, sail on ! Oh, ship, sail fast, 
Till thou Golgotha's quick sands past — 
Hath gained the opened sea at last ! 



84 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



A THING OF THE PAST. 



"Of all the notable things on earth 
The queerest one is pride of birth 

Among our fierce democracy. 
A bridge across a hundred years, 
Without a prop to save from sneers, 
Not even a couple of rotten piers, 
A thing for laughter, fleers and sneers, 

Is American Aristocracy. " 

The average, so called, American 
Aristocracy of the present is a 
subject that may well call forth all 
the keen sarcasm of a Saxe, whose 
lines we have just quoted. An 
element of society raised from the 
lowest depths to the highest sta- 
tions by the changes wrought by 
the "late, lamentable unpleasant- 
ness,'' this mushroom child of 
revolution and mere silver currency 
saddens while it disgusts the 
thoughtful. 

When we see men selling them- 
selves and honor for the dominant 
political party for rank, when we 
see such men numbered among the 
hoi aristoi of the republic; when we 
see merit and political wealth 
becoming almost synonymous, no 
matter how that wealth be attain- 
ed, then we sigh for the savage 
gun of a Juvenal or a Dean Swift. 
When we see the myriad votaries 
of enthroned mammon, bristling, 
striving, blindly, clutching for 
front seats in the synagogue of this 
modern deity; when the mad love 
of the glistening, tinkling silver 
dollar creates and destroys fortunes 
in a day; when the steam whistle, 
the whirring and clashing of ma- 
chinery, and the restless claw 
hammer vie with one another in 
making night and day hideous; 



when all this happens statesmen 
and political economists boast of 
progress and prosperity, but we 
who are more romantic and less 
practical turn with a sigh to the 
old and vanished ways of ante hel- 
ium, times. 

The old fashioned gentleman with 
his warm, generous heart and his 
open -house hospitality has made 
his exit beneath the °u wreathing 
smoke of battle and the ashes of 
the lost cause. Yes, Southern 
aristocracy has almost become a 
thing of the past. 

Here and there it lifts a shorn 
head above the counting houses of 
business or strives to keep up a 
respectable appearance in the 
ruined old homes ead, but the sad 
fact is forced upon us that altered 
times and changed circumstances 
are slowly but surely wiping away 
ail traces of a once powerful ele- 
ment in our Society. 

The North was settled by the 
Puritans and laboring classes of 
Europe, the South by the Cavalier. 
Here the latter came and founded 
estates that in splendor and mag- 
nitude rivaled the estates of their 
kinsmen across the sea. The 
absolute lord over his slaves, and 
having the lower classes of the 
whites iu a kind of quasi vassalage 
our Aristocrat was the untitled 
peer of the realm. Iu his hauds, 
the country's weal, his will guided 
the course of legislation. 

From every part of the South 
came the sons of these lords of the 
soil to swell the role of our grand 



THE UNIVEBSITY MONTHLY. 



85 



old University. Their education 
completed here, many went to 
Europe to travel or further prose- 
cute their studies, while others 
returned to their homes to assume 
control of their estates. 

Possessing a high, christian 
spirit, the typical Southerner was 
governed by a, perhaps, too quix- 
otic code of honor. For this he 
was indebted to his kinship with 
the high and haughty peers of old 
England and sunny France. Hence 
the lies and ceaseless hurling of, 
the shafts of ridicule directed by 
the Northern mind at a quality 
which it was alike unable to under- 
stand or to appreciate. 

While not accepting the extreme 
views of Carlyle and Warren in 
regard to rank and blood, yet we 
do believe that, at that time, the 
aristocracy of rank was the aristoc- 
racy of taleut. We believe that 
the statesman of that day and 
time was far superior to the pur- 
chasable article of the present. 
Now, in this boasted land of 
freedom, the only real, live, bona 
fide slaves are the national officers. 
To-day the congressman goes to 
Washington, loaded and fettered 
with the promises of his constitu- 
ents, so that his own private 
opinion can never be exercised. 
Then, the statesman, possessing, 
generally, great wealth, and hence 
having nothing to gain by corrup- 
tion, a man of untarnished honor, 
and hence incapable of 'corruption, 
acted of himself alone. In the 
performance of duty, true as steel 
and fearless as the storm. 
In oratory there was a wide 



difference between the Northern 
and Southern style. The Northern 
speech is aimed at the judgment 
alone, abounds in statistics and 
matter of fact deductions, it sounds 
like the inventory of a dry goods 
merchant. 

The Southerner directed himself 
to both heart and judgment of his 
hearer. At one time his language 
breathed an eloquence that sounded 
as beautiful and witching as low, 
soft strains of music; at another 
time rising into a burst of passion, 
his rapid sentences ringing with 
the ominous sound of cold iron, 
the resistless magic of his voice 
and manner overcame and crushed 
all opposition. Tourgee in the 
"Royal Gentleman" elegantly 
draws the distinction betweeh tha 
Northern and Southern orators 
style as follows : 

"The one is a demonstrator who 
carries you with him like a prison- 
er. The other a speculator who 
sends you abroad alone, into tan- 
gled thickets of luxuriant thought, 
full of unseen treasures and unex- 
plored ways, and quietly awaits 
for you to come back to pursue 
your general course with him. 
The one is a man who travels who 
must get to his journey's eud, the 
other, the learned and accomplish- 
ed tourist, who travels simply for 
the enjoyment to be derived from 
wayside scenes and chance encoun- 
ters.'' 

In private relations our typical 
Southerner was a gentleman, in all 
the full, round, old fashioned mean- 
lug of that term. His almost 
unbounded generosity arid hospi- 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



tality will live forever in the songs 
of our Southern poets. There was 
born of his inactive life, and his 
position lord over many dependents 
an unwholesome contempt for 
mercantile pursuits, and a strong 
antipathy for iunvation and ad- 
vancement: For this reason then 
it is, perhaps best, that the tide of 
Southern Aristocracy is fast ebbing 
away. But whether for the best 
or not,it is certainly passing away. 

Stricken and wounded sore on 
the battle fields of Manassas, of 
Shiloh, of Gettysburg, of Rich- 
mond, of Appomattox, it yet 
might, have been healed had it not 
met a foe tenfold more destructive 
than war itself, the social revolu- 
tions that followed that war. 

In passing through the country 



one notices with sadness the ruin- 
ed old homesteads. A once large 
estate has dwindled to a mere farm 
yard. 

The hills and valleys that once 
wore the smile of ripening grain, 
now furrowed with gulleys and 
covered with pine and sage, pre- 
sents a scene of woe and want 
that tells unmistakably the sor- 
rowful story of revolution. The 
yard fence is broken down. Inside 
the dilapidated structure, once a 
home, the walls are nearly bare. 
But few remnants of bygone splen- 
dor remain, the only one, perhaps, 
a broken-keyed out-of-tune piano, 
that strikes instinctively to the 
low, sad music of the golden long 
ago, J J. 



A RECENT SCIENTIFIC IMPROVEMENT. 



To convert the energy represent- 
ed by a given quantity of fuel into 
mechanical work, has ever been at- 
tended with such an enormous loss, 
that the scientific and practical 
engineers have been constantly 
giving their attention to the sub 
ject of economic combustion of 
luel. 

Among the many sources of loss, 
the larger and mo»e obvious are : 
imperlect combustion of the fuel 
and the escape of heat through the 
chimney. 

As an evidence of the former, is 
the great quantity of smoke that 
is produced. The soot which con- 
stitutes smoke is small particles of 
carbon, which is un burnt fuel. To 
prevent this loss various forms of 



grates have been devised, and dif- 
ferent ways of admitting air tried; 
also the method of supplying fuel 
has claimed attention. 

When forced blast is used, the 
heat that escapes through the chim- 
ney has been in some instances 
utilized iu heating the air that sup- 
ports the combustion. Another 
device tried has been the injection 
of sprays of water into the flue for 
the escape of the hot products of 
combustion, and the water thus 
heated carried into the boiler. In 
short, the efforts to economize fuel 
are not new, nor have the sources 
and causes of loss been unknown. 
But the practical difficulties of 
avoiding these losses become very 
great, especially when large quanti- 



THE UNLVERS1TY MONTHLY. 



87 



ties of fuel are to be burnt ; and up 
to quite a recent date the advances 
made by engineers, who have given 
this subject special attention, have 
not been commensurate with their 
efforts. We have before us a 
pamphlet by Mr. E. J. Mallet, Jr., 
on the subject: Fuel Waste and 
Controlled Combustion. 

It may be of interest to most of 
our readers to state that Mr. Mai 
lett is a descendent of a family of 
this State, and a son of one of the 
early graduates of the University. 
He states in this pamphlet the 
many sources of loss and the causes, 
and then gives his method of pre 
venting these losses. 

While acknowledging our inabil- 
ity to do justice to Mr. Mallett's 
improved method of controlled 
combustion in a short review, we 
will endeavor to indicate some of 
the chief points of merit. 

A regulated amount of air is al 
lowed to enter the ash pit and to 
pass through the grate. 

The grate bars are tubes, one 
end communicates ^ith external 
air, the other end terminates at the 
back surface of a division wall 
which separates the fire-box from 
a combustion chamber. Through 
these another regulated supply of 
air is allowed to enter, which is 
heated by the burning fuel resting 
on the grate. 

Now when a fresh supply ot fuel 
(coal) is thrown on a mass of glow- 
ing coals the supply of air through 
the ash pit is cut off and the fire- 
box acts as a retort, distilling the 
coal, producing highly combustible 
These gases are allowed to 



pass through several openings in 
the division wall into the combus- 
tion chamber where they become 
intimately mixed with the headed 
air which enters through the tubes 
and the result is rapid and com- 
plete combustion. The coke that 
results from the process of distilla- 
tion is burned by allowing air to 
enter through the ash-pit, and as 
this is done the supply of air 
through the grate-tubes is lessened. 
By properly regulating the supply 
of air through these two sets of 
entrances, the combustion can be 
rendered complete, and consequent- 
ly without smoke. 

The heat thus generated is util- 
ized in evaporating water, by con- 
ducting the products of combustion 
through the ordinary boiler tubes. 
Then these gases, the products of 
combustion, still hot aielead into a 
horizontal flue, at the farther end 
of which is a suction fan. This fan 
is run by the steam power of the 
engine and produces the draft. Be- 
fore the fan drives out these gaseous 
products they are cooled by inject- 
ing jets of water. 

This cooling, lessens the volume 
to be expelled, and the water thus 
heated is pumped into the boiler. 

By this method the combustion 
is practically perfect, and without 
smoke, cinders or sparks; chim- 
neys are dispensed with ; any in- 
tensity of draft may be produced 
irrespective of chimneys or state of 
the weather ; the feed-water boilers 
heated by the waste heat of fuel 
gases ; together with several other 
points of advantage. 

This method is not only theore- 
tically possible, but has been prac- 
tically tested. 1- 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 



Editorial D epai^tment, 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY, 

Published under the auspices of 

DIALECTIC and PHILANTHROPIC 
LITERARY SOCIETIES 

Of the University of N. C. 
TERMS: 

One copy one year, (of 9 months) $1.00 

One copy six months 75 

Five copies to one address, one year, 4.00 

RATES OF ADVERTISING: 

One dollar per inch for first insertion and fifty 
cents for each subsequent insertion of game adver- 
tisemt-nt, 

Address all communications to 

WALTER W. VANDIVER, 

Business Manager, 
Chapel Hill, Orange Co., N. C. 

OHAVEL HILL, N. C, NOV., 1882. 

We regretted being compelled in 
our last issue to omit, from scarcity 
of space, this allusion to the recep- 
tion at Saint Mary's, given during 
the late State Fair. 

We have attended the receptions 
at Saint Mary's for several years 
past, and can in truth say that we 
have never seen anywhere such an 
array of beauty, or such evidence 
of that refined tact and manner 
which makes woman so much 
superior to man, as is there exhib- 
ited. 

Under the skillful chaperonage of 
Mrs. Czarmonska and Dr. Smedes, 
all present felt at ease, and the 
merry laughter of different groups 
( usually two in a group) showed how 
very keenly everybody enjoyed the 
pleasurable occasion. 

At an early hour ravishing 
strains of music proceeding from 



the dancing room, irresistibly 
attracted ns thither. When we 
entered a scene of brilliant beauty 
burst upon upon us, which, but for 
having been previously prepared 
for it by the bright eyes of oar 
companion, would have dazzled us. 
The dancing had commenced, and 
fairy forms were executing mystic 
evolutions with inimitable grace. 
Flushed faces and sparkling eyes 
betrayed the intensity of enjoy- 
ment and gladness that innocent 
youth can feel. Ye who, from a 
standpoint of presumed superior 
morality, condemn dancing, go at 
some future time to a St. Mary's 
reception, and learn there that 
dancing is not only consistent ivith y 
but productive of innocent pleasure. 

Thus far our memory serves us 
well, but no further. In dancing 
the first quadrille, we fell desper- 
ately, irretrievably, blindly in 
love, lost our reckoning, and, for 
the rest of the evening, lived in 
the imaginative, ideal world. Only 
when our carriage started back to 
the Yarbrough, did we realize 
how very seldom in a lifetime do 
occasions like the St. Mary's recep- 
tion, come. 

Though we despair of ever 
returning the elegant hospitality 
with which we were treated, yet 
we hope that the young ladies will 
allow us to show our appreciation 
of their kindness by giving us a 
chance to entertain them next 
commencement. 






THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



89 



We publish below, our sptcial 
announcement to the Alumni. The 
object of this circular, which we 
purpose to send to all the graduates 
who are now living, (we refrain 
from sending it to the dead, not 
knowing their address,) is explain- 
ed in the circular itself. Beginning 
with the January number, the 
Monthly will contain sixty pages 
filled with matter that the literary 
epicure cannot afford to do without. 

A certain portion of the maga- 
zine will be devoted to the history 
of the Alumni, written by Mrs. C. 
P. Spencer. 

SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENT TO THE 
ALUMNI OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Dear Sirs : The Association of 
the Alumni of the University ot 
North Carolina has taken steps to 
procure the leading facts in the 
lives of all those who have been 
connected with the University since 
its opening in 1795. At the r. quest 
of the Association Mrs. Cornelia 
Phillips Spencer has, by extensive 
correspondence, already collected 
notices of several hundreds of old 
students. It will probably be 
years before the work is finished. 
Iu the meantime the editors of the 
University Monthly ofier if the 
Alumni shall express their approv- 
al of the plan by a sufficiently 
liberal subscription to their paper, 
to devote at least three pages of 
each issue to the publication of 
these short biographies. The 
subscriber will thus, in addition to 
information concerning the Uni- 
versity of to-day, learn the chief 
items of the history of their old 
comrades. 



Very many of the Alumni of 
this University became leaders Ot 
the people. They have held the 
highest offices in the general gov- 
ernment and the States. They 
have beep eminent in all the pro- 
fessions and pursuits of life. Their 
history will throw important light 
on the history of the country. 
The publication contemplated will 
be not alone of deep interest to the 
sous of the University, but of 
great permanent value to all 
intelligent readers. 

The undersigned suggest that 
you notify Walter W. Vandiver, 
Chapel Hill, N. 0., of your subscrip- 
tion and forward to him the price of 
the Monthly, one dollar. 
Editors. 
Di. Soc. Phi. Soc. 

T.A.Wharton, F. S. Spruill, 
T. Radcliffe, T. C. Wo«ten, 

W. W. Vandiver. L. Vann. 



University of North Carolina, 
Chapel Hill, N. C, Oct. 30, '82. 
We approve the foregoing plan 
and will aid the editors in carrying 
it into effect. 

Kemp P. Battle, PresH. 
Cornelia P. Spencer, 
Cor. Sec. H. Soc. 



Mr. Walter W. Vandiver has 
been elected editor from the Di. 
Society to fill the vacancy caused 
by resignation of Z. B. Walser. 
The corps is fortunate in getting 
so pleasing a writer and clear-head- 
ed a business man as Mr. Vandi- 
ver. While we regret Mr. Walser's 
resignation, we are glad to wel- 
come brother Vandiver among us. 



90 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



A pressure of work aud the 
dread approach of winter examina- 
tions, has compelled brother New- 
man to surrender his editorial 
honors. T. C. Wooten, a veteran 
editor, succeeds him. 



As we go to press, we have just 
received the news of the death 
of Dr. Craven, late President of 
Trinity College The University 
extends its sympathy to the bereav- 
ed college. Trinity has sustained 
an irreparable loss. 

<•-©-»■ 

COLLEGE RECORD. 
The Anniversary day of the 
University was celebrated Oct. 9th. 
The exercises were participated in 
by the entire number of students, 
and most of the people from the 
village. The previous weather had 
been exceedingly inclement, and 
the consequence was that the ladies 
did not decorate the Chapel as 
they are accustomed to do. But 
nevertheless they donated to the 
occasion their presence, and cheer- 
fully contributed all they possibly 
could in ord r to assure the stu- 
dents that they felt a paramount 
interest in the birthday of the old 
University— that had given rise to 
so much preeminence. The inter- 
est that they manifested will serve 
as undoubted evidence of their 
State pride. 

Half-past ten o'clock students 
and villagers repaired to Gerard 
Hall, in fond anticipation, being 
aware that there was something 
good in store, as our good and 
noble President never fails to 
please with his wit, humor and 
eloquence. 



At the designated hour the 
exercises commenced, by a very 
appropriate and fervent prayer by 
Rev. Mr. Stone; after which the 
beautiful foundation hymn, (com- 
posed by Mrs. Spencer,) was sung by 
thellniversity Glee Club. Then follow-, 
ed the most admirable address of 
Dr. Battle, which was replete with 
all the requisites that go to make 
up an appreciative discourse. His 
address was totally of an historical 
nature, and is reported in this 
number of the Monthly. 

The Anniversary Ode was next 
in order, after which President 
Battle introduced the Hon. John 
Manning, who responded in a 
felicitous and happy manner. Col. 
Manning is a man of learning and 
high culture. His intellect is 
strong and clear. We regret that 
we are unable to report his address 
in full. The Rev. Dr. Jeffreys was 
next introduced. He arose and 
said: "When my brothers aud I were 
boys our delight was to put the 
bridle on colts and the yoke on the 
calves to see how they would like it, 
and to get them used to it. These 
University days when we are told of 
the happenings of the past, are 
well calculated to put the yoke on 
the young necks, teaching us what 
is in store for us. I am told that 
some 6000 men have gone out from 
these halls. As we look over our 
State and see them mingled with 
the people, how few they seem. 
Some are living quietly in their 
country homes, yet are casting a 
benign influence over the heads of 
the community; as I stood in our 
society hall for the first time arid 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



91 



looked into the faces of the men 
worthy of a place on those walls, 
how few they seemed. The ques- 
tion naturally arose where are the 
others among the comparative few 
who have attended here. Ouly a 
few stand out in proraineuce among 
the prominent of the small number. 
There are fewer still who, while 
leading the people, riding on popu- 
lar favor, controlling the hundreds, 
control themselves; noble few, who, 
let the waves of fame and honor 
carry them as they may, yet hold 
firmly to the helm. Where will 
you, young gentlemen, standi 
Among the few ? Take the princi- 
ples read here every morning from 
God's book and inculcated by your 
teachers from day to day, hold self 
well and be of the few who ride 
safely not only into honor and 
fame, but into a haven of eternal 
rest. 

Prof. Gore was solicited to speak 
by repeated calls from the boys. He 
answered in a few minutes' talk 
which was quite witty. The Pro- 
fessor is good at repartee. 

Prof. Winston also made some 
remarks abounding in good sense 
and wholesome advice. 

Chief Justice Manning, of Lou- 
isiana, has accepted the invitation 
from the Phi. Society to deliver the 
address at the next University 
Commencement. With such an 
orator a grand occasion is antici- 
pated. 

Fifteen Seniors in college, five 
of the Phi. Society and ten of the 
Di. 



At this writing Prof. Winston is 
off to the town of Winston to 
make a speech in interest of edu- 
cation. 

-*-«-» 



AMONG OUR EXCHANGES. 

■< O, these deliberate fools ! when they chooBe, 
They have the wisdom by their wit to lose." 

Shakebpkaek. 



Many of our exchanges are jubi- 
lant over the large number of Fresh- 
men in attendance this session. 
This is a good sign ; it indicates 
that the advantages of a collegiate 
education are being appreciated by 
the youth of the land. 

The Librarian of the Pennsyl- 
vania State College favors us with 
a catalogue of his college. The 
college is co-educational. The cata- 
logue is a neat document and 
claims much for the institution it 
advertises, as all catalogues are in 
duty bound to do. 

The Cornell Daily Sun peeps in 
every now and then cram full of all 
the latest news in regard to three 
subjects, which are li very import- 
ant," as the average Freshman in- 
variably remarks when he debates 
his first question. They are foot- 
ball, base-ball, tennis-ball— and 
Civil Service Reform 1 The dis- 
similarity between the three first 
and the last is great— though 
variety is the spice of life. 



The Wake Forest Student comes 
to the front this time with some 
sharp criticisms on our magazine. 
We did not expect anything else 
from it. Having so many manner- 



92 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



isms always "faultily faultless," it 
refuses to acknowledge the merit 
of anything that is out of the regu- 
lar way, that is not conducted ac- 
cording to the "old plan." It has 
for its precept : 

" Manner is all in all, what e'er is writ, 
The substitute for genius, taste and wit. " 

Shake off your allegiance to the 
old regime, kind friend, and then 
you will be able to appreciate the 
bright flashes, fitful and irregular 
though they be, of the geniuses 
that are at the head of this journal. 

The Niagara Index exchange-man 
grows facetious over the expulsion 
of fourteen boys from Lafayette 
College for hazing. He defines 
that innocent amusement, for the 
information of the knowledge-seek- 
ing Freshman, as a mixture of the 
Indian war dance and the daily 
clubbing exercise of the average 
New York policeman. This ex-man, 
who has been very severe on his 
brother college editors, has at last 
struck his spear against the shield 
of a " foeman worthy of his steel." 
The Comellian in speaking of him 
says : " We hope the new man 
will make some sacrifices to com- 
mon decency and make his ex- 
change department a source of in- 
formation concerning his collegiate 
brethren rather than to continue 
to use it as a store-house for vul- 
garisms that smell too bad to put 
in print." 



turn its leaves than sparkling, glit- 
tering literary gems of every hue 
would meet and dazzle our eyes. 
But we were doomed to disappoint- 
ment. Most of its articles were 
very weak indeed. Of course, oue 
does not go to a college paper, writ- 
ten generally by boys, to find 
" deep'' articles ; but as the Maga- 
zine claims to be the oldest college 
magazine in this country, with the 
sole exception of one at Yale, it 
should be exceptional. It criticises 
quite severely some of its exchanges 
and then excuses them because 
they are yet of few summers only. 
Implying that age makes a good 
magazine: 

u O wod the powers the giftie gie us 
To see oursels as ithers see us." 
If age does not improve the ex- 
changes more than it has improved 
our Virginia cotemporary they had 
better plunge in Ponce De Leon's 
spring and remain young forever. 



When the Virginia University 
Magazine first came under our eyes, 
from its aspects and the reputation 
of the college it represented, we 
thought that we would no sooner 



PERSONAL. 

Examinations draw near. 

We " hanker arter'' a view of 
the home folks. 

Now is the winter of our discon- 
tent — examination times. 



" To stand, or not to stand : that is the 

question : 
Whether 'tis easier in the mind to suffer 
Thb frowns and grunts of a disappointed dad, 
Or to take books against the over-inquisitive 

profs. 

And by getting 70 satisly them ? * 

* * * To "dig," to "oram"; 
To "cram ": perchance to "bust"; ay, there's 

the rub ; 
For in that examinational "bust" what will 

the old man say, 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 



93 



When we have shuffled off this Chapel Hill 

dust, 
And hied to homes that should he glad 

with welcome, but ainl 



Springs, Allen, '79, is farming in 
South Carolina. 

Vaughn, Latimer C, is editing 
a newspaper in Marianna, Florida. 

Hill, Edward J. elected from the 
District of Duplin and Wayne. 

Frank Winston, '79, is Probate 
Judge, Bertie county. 

Forhis, James W., elected to the 
House from Guilford. Gentlemen, 
we congratulate you. 

Aycock, C. B., '80, and Daniels, 
F. R., are getting a good law prac- 
tice in Goldsboro. 

Jim Ruffin, '81, spent a few days 
with us last week. He is the same 
old Jim, with the pledge left out 

Locke Craige, '80, received his 
license this Fall, and will settle in 
Bertie county. 

Morehead Avery, "Alfonso," '81, 
is at the Eastman Business College, 
Pou ghkeepsie, N. Y. Burke and 
Johnson are again together, if it is 
only in print. 

R. W. Winston, '79, is doing well 
in Oxford, N. C, building up a 
good law practice, and furiously 
contemplating matrimony. Hands 
fulL 



Bob Strange, 79, is studying for 
the ministry in Middle Town, Conn. 

Earnest Caldwell is a Presbyter- 
ian minister. W. A. Bettsis riding 
a circuit in South Carolina, " sing- 
ing as he goes." 

Dr. Julius Baker is in Tarboro, 
where he has a large and increas- 
ing practice. 

Frank Freemont is in business 
in Wilmington. He has the finest 
bass voice in the Burg. 

Galloway, Charles W.,has settled 
in East Tennessee. 

Henderson, R. B., '79, is studying 
medicine in Baltimore. 

Battle, Kemp P. Jr., is an M. D., 
and is at the Charity Hospital, N. Y. 

John Phillips is studying medi- 
cine in New York. , 

Powell, Jas. C, is in the cotton 
business in Norfolk, Virginia. 

Mallett, John, is a cow-boy in 
Texas. When last heard from he 
wanted to join " the Society.'' 

James, Fernando G., is a mem- 
ber of the law firm of Suggs & 
James, Greenville, N. C. 

N. A. McLean, Law student, '78, - 
was elected to the Senate from the 
District of Columbus and Robeson 
counties. 

Tom Battle, '#07will hang out his 
law-shingle in Tarboro, N. C. 



94 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



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dress, Mat. R. Bingham, Supt. 

OS lib Bass & Oct Coupler^ 

£J $45, $55, $65, $75, $100, -$125 fa 
QAnd upward. Agents wanted "A 
^Catalogue free. Address O 

S$ STAR PARLOR CRGAN CO., P3 
TJl Washington, N. J., U. S. A. O 

TE3. J. Hale Ac Won, 

55 Chambers St., New York, 
Pill orders promptly, for all kinds of 

BOOKS 
And STATIONERY, 

at reasonable prices. Publishers of Hon- 
A. H. Stephens' History of the United 
States. Professor Shepherd's History of the 
English Language. Professor Sharp's Ele- 
mentary Algebra, &c. Nov. 2. 6m. 

BUCKEYE BELL FOUNDKY 

Bells of Pme Copper and Tin for Churches, 
Schools, Fire Alarms, Farms, etc. FULLY 
WARRANTED. Catalogue sent Free. 
VANOUZEN & TIFT, Cincinnati, 




ADVERTISEMENTS. 



T. "W. DUNSTON, 

The well-Known Barber 

Has removed to the old Post office building' 
formerly oeeupied by Mr. Mickle, where he 
will be pleased to welcome his- numerous 
patrorte, and aeconnnodate them to a Shave, 
Hair-cut or a Shampoo, or anything in the 
tonsorial art. 




These Goods are sold under sn 

Absolute Guarantee 

That they are the Finest and PUREST 

goods upon the market j 
They ARE FREE from DRUGS and 

CHEMICALS of any kind; 
They consist of the Finest Tobacco and 

Purest Rice-Paper made. 

OUR SALES EXCEED the products 

of ALL leading manufactories combined. 

None Genuine without the trade-mark 
of the BULL. Take no other. 

¥. T. BL&CKSELL ft 00. 

Sole Manufacturers. Durham, N. C. 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



"95 



TRAVELLER'S GUIDE. 

The folio wing Schedules are c erected by 
the Railroad Officials, and may be relied on 
as correct: 

RICHMOND & DANVILLE R. R. 

NORTH CAROLINA DIVISION. 
Condensed Schedules. 
Trains going East. t 



Bate Sept. 23 1882 


No. 51 
Daily. 


No. 53 
Daily. 


Leave Charlotte, 


4 10 a in 


4 40 p m 


" Salisbury, 


6 02 a m 


6 18 pm 


" " High Point, 


7 27 a in 


7 35 pm 


Arrive Greensboro, 


8 10am 


8 05 p m 


Iieave Greensboro, 


8 29 am 


-9 15 p m 


Arrive Hilisboro, 




11 28 p m 


Arrive Durham, 




12 08 a m 


Arrive Raleigh, 




1 25 a m 


Leave Raleigh. 




1 30 a m 


Arrive Goldsboro, 




3 50 a m 



No. 15. Daily except Saturday, 

Leave Greensboro, 6 30 a m 

Arrive at Raleigh, 2 45 a m 

Arrive at Goldsboro, 8 00 p m 

No. 51. Connects at Greensboro with R. 
<t D. R. R. for all points North, East and 
West, via Danville. At Goldsboro with W. 
■& W. R. R. for Wilmington. 

No. 53. Connects at Salisbury with W. 
N. • ;. N. R. R. for all poits in Western North 
Carolina ; daily at Greensboro with R. & D. 
R. R„ for all points North, East and West. 



STATE UNIVERSITY ROAD. 

Goinor North. 

No 1 Diily, Except Suuday, 

Leave Chapel Hill 7 30am 

Arrive University 8 32 a m 

Arrive Raleigh, 10 30 a m 

Going South. 

No 2 Daily except Sunday. 

Leave Raleigh 3 30pm 

Ar ive University 5 20pm 

Arrive Chapel Hill « 42 p ni 

M. Slaughter, 

General Passenger Agent, 

Richmond, Va. 



Trains going West. 



Date Sept. 23 1882- 



Leave Goldsboro, 
Arrive Raleigh, 
Leave Raleigh, 
Arrive Durham, 
Arrive Hilisboro, 
Arrive Greensboro, 
Leave Greensboro, 
Arrive High Point. 
Arrive Salisbury, 
Arrive Charlotte, 



No 51 
Daily. 



No 52 
Daily. 



10 10 a m 
12 15 p m 

4 15 p m 

5 32 p ni 

6 11 pm 

8 30 pm 

9 15 p m 
9 50pm 

j 11 12 p m 
1 10 a m 



10 11 am 

10 49 a m 

12 15 p m 

2 10 nm 



$0.60 
1.00 

- 4.00 

- 7.50 
14.00 



No, 16. Daily except Sunday, 

Leave Goldsboro, 4 40am 
Arrive at Raleigh, 8 39 p m 
Leave Raleigb, 10 05 a m 

Arrive Greensboro, 5 45 p m 

No. 51. Connects at Charlotte with R. & 
C. Air Line for all points in the South and 
Southwest, and with C„ C. & A. A. for all 
points South and Southeast. 

No. 52. Connects at Charlotte with A. & 
O. Atr Line for all points South and South- 
west ; at Charlotte with O, C. •& A. R. R. 
lor all points South and Southeast 



THE NORTH CAROLINA 

EDUCATIONAL JOURNAL 

Organ of the North Carolina State 
Teachers' Association, and The As- 
sociation of County Superintend- 
ents. 

REV. J. F. HEITMAN, 
Editor and Publisher. 

TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION : 

One Copy for Six Months, 
One Copy for One Year 
Five Copies " " 
Ten < opies < ' " 
Twenty Copies " " 

Some points to be noted with regard to 
this Journal, 

1. It is the only Educational Journal 
now published in the State. 

2. It has among its contributors many of 
the best and most eminent educators of the 
State. 

3. Its columns are open to all who* wish 
to communicate their ideas on educational 
topics, and as such is the best medium of 
communication for those engaged in the 
work; of education. 

4. Its columns are filled with important 
information for parents, teachers and school 
officers. 

5. It is non-political, non-sectarian, and 
is not in alliance with any particular insti- 
tution of learning. 

6. It offers no premiums to induce unwil- 
ling subscriptions, but aims to stand on its 
own merits, and hopes on that basis to 
achieve success. 

7. As an advertising medium for those 
books and materials which pertain to schools 
and education it is bound to be the best in 
the state, for already the Journal visits 
every county and goes to those most interest* 
ed in educational work. 



96 THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



University of* ^orth Carolina. 

Hon. KEMP P. BATTLE, L. L. D., President, 
Professor of Political Economy, Constitutional and International Law. 

Rev. CHARLES PHILLIPS, D. D., L. L. D. r 

Professor Emeritus of Mathematics. 

J. DeBERNIERE hooper, a. m., 

Professor qf Greek and French. 

Ret. ADOLPHUS W. MANGUM, A. M., D. D. r 

Professor qf Moral Philosophy, History and English Literature. 

GEORGE TAYLOE WINSTON, 

Professor qf Latin and German. 

RALPH HENRY GRAVES, B. Se, C. and M. E. 

Professor of Mathematics. 

JOSHUA GORE, A. M., 

Professor of Natural Philosophy and Engineering. 

FRANK PRESTON VENABLE, Ph. D., (Gc&ttingen.) 

Professor of General, Agricultural and Analytical Chemistry. 

JOSEPH AUSTIN HOLMES, B. Age., (Cornell.) 

Professor qf Geology and Natural History. 

Hon. JOHN MANNING, A. M., 

Professor qf Law. 

THOMAS W. HARRIS, A. M., M. D., 

Professor of Anatomy and Materia Medica. 

W. C. KERR, A. M., Ph. D., 

State Geologist and Lecturer on the Geology qf North Carolina. 

ROBERT PAINE PELL, A. B^ 

Assistant Professor of English, Latin, and Mathematics. 

NUMA FLETCHER HEITMAN, 

Instructor in Greek. 



-O- 



HENRY HORACE WILLIAMS, Librarian. 

Ass'tProf. R. P. PELL, Secretary. 

W. T. PATTERSON, Esq., Bursar. 
o 

Instruction is offered in tbree regnlar courses of study. Special and optional courses are provided 
in Mineralogy, Chemistry and other sciences relating to Agriculture. Schools of Law, Medicine and 
Pharmacy fully equipped. The sessions always begin the last Thursday in August and end the first 
Thursday in June, with a vacation of one week at Christmas. For catalogues or other information, 

Address 

Hon. KEMP P. BATTLE, LL. D., President, 

Chapel Hill, N. C. 



Vol. I DECEMBER, 1882, No. 8. 



"THEY BORE HIM FROM THE WATERS." 

An incident of the Steamer Atlantic, on Fisher's Island, Nov. 26, 1846. 

BY W. D. GALLAGHER. 



When Httfe Jacob Walton was informed that he alone of . ^s famUy 
had escaped from the wreck of the Atlantic, he tnrne d to M r Go uM 
who had saved so many, and exclaimed in substance- < >h! take me 
back and throw me into the sea ! Oh ! let me drown with my parents 
and my brothers and sisters.— Phil. Amer. 

They bore him from the waters 

Where they dashed against the rock, 
When the proud and strong Atlantic 

Broke in the tempest's shock. 
The wet locks from his forehead 

They gently laid aside : 
" Where, oh, where is my mother V 

Reviving soon he cried. 
" Where, oh, where is my mother— 

And my sisters, where are they 1" 
"They're gone, poor boy, they've perish' d — 

By the wild waves washed away." 
" Then carry me back to the waters ! 

Oh ! bury me in the sea ! 
In death I would sleep, with my mother— 

And with my sisters be V 

From the wreck, another runner, 

Weary and pale, drew nigh ; 
" And where, oh, where is my father V 

He asked with gleaming eye. 
"Pray, tell me of my father, 

And my brother, bold and strong ; 
Why, oh, why do they linger 

Beside the wave so long V 



^ THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



Alas, poor boy! tbey battled 

Most noble wind and wave : 
The tempest's arm is mighty— 

In the deep they have their grave. 
" Oh, pity me, pity me, stranger, 

And bury me in the sea ! 
With my mother, and father, and sisters, 

And brothers, I would be." 

High over the surge's wild rolling, 

As it broke on the desolate shore, 
A knell for the perish'd was tolling • 

He heard it, and questional no more. 
He lives :— but oh, many a morrow 

Will dawn with its sigh and tear; 
For his soul hath a phantom-like sorrow 

That will haunt it through many a year. 

It is a singular and affecting circumstance, confirmed by the latest 
visitor to the shore of Fisher's Island, (the scene of the late disLtrons 
wreck of the steamer Atlantic,) that the bell of the steamer stm[olk 
over the scene of desolation. That part of the wreS to whicl i s 
attached happened to lodge in such a position that the bell was ml 
ported ou of the water, and, at the motion of every wave, str k^s twice 
and, so, night and day, tolls on its notes.-National Intelligent ' 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



99 



THE INFLUENCE OF CORPORATE POWER. 



In the first century of our Re- 
public a new and gigantic agent 
has appeared among the industries 
of the world, and a problem un- 
known to former centuries and 
other civilizations has presented 
itself for solution. As an innovat- 
ing power this new force has car- 
ried its problems into every depart- 
ment of civilized life, supplying 
alike the elements of cohesion and 
the elements of change. Our vast 
and sparsely settled area grew into 
a robust nation under the magical 
influence of the railroad. Interests 
were intertwined, products inter- 
changed aud remote sections made 
parts of a unified country. All 
thought and results of thought be- 
came common. The slow, steady 
growth of prosperity passed away, 
as did the race of dull solid men of 
some property and few ideas. The 
old channels of commerce were 
broken up, centers of population 
transferred and strange features 
and dramatic episodes interwoven 
in our national history. Yet wrapt 
iu its swaddling clothes the indus- 
trial Giant has stretched its iron 
arms over 100,000 miles of territory 
and the firmest institutions of men 
have been to its touch as plastic as 
clay. The golden days of sim- 
plicity which compassed the simple 
lives of our fathers lie behind us 
like a fair ideal. The ways of that 
early time can gain no foothold 
amid the stir aud march and thun- 
der of these latter days. 

It is vain to cast back regretful 
glances at the theories of a by-gone 



and simple civilization. The result 
cannot be changed by conservative 
discontent or progressive eager- 
ness. The wonderful prescience of 
the founders of the Republic could 
not forsee the. dangers incident to 
the rise of thisunimagined agent of 
social order. It came without 
warning and had no parallel. It 
therefore devolves upon men of a 
later day to avert the perils, with- 
out aid from ancestral wisdom and 
to enter with high purposes the 
nearing contest between the over- 
grown strength of corporate power 
and the unorganized interests of 
the masses. 

Up to 1850 our statesmen and 
legislators, impressed with the great 
utility and dazzled by the bound- 
less possibilities of the railroad 
system, lent to the swiftly growing 
force the energy of legislative 
bounty and the power of "eminent 
domain.'' Created by the state 
aud for the state, nourished by 
freedom from taxation, railroad 
corporations have outgrown the 
object of their creation and with 
rare ingratitude have wronged the 
author of their being. Instituted 
to furnish an easy means of trans- 
portation for which they were to 
be reasonably compensated, they 
are conducted in the belief that 
they possess attributes of sover- 
eignty by virtue of which they 
may oppress and ruin and be be- 
yond the reach of law. The great 
highways of commerce were in- 
trusted to them to be run for the 
common good, and some, at least, 



100 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



have been unfaithful to their trust. 
Instead of reasonable tolls they 
have levied what the traffice would 
bear, instead of public servants, 
they have become public plunder- 
ers, common carriers. They have 
dazed and unsettled commerce, 
harassed and depressed industry 
and deprived labor of its earnings. 
These are not empty charges or 
catch phrases. The farmers of our 
land have not been strangers to 
wild and illogical charges, and the 
dwellers along the lines of even 
so-called State roads have not fail- 
ed to learn the lesson that men, 
however tender, when merged into 
corporations become as hard as 
steel and pitiless as the storm. Is 
it strange then that the vague, 
despairing cry of Anti-Monopoly is 
ringing through our land from the 
lips of heavy-laden wayfaring men 
and far-sighted students of history? 
What may be said of the spirit of 
a free people who will permit the 
cry to pass unheeded? 

The settlement of the vexed 
question is fairly before the Amer- 
ican people and our treatment of it 
will show the quality and calibre 
of our political sense; will, iu a 
measure, foreshadow the lives of 



our future growth, and may indi- 
cate whether the American Dem- 
ocracy shall fail because the people 
had not virtue enough or wit 
enough to make the common good 
supreme. 

The system of corporate life and 
power in its relations to our social 
destiny is one for which our lan- 
guage ( ontains no name and which 
augurs threateningly for the fu 



ture. From its influence has arisen 
a system of methods incompatible 
with Republican institutions, and 
a class of beings with all the pow- 
er and none of the virtues of au 
aristocracy; beings, whose favor 
the ambitious court and whose ven- 
geance they avoid; men who trade 
in offices and official acts; men who 
shape municipal policy and stand 
to the government of great cities 
as did the Praetorian Guards to 
declining Rome. 

Even before the era of consolida- 
tion every part of our system was 
put to the test and no part bore 
the strain. 

The insidious influence of money 
acting upon the impulses of a ma- 
terial age, revealed the abodes of 
great corporations as the secret 
chambers of spoliation and fraud. 
The law, the lofty eminence erected 
in the social sea to stay the tide of 
injustice, went down before its 
mighty flow; the sacred cloak of 
the judge has failed to conceal the 
eagerness of the partisau; blind 
justice has mixed with the frantic 
throng and held not aloof from ig- 
noble gain; the stealthy apparition 
of oribery has glided unmolested 
through our popular assemblies, 
trafficking in men's honor and the 
people's rights, while under all and 
through all the solemn voice of 
public opinion has been hushed or 
its mouitory tones unheeded. AU 
this iu the infancy of a system 
capable of infinite expansion and 
in a government depending for its 
political health on public probity. 
When millions of dollars of capital 
are supplanted by huudreds of w\\ r 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



101 



lions, when single lines in one vast 
sweep connect the oceans what will 
be impossible to the heads of great 
corporations! 

The political equality of our re- 
lations has offered in the railroad 
a field for the exercise of a kind of 
power strangely fascinating to the 
dwellers in a Republican era. 

Feudal Lords formed their ideal 
in personal daring and gratified 
their ambitious amid the carnage 
of war; ambitious aristocrats seek 
after social rank and its attendant 
privileges; but in a Democratic era 
and a commercial age, vigor and 
talent find their reward in the con- 
trol of capital and in the influence 
of huge industrial enterprises. 

The coutests of speculation and 
the victories of finance now urge 
to action men, who, in other ages 
and under other social conditions, 
would have led the crusading 
hordes to Palestine, entered the 
touruey lists to win the smiles of 
high-born maidens, or spent their 
energies in the formation of vast 
social or political intrigue. Al 
ready in New York, New Jersey 
and Pennsylvania these modern 
Caesars have established despot- 
isms which no popular effort seems 
able to withstand. 

Not content with seizing the 
channels of transportation, tbey 
are daily adding to their colossal 
combinations the channels of 
thought. They are subsidizing the 
press, they own the telegraphic 
system of this country and are 
thrusting their greedy fingers into 
the caverns of the sea to grasp that 
of Europe. Nothing will then be 



heard or read free from the taint 
and co'oriug of corporate interests. 
The upright legislator, the hon- 
est business man, the fearless jour- 
nalist, who shall dare question the 
sovereign right of corporate power 
will be crushed by the omnipotent 
hand of capital and no public jour- 
nal will write of his patriotism and 
no telegraphic wire will voice his 
woe. 

In our great cities, those types 
of modern growth, corporate power 
has established its stronghold and 
here in the near future are to arise 
still greater corporations resting on 
a basis of public corruption and 
allied with the lowest strata of po- 
litical intelligence. The lobby and 
the ring will thrive and grow fat 
on the decay of political virtue. 
The arts of the jobber will count 
for more than the reputation of the 
statesman, and in high places will 
sit those who do not pay to civic 
virtue the compliment of hypocrisy. 
The despotism of the Dark Ages 
depended for its support on the 
sword and owed its vitality to 
might and violence. The despot- 
ism of to day is grounded on a 
stronger and subtler influence, 
control of legislation and financial 
methods, and it is a despotism that 
will come, not with armed force and 
martial air, but imperceptibly and 
quietly in the name and might of 
the people. 

That sturdy manhood and zeal- 
ous watchfulness so essential to 
Democratic institutions must 
change to cringing dependence and 
servile indifference, converted by 
the beckoning hands of silver and 



102 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



gold. When legislative halls shel- 
ter men eager to come or go at the 
nod of the corporate head, faith in 
representative government must 
cease to exist, and when that point 
is reached in government by the 
people all life is gone, the people 
have lost faith in themselves and 
the fitting carollary is disintegra- 
tion and ruin. 

When Augustus Cassar was 
changing the Rome of brick into 
the Rome of marble, when her 
legions went to victory in far-away 
lands and under strange skies, and 
her proconsuls gathered revenues 
in every port, the elements of de- 
cay were nowhere visible. To-day 
when utility and intelligence and 
comity have supplanted pageantry 
and darkness and barbarism, 
who is rash enough to say that this 
lusty offspring of the West is gen 
erating the death germs of decline? 
Yet class interests and corporate 
greed attack the tap-root and blight 
the tender growth of representa- 
tive institutions, and to permit its 
unchecked advances is to scatter 
fire amid ripened harvests. To 
what source then shall we look for 
aid? What strength shall untwine 
the arms of this sightless Sampson 
from around the strained pillars of 
our national existence? What 
agency is to keep among us that 
liberty that was our birthright, 
that liberty whose slanting rays 
lighted the course of the Demo- 
cratic strauger starting on the 
highway of civilization, and glint 
ed from its armor and shield in the 
gathering gloom and in the thick 
darkness of the Revolution! 



Only a purified public opinion ; 
directing the machinery of the 
general government is sufficiently 
powerful to meet the emergency. 

The method aud extent of gov- i 
ernmental interference I may not 
determine. I have neither space 
nor ability to suggest or discuss. 

Our government was framed to 
answer the purposes of a simple 
and somewhat undeveloped state 
of society, and no machinery was 
devised to bear the strain of the 
corporate system, the result of a j 
complex and artificial civilization. I 
The Constitutional Fathers were i 
too busy securing rights from Kings 
and Lords to fear evil from the I 
masses, yet this problem is one of 
those questions which the inherent j 
necessities of national life from 
time to time force on a people. It I 
must be within the scope of a gov- ) 
ernmeut to emancipate its citizens 
from the control of irresponsible | 
monopoly, provided it be done j 
carefully, judiciously, in the recog- 
nition of the benign influence of 
corporate power, and without com- 
munistic agencies. 
The direction of so vast a mate- 



rial iiiterest as the railroad by a 
government of limited functions, 
is contrary to the principle of our 
political organization, yet the time 
is ripe for a choice between evils, 
between governmental control, sub- 
ject to popular instruction and re- 
vision on the one hand, and per- 
sonal cupidity and corporate greed 
on the other. The story of the 
race they wrong should warn the 
heads of corporate power to heed 
the mutterings in the political at- 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 



103 



inosphere aud to escape the fury of 
the coming storm by intrusting 
their interests to thorough and ju- 
dicious legislation rather than to 
suborned place-men and purchas- 
able legislatures. They are forget- 
ting that essential Teutonic princi- 
ple, equality, aud seem to be waiting 
until the dread wrath of the people, 
under outraged privilege, shall tell 
of exhausted patience and abused 
power. 

Such a time will come, or the 
texture of the English nature has 
changed. It came in the 13th cen- 
tury, when the "Army of God," 
belted and mitred, assembled on 
the green meadow by the Thames 
and gained from the furious King 
his inheritance of tyranny. It 



came in the 17th century, when the 
mighty middle classes of English 
society pressed beyond the narrow 
lane of royal restriction and cleared 
for the concourse of future ages 
the clean and shining path of lib- 
erty. It came again in the 18th 
century when the actors of the 
Revolution wrung from its ancient 
parent the youngest child of civ- 
ilization aud started it on its 
strange and untrodden journey, 
and it will always come in the 
Anglo-Saxon family when the 
traits and traditions of that race 
are forgotten, and the few dare 
seek to rule the many. 

Edwin A. Alderman. 
Goldsboro, N. C. 



THE PURITAN AND CAVALIER 



Among the illustrious defenders 
of liberty, the Puritan alone has 
left an enduring monument of the 
principles which he had espoused. 
He was the instrument chosen by 
Providence for completing the work 
which had been progressing ever 
since the Christian era. 

The doctrines of Christianity had 
taught the slave that in the eyes 
of his Maker he was the peer of 
his master, and had inspired him 
with a noble impulse to raise him- 
self out of the inlamy of his thral- 
dom; the wars of the Crusaders 
and the war of the Roses, by break- 
ing the powers and dissipating the 
wealth of the feudal lords, had 
loosened the bonds of serfdom ; 
the invention of fire arms had 



placed the villain on an equal foot- 
iug with the powerful baron ; the 
invention of the art of printing 
and the revival of learning had 
put another effective auxiliary in 
the reach of the people ; and the 
Reformation had released the na- 
tions of Europe from ecclesiastical 
bondage. When the work of 
preparation had proceeded thus 
far, the Puritan entered upon the 
stage to play the most important 
part in the drama of liberty. 

Not until Protestantism had 
rescued the Bible from the ob- 
scurity of the cloister did the great 
principle that all men are equal be- 
fore God become widely known. 
This the Puritan adopted ; in ac- 
cordance with it they shaped their 



104 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



entire after course; and to this 
single proposition all their other 
doctrines were but corollaries. It 
justified the dissenter, it was a 
solace to the exile, and a balm to 
the wounds of the persecuted. It 
held up before the imagination of 
the patriot the beautiful possibili 
ties of civil liberty ; it drove the 
Puritan into the conflict with church 
and crown ; it stimulated him in 
his persistent and merciless policy ; 
and it urged him on from the exe- 
cution of ministers, the extortion 
of divine rights, the expulsion of 
Bishops and the exile of royalty, 
to the usurpation of the power and 
authority of the crown and the 
supreme control of the English 
people. Although the Cavalier 
was the champion of Episcopacy 
against the encroachments of Cal 
vinism, he was galled no less than 
the Puritan by the tyranny of 
Charles the First. He had beheld 
with indignation the sacred prom- 
ises which had been made to his 
ancestors at Runnymede unscrupu- 
lously broken with shame, he had 
seen the nation's ancient glory, 
which they had so gallantly up 
held at Crecy and Agincourt, sud- 
denly clouded by the ruthless rob 
beries of his King ; but the dangers 
then threatening the Established 
Church, an institution which he 
had been taught to venerate, and 
which the memory of his fore- 
fathers compelled him to defend, 
drew him to the support of a cause 
with which he had no sympathy, 
and to the aid of a man whom he 
abhorred. It was the same conser- 
vatism to which the English gentry 



have always adhered that drew the 
Cavalier to the defence of the 
Church and to open war with the 
violent heresies of his obstinate 
foe. He was neither the antagonist 
of civil liberty ror the supporter 
of the King's cruel oppressions; 
but the avowed enemy of a wild, 
unbridled fanaticism. Had it not 
been for this fanaticism of the 
Puritan, had he been a true, un- 
selfish patriot, and had civil liberty 
been his only aim, the Cavalier 
would have united with him against 
the King. England would have 
avoided the misery and bloodshed 
of a civil war, her history would 
be far from the disgrace of Crom- 
well's tyranny, the Puritan would 
have been saved from an ignomini- 
ous fall. Charles the First, instead 
of James the Second, would have 
been forced to abdicate the throne, 
and the liberties of the English 
people would have been established 
by the Revolution of 1642 instead 
of the Revolution of 1688. There 
was as little harmony between the 
character of the Puritan and Cav- 
alier as there was between the po- 
litical principles which they cher- 
ished. The trials through which ; 
the Puritan had struggled cast a 
gloom over his life and made him 
hate all that was human. He de- 
spised the culture and refinement 
of Elizabeth's reign. He was a 
stranger to the chivalrous senti- 
ments and gentle virtue which 
adorned and beautified the life of 
the Cavalier; but there was a 
moral sublimity in his character 
that renders him one of the noblest 
figures in the history of men. 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



105 



The severity of bis nature over- 
came the strength and grandeur of 
his character. His enduring faith, 
passionless bravery,and persevering 
zeal cut to pieces the chivalry of 
Piince ttupert on Marstou Moor 
and shattered the power of the 
nobility at Naseby ; but his ob- 
stinacy, self-sufficiency and bigotry, 
and his disposition to justify the 
means, however unjust they might 
be, by the end which he wished to 
obtain, led him into the most in- 
famous abuse of power, urged him 
on to the perpetration of a dastard- 
ly massacr.% undermined the weak 
\ fabric which he had set up, attach- 
ed a stigma to the great cause 
which he was striving to establish, 
and gave him over, subdued and 
despised, to the mercy of restored 
Royalty. 

But the conflict was not at an 
end when the, " New World" laid 
down its arms, and Charles the 
Second entered Whitehall. While 
the clouds of the civil war were 
gathering over England, the Pil 
grim Fathers landed on Plymouth 
Rock, and a little band of Cavaliers 
settled on the fertile bank of the 
Potomac. Here the same antago- 
nistic ideas of the Puritan and 
Cavalier were planted, took root 
and flourished. 

After two centuries' growth the 
conflict between them begau anew. 
They were bound together in Revo- 
lutionary times by common griev- 
ances and common dangers. In 
the confusion of the war all differ- 
ences were forgotten, and for once 
these two heterogeneous elements 
of our civilization were united ; but 



as soon as they recovered from the 
confusion aud disorders of the 
struggle for independence, and be- 
gan to recognize their situation, 
differences and relations to one an- 
other, they met each other iu a con- 
flict, the history of which is the 
history of the United States. The 
distress iu which the war of the Rev- 
olution had left the country, the 
mutual dependence of the States 
and the failure of the Old Confed- 
eracy, drew the Puritan and Cav- 
alier into a nominal union with each 
other; but the antagonism between 
political principles of North and 
South and the dissimilarity of their 
industries, customs and social sys- 
tems, rendered it impossible for the 
sam«». institutions aud the same leg- 
islation to give satisfaction to both. 
The treasonable proceedings of the 
Hartford convention, the Virginia 
and Kentucky Revolutions, the 
Nullification Act of South Caro- 
lina, and the secession of the Con- 
federate States, all pointed to the 
fact that the so-called United States 
were not united and that there 
could be no Union aud no nation 
until the ideas of one division had 
triumphed over and supplanted the 
ideas of the other. Two centuries 
before the Puritan, 

* * * " Who built his faith upon 
The holy text of pike and gun," 

had risen in arms against the Estab- 
lish Church to model it after his 
own taste, and to 

" Prove his doctrines orthodox 

By apostolic blows and knocks." 

Clinging to this spirit of bigotry 

and intolerance, with unflinching 

purpose and determined zeal, he 



106 



THE UNIVEBSITY MONTHLY. 



entered upon the work of recasting 
the political opinions of the South, 
of tearing down her social system 
and shapiug it in the image of his 
own. In the compromise of . 1850 
and the establishment of Squatter 
Sovereignty in the Territories he 
felt the forebodings of defeat. At 
last the great question of slavery, 
in the Bred-Scott case came before 
the august arbiter of the nation for 
final settlement. New England 
was baffled and appalled at the 
ominous decision, but would not 
yield. There was an alternative 
left; and, inheriting the bigotry, 
zeal and tenacity of the men who 
had usurped, by violence, the gov- 
ernment of England, had crushed 
the power of the English nobility 
and had brought their King to 
justice and the block, because they 
found law and order instruments 
too weak for the fight they were 
waging against the Church and 
Crown, she threw off the garb of 
peace, denied the authority of the 
law, and prepared herself to coerce 
the Southern States into conformity 
with her social and political doc- 
trines. As soon as the Puritan and 
Cavalier had established themselves 
in this country, they had set out 
from Plymouth and Jamestown on 
their journey westward. They had 
gradually worked their waythrough 
the wilderness until at last they 
met on the plains pfi Kansas. The 
prejudices and jealousies that had 
been held in check for seventy 
years could be restrained no longer. 
Here the protracted and bloody 
struggle began, and for a second 
time the chivalry and gallantry of 



the Cavalier were broken by the 
stern endurance and persevering 
zeal of the Puritan Ironsides. The 
long conflict of ideas was ended 
and Puritanism had triumphed. 
The South was forced to relinquish 
forever her enervating system of 
labor, to abandon her old aristo- 
cratic principles, and to accept the 
Democratic ideas of New England ; 
"there is peace, Warsaw"; the 
strife between Puritan and Cavalier 
is at an end ; the North and South 
are in social and political harmony; 
all causes of discord have been ob- 
literated ; and at last our Union is 
tinnly established. 

But let us attend the conquered 
Cavalier as with bowed head and 
broken sword he leaves behind 
him the scenes of his fruitless 
triumph and finds defeat, and seeks 
with weary faltering step the pov- 
erty and gloom of his home. What 
cheerless agony must have filled 
his bosom when with his proud 
spirit crushed and his noble chiv- 
alry humbled, he beheld the desola- 
tion of his prostrate country 1 
Stung with the shame of defeat, 
surrounded by all the distresses of 
a conquered people, his four mil- 
lions of half-civilized slaves en- 
franchised aud himself disfran- 
chised, attainted and despised as a 
rebel aud a traitor, overwhelmed 
by domestic want and social disor- 
ders—what must have been the for- 
titude that sustained him in that 
dark hour! W T hat the strength of 
manhood that after yeais of trial 
and confusion, evolved order and 
harmony out of this social and po-- 
jitical chaos 1 History furnishes us 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



107 



loftier example of self-control and 
noble heroism. 

Though the Cavalier, as a neces- 
sary sequence of his defeat, has 
become imbued to some degree 
with Puiitau ideas, with the spirit 
of activity and enterprise, he has 
not yet surrendered his individual 
ity. While slavery, luxury and 
the system of primogeniture have 
been swept away, the chivalric sen 
timent of the South, the true 
Southern morality and the true 
Southern conservatism remain un- 
shaken. Those social, religious and 
political heresies which in late 
years have attained a most exuber- 
ant and alarming growth in New 
England, unlike most exotics, 



wither and die when transplanted 
to Southern soil. 

The South, having eliminated 
the evils of the Cavalier and hav- 
ing rejected the errors of the Puri- 
tan, has harmoniously blended the 
virtues of both, and conspicuously 
conservative and orthodox, she is 
now better prepared than other 
sections of this great Union to as- 
sume the leadership and guidance 
of the American people. 

' 'The hou'- perchance is not yet wholly ripe 

When all shall own it ; but the type 
Whereby we shall be known in every land 

Is that vast gulf which lips our Southern strand. 
And through the cold, untempered ocean pours 

Its genial streams, that far off arctic shores 
May sometimes catch upon the Boftened breeze 

Strange tropic warmth and hints of summer seaa. " 

A. W. McA. 



SOME OF THE TROUBLES OF JOURNALISM. 



In these latter days nearly every 
man that is, in point of intellect, a 
little above the average, either be- 
gins the study of law, or, thinking 
that in him lie the elements of a 
Watterson or a Greeley, endeavors 
to attach himself to some newspa- 
per or periodical, either as reporter 
or contributor. The would-be re- 
porter or contributor, the embryo 
journalist, in summing up the at- 
tractions and pleasures of journal- 
istic life, omits the many causes of 
vexation and anxiety that it pro- 
duces. To sit in a snug sanctum, 
surrounded by your exchanges and 
periodicals, with books of reference 
at hand and apt quotations in mind, 
dashing off stirring editorials, and 
easily composing elegant literary 
articles or abstruse, scientific trea- 



tises, seems to the uninitiated a 
very laudable and pleasant occupa- 
tion. So it is, when each day is 
accompanied by some occurrence 
in the literary world which is of 
sufficient interest to supply matter, 
or of some progressive steps in 
science of enough importance to 
furnish material for the next issue 
of your invaluable review. The 
trouble does not arise here. It is 
only when one, without all these 
seemingly necessary prerequisites, 
is called upon to till up an.other- 
wise vacant space, or to insert an 
original article, on a day's notice, 
in the stead of some promised con- 
tribution which has failed to make 
its appearance, that your journal- 
ists, especially the young and in- 
experienced who edit a college 



108 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



magazine, feel that the much 
vaunted pleasures of journalism 
are a myth and its beauties are 
miuus. Under such circumstances 
the opportune death of a literary 
celebrity is hailedwith delight by the 
long-suffering editor of a literary 
magazine, and an election or bloody 
murder is a godsend to the itemless 
newspaper editor. Exchanges and 
cotemporaries are eagerly scanned 
in the fruitless hope of finding 
something quotable, and an uu usu- 
al scarcity sees new advertisements 
inserted gratis. In the eagerness 
and dire necessity of getting in 
something, quality is forgotten for 
quantity, and consistency and unity 
of thought are sacrificed for length 
of manuscript. 

We deplore the loss of the Arctic 
voyager, the Jeanette, and we sym- 
pathize heartily with the afflicted 
widows and orphans of that devot- 
ed crew; but some of our leading 
newspapers and periodicals would 
have been sadly at a loss for il- 
lustrations and editorials, had the 
voyage never been attempted nor 
the crew lost. But fortunately for 
poor humanity and unfortunately 
for we editors, catastrophes so de- 
plorable and suggestive of edito- 
rials as was the loss of the Jeanette 
do not occur every day. Most 
generally the journalist is left to 
his own lively imagination and fer- 
tile mind to produce something 
which will satisfy his subscribers 
aud fill up his space. Then the 
sorrow aud vexation of spirit and 



unceasing trouble of journalism 
develops itself. Subject after sub 
ject presents itself to the confused 
mind of the harrassed journalist, 
only to be dismissed because he is 
profoundly ignorant of what line 
of discussion to pursue upon a 
subject of which he knows abso- 
lutely nothing. 

Rack your brains and search 
your exchanges for a suitable sub- 
ject or an appropriate extract, you 
cannot conceive of the one nor find 
the other. 

Then, perhaps, when you have, 
by contributions and by dint of 
perseverance and plagiarism, filled 
your columns, your printer, pos- 
sessed by an insane idea of change 
and reformation, will alter your 
adjectives, confound your verbs, 
metamorphose your prepositions, 
insert words in one place and omit 
them in another, ruin your paper 
and enrage your contributors, until 
you wish from the bottom of your 
soul that you had never begun to 
be an editor. You would like to 
throw the whole thing up and vow 
never to touch a pen again in the 
capacity of editor, but your year's 
subscriptions have not run out, and 
you must continue your work or be 
pronounced a swindler. 

Do not imagine when you as- 
sume the dignity of an editor, that 
you are going to be subject to no 
inconvenience and vexation, for if 
you do you will surely wake up to 
a grievous disappointment. 

" One or Them." 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



109 



AFRICA IN AMERICA. 



A new and memorable epoch had 
dawned upon Southern society. 
Stern destiny had rendered for 
naught the conservative labors of 
a long line of Southern statesmen, 
and the devoted gallantry of strug- 
gling Southern heroes. A whole 
race was called at once and without 
preparation from a state of degrad- 
ed thraldom into the full dignity 
of citizenship. 

It was natural that the South 
should bow with reluctance to a 
dispensation so repugnant to her 
traditions. It was impossible for 
her to witness calmly and with- 
out a murmur the complete subver- 
sion of her social and civil polity 
But the stern fiat has gone forth 
never to be revoked. The civil and 
political rights of the sable parvenu 
are no longer questions for consid- 
eration. They are incorporated in 
the fundamental law of the land. 
They are sustained in their broad- 
est significance by tribunals of su- 
preme jurisdiction. They may be 
enforced by Federal bayonets. 

Nor can these stern facts be 
made inoperative by removing the 
cause of their existence. The 
negro is a fixed, integral part of 
Southern population. Vain and 
illusive are all schemes for his 
colonization. As a being of reason, 
never can he be induced to abandon 
his sunny home to tempt the hard- 
ships of an unknown land. The 
exodus fever may prompt him at 
times to limited emigration, but 
the bleak and inhospitable plains 



of the West will prove a radical 
specific for the malady. 

Here the negro is and here he 
will remain. With his fortunes the 
destinies of the South are insep- 
arably linked. 

What is to be his future? What 
his influence upon our Southern 
land? 

As yet he has ever weighed like 
an incubus upon her prosperity. 
While a slave, he carried to the 
lower ranks of her citizens a meas- 
ure of his own degradation. He 
polluted the altars of labor, and 
drove from the South a multitude 
of her worthiest sous. He involved 
her in a struggle fraught with de- 
struction to her institutions. The 
ireedman has been none the less a 
drawback to her development. 

Will the negro perpetually exert 
an influence so baneful to Southern 
prosperity? 

May God in Heaven forefend! 
Let uot the fair land of Dixie be 
immolated on the cruel altars of 
Siva! 

But unless the negro is capable 
of development, unless he can be 
freed from the fetters of immorality 
and ignorance, progress in the 
South must ever be retarded by 
his presence. The thrall of inher- 
ent stupidity can never be fitted for 
political responsibilities. The good 
Ship of State intrusted to such 
lubberly hands must inevitably 
founder in troubled waters. 

To place the incompetent negro in 
responsible stations is, then, to im- 



110 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



peril the public safetj. But to 
deny him equal consideration with 
the experienced would be no less 
prejudicial ro Southern weal. 

Any restriction of his constitu 
tional rights is hailed with glad- 
ness by pseudo lovers of the Union 
as fresh fuel for the smouldering 
fires of sectional animosity. The 
South, under the shadow of this 
h stile sentiment, must continue to 
knock in vain for just recognition 
at the door of the Nation. But 
loss of national consequence is not 
the only evil entailed upon the 
South by au intolerant negro 
policy. 

Emigration follows the pathway 
of liberty, and this liberty must 
not be merely of personal action. 
Nor do the highest civil and politi- 
cal rights meet the conditions, 
where public sentiment is arrayed 
against the Constitution that as- 
serts and upholds them. True, 
freedom does not exist where so- 
cial obloquy is cast upon unpopular 
views. 

This indemnity of free speech 
the South can never guarantee 
while the color line — which resist- 
ance to negro suffrage cannot fail 
to draw— constitutes a party di- 
vision. Under the high pressure 
of social discountenance, free ex- 
pression of political convictions 
must in general be crushed, or 
forced away with the stream of em 
igration. 

Nor can the South hold forth the 
inducement of wealth, while an- 
tagonism of the races is perpetuat 
ed. Prosperity is the inseparable 
companion of peace. She cannot 



survive in an atmosphere of dis- 
cord. 

The South is thus confronted 
with a most distressing dilemma: 

To tolerate incompetent negro 
suffrage is at the peril of good gov- 
ernment. To suppress it is to 
court national insignificance, pov- 
erty, and consequent abandonment. 
But one escape from the situa- 
tion can possibly be opened— which 
can be done only by the develop- 
ment of capacity in the negro him- 
self. Is he susceptible of this 
moral and intellectual emancipa- 
tion? Can he be taught to under- 
stand and honestly to discharge 
bis great responsibilities? Let 
hope give the answer rather than 
despair. Let not the canvass of 
Southern future present a picture 
of decay and ruin. 

But it is not a Utopian dream to 
hope for the negro a future of im- 
provement. Progress is stamped 
too unmistakably upon his past to 
question his capacity for develop- 
ment. 

Under the enervating skies of 
his native land, far removed from 
civilized existence, the negro had 
become, indeed, the black sheep of 
the human fold. Savage in cus- 
toms, servile in instincts, and stu- 
pid in reason, be lived, a satire 
upon humanity more bitter than 
the Yahoo of Swift. 

But under the refining influences 
of civilization, he has learned to 
restrain his savage passions, and 
to respect the demands of law and 
order. He lias lost the roving in- 
stincts of the savage, and acquired 
that prime requisite for social pro- 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



Ill 



gress, a passion for the accu inula 
tiou of wealth. Unlike the haughty 
and indocile Indian, he has heen a 
ready disciple in the school of 
thrift and industry. Sturdy of 
frame and of patient nature, no 
task is too laborious for his ptaysi 
cal energies. In the sunny clime 
of the South, his services as a la- 
borer are absolutely indispensable. 
The burning rays of our summer 
sun, beneath which the white man 
totters with exhaustion, are power- 
erless against the offspring of 
tropical Africa. For service in our 
Southern fields, the negro is also! 
peculiarly fitted by his tempera- 
ment. By nature peaceable, con 
tented and affectionate, in the fierce 
war of communism upon society, 
he can never participate. The con- 
servatism of his character is indeli 
bly printed upon the pages of 
Southern history. To a race less 
happily constituted, the proclama- 
tion of Lincoln would have sounded 
the tocsin for insurrection aud the 
gratification of a vengeful hate. 

But during the lapse of those 
dread days, when free rein was 
offered to the wildest license, the 
negro remained, throughout, the 
faithful guardian of Southern 
homes. 

Eternal honor to the South, that 
she has thus reared a savage in the 
ways of civilization. Let the cal- 
umny of her foes be silenced by his 
generous aud voluntary tribute to 
her discipline. 

But the mere qualifications of a 
laborer do not of necessity betoken 
a, progressive nature. No race can 
ascend high in the scale of human- 



ity unless deeply imbued with the 
principles ot morality. 

In this essential for material pro- 
gress the negro is yet sadly defi- 
cient. Virtue he has not learned 
to regard as sacred. Truth he 
holds in too little revereuce. The 
distinctions between meum and 
tetum he is prone physically and 
metaphysically to confound. 

But may not the negro's blunted 
moral perceptions be referable to 
his past degradation rather than 
to an inherent taint in his nature? 
Is there no agency that can lift him 
from the slough in which he strug- 
gles, and teach his feet the firm 
path of rectitude? 

The genius of Christianity pro- 
claims her power to redeem. In 
the grand march of humau pro- 
gress, she has ever labored in the 
vanguard, paving the highroad for 
wandering humanity. 

The negro has not yet clearly 
perceived this exit from the wilder- 
ness that surrounds him. Denied 
by slavery the helpmates of matri- 
mony and education, freedom has 
withheld from him the aid of re- 
ligious instruction. Negro pastors, 
like the "shepherd" of Mrs. Weller, 
have been too often both ignorant 
and designing. Negro churches 
have not been enlightened by com- 
munion with intelligent Christiani- 
ty. The negro religion, in conse- 
quence, is sadly tinctured with 
superstition. Negro worship is 
disgraced by frenzied excitement; 
while church membership itself 
furnishes no safe guarantee that 
,,one is not a rogue or a libertine. 
!• The negro must be aided in the 



112 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



development of a moral character. 
It is here in the South that the 
labors of the missionary are most 
urgently needed. Let, then, the 
philanthropist of the North com 
plete his work of humanity and 
evangelize the race that he eman- 
cipated. Let the churches of the 
South co-operate in the labor of 
piety and patriotism, and dispel 
the cloud of moral darkness that 
overshadows the land. 

The negro would belie the past 
revelations of his character, should 
he listen with obduracy to the en- 
nobling teachings of Christianity. 
Au eagerness for improvement and 
a readiness to imitate have ever 
been its strongest developments. 
His capacity for improvement, time 
is daily making more apparent. 
Since accorded the right of unim- 
peded development, the negro has 
advanced with surprising rapidity 
in mental culture. 

As a slave, he lived the passive 
agent of his master's will. De- 
pendent upon another for every 
motive of action, he did not, and 
could not, acquire habits of thought 
together with habits of industry. 
He was ushered into freedom with 
his mind still enveloped in the in- 
tegument of ignorance, and could 
not discharge with intelligence his 
new responsibilities. Totally in- 
capable of self-guidance, he be- 
came cf necessity the frequent 
dupe of corrupt politicians. He 
could not discern between design- 
ing and trustworthy leaders, and 
became too often a mere stepping- 
stone to official station, and an 
open sesame to the public treasury. 



But, says the prince of essayists, 
"There is but one cure for the evils 
attendant upon newly acquired 
freedom, and that cure is freedom 
itself. When a prisoner first leaves 
his cell he cannot bear the light of 
day; he is unable to discriminate 
between colors or recognize faces. 
But the remedy is not to remand 
him into his dungeon, but to accus- 
tom him to the rays of the sun. 
The blaze ot truth and liberty may 
at first dazzle, and bewilder nations 
that have become half blind in the 
house of bondage. But let them 
gaze on, and they will soon be able 
to bear it. In a few years men 
learn to reasou. The extreme vio- 
lence of opinion subsides, the scat- 
tered elements of truth begin to 
coalesce, and at length a system of 
justice and order is evolved out of 
chaos." 

The negro has not failed to profit 
by the enlightened teachings of 
liberty. The ballot has impressed 
1 him with a sense of his political 
responsibilities, and taught him 
greater discretion in the exercise 
of his privileges. It has inspired 
him with a sense of human dignity 
that the cowering slave had never 
felt. It has, in a measure, banished 
servility from Lis instincts, and im- 
pelled him to boldness in the as- 
sertion of his rights. 

The school has contributed to his 
intellect what the ballot has to his 
manhood. At the shrine of educa- 
tion he has fallen in prayerful hu- 
mility, and she is awarding the 
recompense for his diligence. The 
enigma of letters no longer per- 
plexes his brain. He no longer ex- 






THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



113 



ists, a mere creature of impulse, 
but seeks for truth ami knowledge 
in the labyrinths of thought. 

Perhaps the negro may never 
rise to eminence in the departments 
of literature. Perhaps a Terence 
and a Douglas are abnormal pro- 
ductions of the race. But, ani- 
mated, as he is, by a zeal for in 
struction, he can learn to discharge 
with patriotism and intelligence his 
responsibilities as a citizen. 

When he attains this stage of 
capacity, and the day is not far 
distant, the negro will cease to be 
au element of discord in Southern 
politics. 

Races however dissimilar in con- 
dition cannot fail to act in unison 
when brought to recognize a com- 
munity of interest. For two cen- 
turies the Saxon, brooding in bit- 
terness over his departed liberty, 
perpetuated towards the Norman a 
deep feeling of hatred. For two 
centuries the Norman, secure in his 
haughty insolence, exercised over 
the conquered Saxon a galling des 
potism. But the day came when 
Norman and Saxon, immolatiug on 
the altars of patriotism their mu- 
tual animosity, merged into Eng- 
lishmen, in defense of English lib- 
erties and English nationality. 

The races of the South are con- 
strained to political harmony by 
mutual interests of no less impor- 
tance. Every hope of Southern 
prosperity is dependent upon their 
concordant relations, and to assert 
that they will not perceive and act 
upon a truth so potent is a slander 



upon Southern patriotism and in- 
telligence. 

Perhaps years of disaster to the 
South may elapse ere confidence 
can be restored to the jealous freed- 
man, ere the prejudice of the Saxon 
can lose its intensity. But the day 
must and will come when the nar- 
row issue that now operates so dis- 
astrously to Southern development 
will be obliterated from Southern 
politics; when the malignant dem- 
agogues of other sections, scanning 
in vain the Southern horizon for 
some manifestation of disloyalty, 
for some repudiation of the logic 
of events, shall excite a national 
sentimeut of merited distrust and 
indignation. 

Then will that era of prosperity 
dawn upon the Sunny South for 
which lavish nature has ordained 
her. Then shall her statesmen 
wield in the councils of the nation 
the influence due their genius and 
sagacity. Our glorious Union it- 
self welded together by a senti- 
ment of fraternity throughout its 
members, again shall command 
respect and esteem from abroad, 
love and veneration at home. 

The prayers of the American na- 
tion and of widespread humanity 
rise heavenward for this restoration 
of our national unity; for the in- 
auguration of that glorious epoch, 
when, under the auspicious influ- 
ences of a government both liberal 
in sentiment and harmonious in its 
operations, may be realized the 
happiest destinies of the human 
race. Rupert. 



114 THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



THE THORN. 

It was morning in the garden, 
Lile stirred among the trees, 

Where low love whispers answered 
To the wooing of the breeze. 



And away there in the distance 

Shone a vision of the sea; 
And I plucked a rose for Mollie 

As she crossed the lawn to me. 

And the subtle saintly fragrance 

Possessed me unawares, 
That floats about a maiden 

Just risen from her prayers. 

And the parrot bowed his topknot 
To her finger, from the perch, 

As she softly hummed the hymn tune 
We had sung last night at church. 

When half-ashamed, I muttered, 
" Here's a rose for you, but see, 

Deep in my clumsy fingers 
The thorn remains with me I" 

Straight from her housewife dainty, 
She brought a needle bright, 

And sought the cruel mischief out, 
With skillful finger light. 

O Molly, still I see you, 
As you th^re beside me stood. 

In girlish, simple beauty, 
God knows that you were good 

And I hear you softly saying 
"Do I hurt you ? does it smart V 

And I could not make you answer 
For the beating of my heart. 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 115 

The silent hills stood watching us 

That silent, sunlit morn, 
When from my aching finger 

You drew away the thorn. 

Oh ! little witch! you haunted me 

Through many a lonesome day, 
When I wandered from your garden 

With pilgrim feet away. 

And by and by, in evil hour, 

I asked you once again 
To pluck a thorn from out my heart, 

And ease my bosom's pain. 

And you would not, or you could not, 

But you turned with tears away, 
And the dream of manhood faded 

Forever and for aye. 

# # # # * 

Yet I can suffer for your sake, 

Since better may not be, — 
If you may keep the rose, dear, 

The thorn may bide with me. 

Temple Bab. 



116 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



OUR LIVING GENERALS. 



Americans usually pay enough 
honor and respect to their success- 
ful generals. Several ot them have 
been made Presidents on account 
of their military exploits. The 
country placed a Jackson in the 
Presidential Chair over a Clay, be- 
cause it wanted the fortunate cap- 
tain to hold the reins of govern- 
ment rather than the civilian. 

Taylor and Harrison, both ex- 
cellent commanders were chosen by 
Whig conventions as candidates for 
the Presidency, though Clay had 
more brains in his bump of com- 
parison than both of them together. 
In our own times, Grant went on 
to political victory and triumph to 
the Chief Magistracy over the 
heads of two more competent and 
more loyal rivals, — Seymour and 
Greeley. The chief impetus that 
sent him forward on the wave of 
popular favor was the glory of his 
military career. In the last presi 
dential campaign both of the candi- 
dates were generals. The nominee 
of the Democratic party was a very 
distinguished and renowned gen- 
eral. His merits were principally 
those of a general, and he had few 
peers in his profession. But Gar- 
field's chief merits were those of 
the civilian, the statesman; and 
when he was successful over Han- 
cock, it was the second time only 
in the history of our country that 
the civilian beat the soldier ; 
the other time being when Lincoln 
beat McClellan, the much-vaunted 
Young Napoleon. 

This is the record of our country 



in regard to its warriors that never 
sheathed sword in defeat. But 
how are the living unsuccessful 
generals, the leaders that survived 
the Lost Cause, treated f It is 
true that some of them have re- 
ceived all the honors that a defeat- 
ed country could bestow. Some of 
them are governors, others Sena- 
tors. But the fact that they live 
and that we read of them daily 
going in and out among us as com 
mon men, prevents us from think- 
ing of them as being in the same 
category as their brave comrades 
who fell on the field of battle. It 
has been many years since our be- 
loved Lee and his able Lieutenant, 
with a host of companions, have 
passed over the River. Death has 
enshrined their names in glory and 
covered their graves with immor- 
telles. Little evil do we speak or 
hear spoken of them now. Per- 
haps if our living generals, our 
Hamptons, our Gordons, were dead 
they too would receive more honor 
and be placed in the ranks of the 
sainted. Each clod upon their 
bodies in the cold graves would 
represent the wreaths of flowers 
being entwined, the figures of 
speech being prepared in memory 
of their virtues. Why do we wait 
for one to die before we speak good 
of him ? One gets enough trouble 
while here to need all the kind 
words, all the soothing sayings that 
can be uttered. Then why turn 
the cold shoulder now, and be dis- 
tant, and reserve all our eulogies 
for the grave, when they are least 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



117 



needed ? The misanthrope argues 
from this, and truly too, that am- 
bitious man speaks good of his de- 
parted brother because he knows 
that he cannot return to life and 
regain his former station. 

Sometimes in political strife our 
living generals are spoken of dis- 
respectfully—and by Southerners 
too ! By reading daily what bit- 
ter partisans write against them, 
respect for their names is neces- 
sarily lessened. Though our pres- 
ent differences with them may be 
great, we should not forget that 
once they fought with great spirit 
and courage in defence of the sun- 
ny Southland. We ought not to 
wait till they meet Lee and Jack- 
son. Stuart and Ashby, on the 
other shore before we praise them 
for their great patriotism, un- 
swerving fidelity and courageous 
deeds. The orator who is not a 
bidder for popularity at any cost, 
but who directs public opiniou in 
its proper channel, and the states- 
man who surmounting many ob- 
stacles, steers the reeling, almost 
lost ship of State through raging 
tempests safe into port, must com- 
mand the respect and admiration 
of all. But in time of peace the 
true Southerner should not let his 
admiration for the wit of a Vance, 
the rhetoric of a Stephens, the 
logic of a Hill, the eloquence of a 
Lamar, or the poetry of a Ryan 
blind his eyes to the qualities, to 
the nobler virtues, to the grander 
traits of our living generals. For 
in those days of darkness, death 
and despair, of our country's great- 
est difficulties and sorest trials, 



when the star of peace and liberty 
paled in the western horizon and 
discord was rampant in the land, 
when the bonds of Union were 
snapped asunder and the evil cloud 
of war, terrible war, which had 
lowered over our land for some 
time burst forth with the fury of a 
summer's thunder-storm, theu it 
was that our Gordons, our Hamp- 
tons, our Johnstons and our Long- 
streets stepped forward, nay, rush- 
ed forward, offered their services, 
their influence, their means, their 
time and even their lives, and fear- 
lessly bared their breasts to the 
ruthless bullets of the enemy. But 
at that time where were the Hills 
and the Stephenes that we read so 
much of now ? Where were the 
men of unbounded talking capacity 
of now-a days ; the book learned 
men ; the men versed in legal lore ? 
It is true that they stand forth now 
very prominently and talk very 
loudly of patriotism and do the 
South much good ; but where were 
the majority of them during the 
turbulent and troublesome times 
of the war ? They were in quiet 
debate free from the enemy's balls. 
Away from the sound of musketry, 
out of all danger from the batteries 
of the enemy, in some well-selected 
bomb-proof place, there you will 
find them. Well has some one said 
that the Stars and Bars would 
never have gone down had the rest 
of the Confederacy done its duty 
as well as its women and soldiers. 
But this article is not written for 
dissension. There should be no 
division South. She has too many 
open and declared enemies from 



118 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



without to contend with, that are 
inly and ever wakeful for her ruin. 
She should not be divided in any 
way ; bnt shall be strong and solid : 
strong for the w hiteman and Anglo- 
Saxon rule, and solid for truth and 
justice. She shall acknowledge 
the merits, the talents of her speak- 
ers, her silver-tongued orators that 
stand up for her so nobly against 
the lies and the calumnies of the 
North, and she should give them 
heartfelt thanks for the great work 
they have done and are doing ; but 
when they are placed boastingly 
above her old war-worn veterans, 
she ought and should stand up for 
her living generals. Is she not 
aroused ? does not her very blood 
boil when the names of such men 
as Hill and Stephens and Joe 
Brown and Lamar are exalted to 
the skies, and the grand old names 
of her trusted and -tried Gordon 
and Hampton and Beauregard and 
Johnston trailed in the dust f The 
supporters and admirers of our 
professional statesmen, statesmen 
of unquestioned ability, do well 
when they praise them j but they 
should not exalt the politician at 
the expense of our noble and self- 



sacrifleing generals. They should 
remember that in the eye of history, 
the great leveller, that a Hill beside 
a Johuston will be as a molehill to 
a mountain, as a mouse to the royal 
lion ! 

These generals of ours, men of 
action, went forth to battle at the 
first trumpet's blast, and were tne 
last to return to their devastated 
homes, with nothing save honor 
and their wounds. In the heat of 
political strife, if we do happen to 
differ with them for the time in our 
opinions, never let us cast one slur 
upon their fair fame. In this day 
ot iusincerity and infidelity, we 
hardly know who to trust. There 
are so many faithless ones. But 
we do know and we are proud of 
the fact that our old living gen- 
erals are not petty demagogues 
that flit before the flaming candle 
of public applause day after day 
with great professions, but are men 
that have an ardent love for the 
true welfare of the South at all 
times, and are ever ready to defend 
her from aggression, not by words 
alone but by actions also. 

Edgar. 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



119 



CLASS OF '81 IN THE STATE LABORATORY. 



H.B. Battle and F. B. Dancy 
very worthily represent the Uni- 
versity in this Laboratory and are 
making a great impression. This 
impressiou,which seems to be great- 
est on the small girls of Raleigh, is 
illustrated by the following inci- 
dent. It is a part of their duty 
to show visitors over the Labora- 
tory and much ingenuity is required 
to adapt the mysteries of chemistry 
to the varied understanding of 
their many callers. A few days 
since an innocent, smiling specimen 
of the genus small girl came in to 
see the sights. In an unguarded 
moment Professor B. displayed his 
skill in blowing out bulbs from 
glass tubes by means of the blast 
pump, drawing them out in fantsa- 
tic shapes. Small girl eyed the 
process with screams of delight 
and when the tubes were exhaust- 
ed disappeared. 



On the next day the s. g. ap- 
peared very joyously with three 
others, and called for the glass 
blower, who again exhibited his 
skill with the same success, their 
shrieks filling the building. On 
the following day the pattering of 
many feet was heard in the hall, 
and s. g. rushed in, followed by a 
whole troop of her friends, old and 
young ; her sisters and her cousins 
and her aunts were all there. 

How this seige ended we have 
not heard. Whether the daily at- 
tacks of s. g. have routed the 
noble boys of '81 or whether they 
have resorted to the aid of H 2 S. is 
not yet reported to us. 

We suggest that the legal mem- 
bers of their class aid them with 
their advice. 



RAILROAD POWER. 



That the ingenuity of man has 
contrived a plan for applying the 
mighty force of steam to the work 
of transportation is one of the 
grandest facts of the 19th century. 
I venture the statement that no 
result of man's ingenuity ever ac- 
complished so much for his ad- 
vancement. No physical force ever 
gave such an impetus to the car of 
progress as that of steam. The 
application of the power of steam 
to man's use is the grandest victory 
mind ever gained over matter. We 



stand astonished at its results. It 
has virtually conquered space and 
time, and has reduced the world to 
a neighborhood. All honor to the 
men whose vigorous minds thought 
out this most beneficent invention. 
But it seldom happens in human 
affairs that a stream of good is not 
accompanied by a parallel stream 
of evil. Thus it is with steam and 
Railroads. While we rejoice in the 
fact that they elevated man from a 
lower to a higher plane of civiliza- 
tion, we deplore the fact that these 



120 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 



great benefits hare not been prop 
erly and justly distributed among 
the different classes of society. 

In the light of the fact that 
"eternal vigilance is the price of 
liberty" let us examine this subject. 
Unhappily for the good of the peo- 
ple the gigantic force of steam has 
fallen into the hands of unscrupu- 
lous and and selfish men who have 
turned the railroads into a mighty 
engine for accomplishing the most 
unjust discriminations and inequal- 
ities between individuals and com- 
munities. The arbitrary power of 
fixing freight charges now vested 
in the hands of a few railroad men 
is the cause of the following evils: 
(I) Discrimination in freight 
charges; (2) fluctuations of the 
same; (3) the rapid accumulation 
of wealth in the hands of a few. 

(1) By discrimination we mean 
the charging of one man more 
than another for doing the same 
work in transportation. The result 
of this is that one ships with 
secret discrimination in his favor, 
monopolizes his line of business, 
becomes immensely rich, and ruins 
his competitors. Thus the effect 
of railroad discrimination is to sub- 
stitute for the beneficent and regu- 
lative principle, competition, the 
hell-born principle, monopoly. The 
gigantic Railroad monopoly, as 
father, has united with hag, dis- 
crimination, as mother, and these 
two as parents have brought forth, 
reared and nourished as their off- 
spring the various other monopolies, 
with which our country is cursed. 
One notable example will illustrate 
this statement. 



The standard Oil Company, by 
means of Railroad favoritism, has 
driven almost all of its numerous 
competitors to the wall, and now 
has a monopoly of the oil trade of 
the world. It fixes the price that 
we pay for kerosene oil to-day. By 
the exercise of its arbitrary power 
in this respect it causes us to pay 
5 to 10 cents more on every gallon 
of oil than we ought to pay; more 
than we would have to pay if 
competition had its free course. 

This is only one instance ; the 
testimony of thousands of ruined 
men all over this broad land 
will bear me up in the statement 
that where two men are competing 
in business, and the weight of rail- 
road favoritism is flung into one 
scale the other is bound to kick the 
beam. 

Thus the unfortunate competitors 
must behold their more fortunate 
neighbors climbing successfully 
along the road of railway favorit- 
ism up the mountain of wealth and 
power, while they must wind their 
sad and doleful way down the road 
of railway discrimination into the 
vale of poverty. The differences 
in these two roads are as follows : 
The road of railway favoritism is 
a narrow one, and " few there be" 
who are so fortunate as to travel 
therein, while that of railway dis- 
crimination is broad and " thou- 
sands walk together there." The 
one leads up the mountain of mo- 
nopoly to regions of wealth and 
power, while the other leads down 
the mountain into the valley of 
poverty and wretchedness. Hence 
we see that railroad discrimination 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



121 



is steeped in the very dregs of in- 
justice. 

(2.) The second evil flowing from 
the arbitrary power of railroad men 
to fix freight rates is fluctuative. 
By this we mean the rising and 
falling of freight charges. At pres- 
ent freight charges rise and fall ac- 
cording to the rising and falling of 
the hopes, fears and opportunities 
of railroad kings. Take an ex- 
ample: In July, 1879, during a 
war of rates, wheat was carried 
from Chicago to New York for 10 
cents per hundred pounds. In Au- 
gust the freight was raised to 15 
cents, "a living rate." A short 
European harvest created an un- 
usual demand. A bountiful harvest 
at home created an extraordinary 
supply. The carrying capacity of all 
the roads leading to the seaboard 
was taxed to the utmost. The 
freight was gradually raised from 
15 cents in August to 40 cents in 
November. Tbus by means of their 
power to raise the freight to suit 
themselves, tne railroad men levied 
a tax of 25 cents on every hundred 
pounds of wheat carried by them 
from the West at that time. This 
tax amounted in the aggregate to 
$50,000,000. This amount over and 
above what the farmers ought to 
have paid for transporting their 
grain. I am unable to find words 
strong enough to express the in- 
justice of this action. By it the 
already rich railroad men became 
i 50,000,000 richer, and the indus- 
trious farmers became $50,000,000 
poorer. At present freight charges 
resemble an undulating line, and 
these undulations iu freight charges 



are attended by corresponding un- 
dulations in the business condition 
of our country. The slightest re- 
flection will show what an enormous 
economical evil this fluctuation is. 
The power to raise the charges 
to almost any extent that may 
please the avarice of railroad men 
is the father of our third evil. 

(3). The rapid accumulation of 
wealth in the hands of a few. To 
proove that such an evil exists, I 
need only state that Jay Gould & 
Company have accumulated $75,- 
000.000 within the last fifteen years. 
The Vanderbilts $100,000,000 with- 
in twenty years ; and Huntington, 
Hopkins & Company $186,000,000 
within the almost incredibly short 
space of fifteen years. The railroad 
men who have accumulated within 
a few years amounts ranging from 
$1,000,000 to $5,000,000 are too 
numerous to mention. The Kail- 
roads last year taxed the people of 
this nation over $500,000,000, more 
than one and oue-half times the 
revenue paid the general govern- 
ment. Thus we see a few men are 
grasping to themselves the fruits 
of industry and the gains of trade. 
Fifty millions of people are being 
rendered tributary to a land of 
railroad magnates. Daniel Web- 
ster said : " The freest govern- 
ment cannot long endure where the 
tendency of the law is to create a 
rapid accumulation of property in 
the hands of the few, and to render 
the masses of the people poor and 
dependent.'' In the light of the fact 
that with gigantic money-power 
comes gigantic power of every 
kind ; is it not high time that we 



122 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



examine the chart and compass to 
see whither the ship * of State is 
drifting? What is the present 
power of railroad men f Their his- 
tory shows that " in the matter of 
taxation there are to-day four men 
representing the four great trunk 
lines between Chicago and New 
York who posses, and who not un- 
frequency exercise, powers which 
the Congress of the United States 
would not venture to exert." These 
men have the power, by a single 
stroke of the pen to reduce the 
value of property in this country 
hundreds of millions of dollars. 
They have the power at any time 
that it suits their royal will to 
throw the entire financial machin- 
ery of the country out of gear. They 
can clog the working of our banks ; 
they can throw dead locks into the 
business wheels of our country. 
They have the power of bringing 
our foreign commerce to a stand 
still, and thus causing immense 
loss to people of the nation. 

See what one has accomplished 
by monopolizing the mighty force of 
steam. Jay Could, who controls more 
miles of Railroad than any other 
man in the world, also controls the 
telegraphic system of the United 
States and Canada, and " is now 
reaching under the sea to grasp 
that of Europe.'' This same man 
runs three out of seven of the news- 
papers which constitute the Asso- 
ciated Press. Thus we see that 
we are rapidly tending to that con- 
dition of things in this country in 
which one man, or at least a few 
men, will own and control, not only 
the channels of commerce through 



which sustenance is supplied to our 
industrial and commercial life, but 
also the channels of thought 
through which are transmitted 
the currents of intelligence which 
which would maintain public opin- 
ion. 

Another alarming feature of the 
subject is the means employed by 
these men to perpetuate their pow- 
er. Their stupendous money power 
has diseased and corrupted the en- 
tire body politic. These men al- 
ready have a hard grip on much of 
the political machinery of the coun- 
try and are now rapidly seizing the 
avenues of power that lead to the 
control of the government. The 
fact that a great bulk of the voting 
power is purchasable constitutes a 
channel through which moneyed 
men can grasp and control a great 
mass of voting-power. Hence just 
in proportion as their political in- 
fluence increase, and as their in- 
fluence grows, their ability to per- 
petuate and strengthen their power 
grows also, and since there seems 
to be no limit to this process of 
growth, this question becomes one 
which may well cause alarm to 
those of us who love and cherish 
our free institutions, and who are 
unwilling to see substituted there- 
for an oligarchy, founded on the 
basis of money. The railroad men 
have already turned the legisla- 
tures of several States into work- 
shops in which laws are made to 
their order and bought and sold. 
If these things continue the people 
will soon find themselves bound 
hand and foot ; for in some States 
the Railroad magnates have gone 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



123 



so far as to corrupt the very foun- 
tain of justice, the courts of law. 
It is high time the people were wak- 
ing up and decidiug whether or 
not money is to be king of this 
country. 

From the above considerations it 
is evident that under the present 
management of Railroads the main 
stream of wealth is flowing toward 
but one part of society, and it is 
natural to infer that it and its trib- 
utaries are draining the wealth 
from the other parts of society. 
Just in proportion as the main 
stream is wolleu, and the one part 
of society is enriched, in that same 
proportion must those parts of so- 
ciety through which the tributaries 
flow, be drained dry, and its people 
impoverished. This shows that 
the preseut management of Rail- 
roads is an unhealthy one. For the 
Railroads, the great arteries of com- 
merce, may be likened to the ar- 
teries of the body. When the ar- 



teries of the body are under the 
control of a healthy heart, the 
blood circulates freely throughout 
the body conferring nourishment 
on all parts alike; so if the arteries 
of commerce were under a healthy 
control the wealth of the country 
would circulate freely throughout 
the body politic,conferring the bene- 
fits of Railroads on all classes of 
society alike. The disease with 
which the body politic is affected, 
brought on by the mismanagement 
of Railroads is congestion. The 
wealth is congestion into the hands 
of the few and drawn out of the 
hands of the many. What shall 
be the remedy? Different physicians 
would suggest different cures. But 
my cure is to combine a healthy 
public opinion with the power of 
the general government for the 
purpose of relaxing the grasp of 
the Railroad monopoly. 

N. F. Heitman. 



124 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



Editorial D epa^tment, 

T. A. WHARTON, Editor. 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY, 

Published under the auspices of 

DIALECTIC and PHILANTHROPIC 
LITERARY SOCIETIES 

Of the University of N. C. 
TERMS: 

One copy one year, (of 9 months) $1.00 

One copy six months 75 

Five copies to one address, one year, 4.00 

RATES OF ADVERTISING: 

One dollar per inch for first insertion and fifty 
cents for each subsequent insertion of same adver- 
tisement. 

Address all communications to 

WALTER W. VANDIVER, 

Business Manager, 
Chapel Hill, Orange Co., N. C. 

CHAPEL HILL, N. C, DEO, 1882. 



With this issue our " Magazine'- 
reaches its second birth day. 
Triumphant o'er all the ills that 
infant flesh is heir to, sound of 
limb it stands on a firm footing. 

In its short career it has had to 
contend with shafts of ridicule from 
the cross bows of the croaking ele- 
ment of the University ; with the 
lukewarm zeal of the indifferent; 
with the worst of all foes, the in- 
disposition of its subscribers to pay 
their dues; with spasmodic inter- 
est that ebbs from the highest en- 
thusiasm to worse than indiffereuce; 
and with the host of evils that at- 
tends upon frequent changes in the 
staff of editors. 

Yet, the fact of its surviving all 
these perils and difficulties is a 
strong testimony to the vital powers 



of the infant. It is free from debt. 
Its future is bright. 

But it rests with you, patrons, 
whether it shall begin its 2nd year 
with waxing or waning streugth. 
It rests with you whether it shall 
become a successful, creditable ex- 
ponent of the work of the Societies, 
or whether the mournful epitaph 
be inscribed in the secretary's book, 
'• here lies the infant Monthly, died 
of starvation; aged one year.'' This 
latter possibility we do not fear, 
but that it may not become a cer- 
tainty, you who have supported it 
in the past must continue your 
patronage. Come forward and cele- 
brate its birth day, by paying up 
your dues, and by renewing your 
subscription. 

With this number some of us 
take our departure from editorial 
ranks, and go back to private life. 
We are sated with the glory at- 
tendant upon our high official sta- 
tion and readily yield up our chairs 
to better men. 

Though conscious of numberless 
errors committed, and our many 
shortcomings, yet we humbly sub- 
mit that l * we have done the best 



we could.'' 



H 



In the death of Richard $. Bat- 
tle, Sr., of Raleigh, and Barthol- 
omew Fuller, of Durham, North 
Carolina, has lost two of its most 
intelligent citizens, and University 
two of its Alumni who bore off its 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



125 



highest honors. Mr. Battle was in 
his 76th year, and a brother of the 
late honored and revered Judge 
William H. Battle, of the Supreme 
Court. He was long afflicted but 
was nevertheless a useful and most 
respected citizen. He was a mem 
ber of the Presbyterian Church. 
Mr. Fuller was a man of parts and 
of culture. We knew him well and 
esteemed him most highly. He, 
too, was a Presbyterian, and at one 
time edited the organ of that 
Church when it was published at 
Fayettcville. He was a good law- 
yer, a good writer, an excellent 
companion, a most genial gentle- 
man. — Wilmington Star. 

Both these gentlemen were mem- 
bers of the Dialectic Society. Doubt- 
less, their success in life has been 
in a great measure due to the train 
ing they received in her halls. The 
motto of their society has been the 
motto of their lives, love of virtue 
and science. 

Noble, successful men, their lives 
are worthy of our immitation. 



ALBION W. TOURGEE. 

Any one who has ever seen 
Judge Seymour, of this State, has 
seen a man who very nearly re- 
sembles Tourgee. But fortunately 
for the Judge, there exists only an 
outward resemblance. You will 
search Tourgee's sharp, shrewd 
features in vain, for the open, in- 
genious character that shines in 
the counteuance of Seymour. 

Have you never seen a yankee ? 
then you will find your ideal in" the 
fool.'' Imagine a man about five 
feet ten, thick set, his shoulders 



slightly stooping, his hair and long 
beard once jet black but now tinged 
with grey, possessing a glass eye, 
but with the other doing the obser- 
vation of the eyes of twenty aver- 
age men, — and you have Tourgee 
before you. 

Soon after the war he " turned 
up" in Greensboro ; from whence, 
no one can say. He began the 
practice of law, but soon entered 
politics. He ran for Congress but 
was defeated bj Gen. A. M. Scales. 
He was afterwards elected one of 
the Judges of the Superior Court. 
Before he left Greensboro, (called 
Verdanton in " Fools Errand) he 
owued a fine residence in the sub- 
urbs, but his story in " the Errand" 
in regard to his buying a large 
estate there, and being defrauded 
in the purchase, is totally a mis- 
take. In the first place he never 
bought any estate, and had he done 
so Tourgee would not have been the 
victim of fraud. In his home, 
Tourgee is affable and entertaining. 
The beauty of his wife, so glowing- 
ly pictured in the " Fool's Errand 
could certainly have been recog- 
nized only by the husband's glass 
eye. She is, however, a highly cul- 
tured woman, and assists her hus- 
band in his writings. She has 
translated her husband's work into 
French and German, 

Tourgee's first novel came out 
some ten years ago. Its title was 
then "Toiuette," but the book has 
since been revised and is now called 
the "Royal Gentleman." It is 
somewhat in the style of "Uncle 
Tom's Cabin," being a tirade 
against the enforced social status 



126 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



of the black, and is intended to 
plead for civil rights. "Figs and 
Thistles" came out next, and to the 
Southerner, is by far his most pal- 
atable work. It is a love story, al 
most entirely stript of politics. It 
is especially interesting, from the 
fact of its being the history of 
Garfield, (disguised as Chubb.) 
Strange to say he makes Garfield 
reach the Presidential chair, and 
the novel was written long before 
Garfield was nominated, and before 
the wildest speculator ever dream- 
ed of such an event. 

Next in order followed his more 
famous works "Fool's Errand" and 
"Bricks Without Straw/' the bur- 
den of which is the ku klux organ- 
ization, Southern intolerance, and 
failure of the "Reconstruction" 
measures. His last works "John 
Eax" and "Mamelon'' are more dis- 
posed to do justice to the South, 
and hence are not as favorably re- 
ceived at the North as are his other 
works. 

His writings form a mirror in 
which Northern prejudice may see 
its distorted face, hence their pres- 
ent popularity. 

So soon as this Northern preju- 
dice vanishes, as vanish it will, 
then will Tourgee's writings sink 
into merited oblivion. 

If the Southerner will divest 
himself of his own prejudice, he 
cannot fail to see the beauty and 
force of style exhibited in these 
writings in spite of the unpalatable 
ideas they contain. 

A lawyer in New York, one 
Royal, attempted to answer Tour- 



gee, but his failure is about on a 
par with a like attempt by the 
author of "JMonon Ou.' ? 



TRIBUTE OF RESPECT. 



Dialectic Hall, 
Dec. 2, 1882. 

Whereas, The Dialectic Society 
has received intelligence that our 
Heavenly Father has seen fit in His 
infinite wisdom to take from us our 
fellow- mem her, Hon. Bartholomew 
Fuller, of Durham, N. C , therefore 
be it 

Resolved, 1. That in his death 
we have lost an esteemed and hon- 
ored member. 

2. That the Bar of the State has 
met with an irreparable loss, and 
that the community in which he 
lived has been deprived of a use- 
ful, benevolent and Christian gen- 
tleman. 

3. That a copy of these resolu- 
tions be inscribed in the minutes 
of our Society; that a copy be sent 
to the bereaved family, to the Dur- 
ham Recorder, to the Fayetteville 
Examiner, and to the University 
Monthly. 

W. D. McIver, 

Thomas Radcliffe, J> Com. 

J. F. Wilkes, 

University of North Carolina, 
Chapel Hill, N. C. 



<l 



National holiday was observed 
by the University. Prof. Winston, 
by the request of the students and 
his many friends, delivered his cel- 
ebrated lecture, "The March of the 
Three Races," in the Di. Hall. It 
was a grand literary treat. 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



127 



College Record. 

T. C. WOOTEN, Editob. 



Senator Ransom, who has been 
spending some time with as at 
Chapel Hill, in consequence of the 
sickness of a son, speaks in the 
highest terms of approbation of 
what he saw and heard of the con- 
duct of the Institution while here. 
It was extremely gratifying to him, 
he said, to find from actual personal 
observations such a favorable state 
of affairs here, not only because of 
the great love he bore for his alma 
mater, but because of the great 
promise the Institution gives of 
future usefulness to the State. 
The libraries, he says, are better 
kept and furnished than they were 
when he was here. 



The Alumni Association of the 
University of North Carolina has 
entered upon the commendable 
work of endeavoriug to secure 
funds to erect at the University a 
gymnasium. The trustees have 
agreed to furnish the apparatus if 
the building can be secured. The 
amount required will be about 
$3,500.00, and to raise the funds a 
joint stock company, with shares 
at $10, known as the University 
Gamnasium Association has been 
formed. The Alumni of the Uni- 
versity are appealed to to take 
stock. 



It was stated in the October 
number of the Monthly that a 
handsome copy of Shakespear 
would be awarded to the student 
who would contribute the best ar- 
ticle to the Monthly by November 
18th, 1882. The editors have unan- 
imously consented to let Dr. Man- 
gum decide which article is to be 
entitled to the prize. Decision to 
be rendered February 1st, 1883. 



In the year before the war it is 
said that North Carolina University 
ranked next to Harvard in the 
number of its undergraduates. 
With her present faculty, it will 
not be long before she will be re- 
stored to her pristine glory. 



At this writing the boys are pre- 
paring for home. 



Prof. Winston delivered addresses 
to large audiences in the towns of 
Salem, Winston, and Raleigh dur- 
ing the past month. They were on 
the subject of Education. They 
are highly spoken of by our ex- 
changes. Literaryaddresses deliver- 
ed by our professors, in different 
localities of the State will have a 
great tendency to promote the in- 
terest of the University. 

Master John James, of the fresh- 
man class, hailing from Pitt, has 
received the Cadetship at West 
Point. Johnnie is daring and ad- 
venturous, will make a cool calcu- 
lator, and a first-class fire-side gen- 
eral. 



128 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



The Indian Territory has a rep- 
resentative at our University. 

At the last meeting of the Senior 
Class the following officers were 
elected for class day : 

President — Horace Williams. 

Vice-President— R. Percy Gray. 

Orator — J. U. Newman, Suffolk, 
Va. 

Prophet — Thomas Radeliff. Wil- 
mington, N. 0. 

Historian — N. F. Heitman, Lex- 
ington, N. C. 

Poet— Edmond Baffin, Hanover 
county, Va. 

Marshal^— J. F. Wilkes, Char- 
lotte, N. C. 

The tree selected was a white 
pine. The new feature of the ex- 
ercises will be the smoking of a 
pipe indicative of the peace and 
friendship which have existed 
among the members of the class 
during their College association and 
which they entertain toward each 
other at its close. 

The Senior Class is composed 
of men of strong and hearty intel- 
lects. We predict for them a bright 



future. No country will ever retro- 
gade as long as she has such ma- 
terial to build from. 

Prof. Mangum is spoken of as 
President for Trinity College. We 
entertain very ambitious hopes for 
Trinity,, but eau r t give up a man 
who would be an irreparable loss 
to the University. 



University Law Class convened 
at their study and organized them- 
selves into a club. The purpose of 
the association is to discuss and 
elucidate intricate questions of law y 
to debate questions of a debatable 
uature. The association consists 
of a constitution and by-laws. Offi- 
cers for the term are as follows: 

President — Robert B. Albeitson, 

Vice-President — Robert B. Win- 
borne. 

Secretary and Treasurer — Frank 
S. Spruill. 

Query Committee — James N. Rouse 
Thos. C. Wooten, R.B. Winborne. 

Janitor— A. T. Hill. 

The class meet every other Mon- 
day evening. 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



129 



A 



MONG 



Ou 



R 



Exchanges. 



j 



L. VANN, Editor. 



"O, these deliberate fools! when they do choose, 
They have the wisdom by their wit to lose." 

ShaTcespear. 



Examinations are a bore ! 
Examinations are a bore 11 
Examinations are a bore ! ! ! 
EXAMINATIONS IRE A 
BORE ! ! ! I— Collegian. 

Ye gods, at the Exchanges! And 
they make excellent lamp lighters. 

This number of the Mini has 
nothing very remarkable in it. 

Commencement orations at Yale 
are limited to five minutes. 



The Bethel Cadet varies the us 
ual order a little. Instead of a 
patent "outsider," it has a patent 
"iusider." 

The Randolph-Macon Monthly is 
well gotten up. An article in it on 
''Reading" is fair. 

The Wabash, from the Hoosier 
State lias a poetical genius on its 
editorial staff. He follows after 
Poe in not writing lengthy effusions. 
Here is a sample: 

"I lingered near the chamber, 

Wherein my darling slept, 
While softly up behind me, 
Her father's bull dog crept. 

I sang my little sorrow, 

That ever we should part, — 

My pants are with the tailor, 
I'm more than sore at heart. 



The College Herald does very 
well for Trinity. 

The outside of the North Western 
resembles more the outside of a cir- 
cular of a clothing establishment 
than anything else. 

The Cornell Era reaches us now 
and then. It is superior to the 
Sun and the Review, published at 
the same college. 



The Niagara Index is as good as 
ever, containing a splendid article 
on "Delivery.'' 



St. Mary's Muse and the Salem 
Academy are the first repsentatives 
of the tair sex that have reached 
us. Both possess much merit, but 
should be published oftener. 

The Lantern, representing the 
Ohio State University, is a neat 
sheet; but would be improved, we 
think, if more of its space were de- 
voted to literature. 



The Index's funny man presents 
a great objection to co-education. 
He remarks that it is too hard on 
the boys, because their time is so 
taken up in making good their ap- 
pointments with gentle humanity 
that they cannot spare time to eat. 
But the girls manage to live by 
chewing gum. 

The Asbury Monthly is a reada- 
ble magazine of sixty-two pages. 
The article on "Prohibition" is 
good, only it is too short. Prohibi- 
tion seems to be a live issue in the 
Hoosier State. We wager that the 
liquor-leagues will gain the day. 



130 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



Pef^s 



ONAL 



T. RADCLIFFE, Editor. 



" I b'lieve I MI;'' 

" How many did you get?" 

"I'm sure to get at least 90 "(gets 
68, by the watch). 

Of the Congressional Delegation 
three are alumni of this Institution. 
W. F. Pool, 1st District ; A. M. 
Scales, 5th District; Clement Dowd, 
6th District. 

Dick Neal, veni-ed, vidi-ed and 
vici-ed so numerously at the Hotel 
on that occasion that he had a fit. 
A turkey-fit, not a duck- fit, my 
u genteel gayzel." 

Christmas and " floin' boles'' are 
next in order, especially the f b's. 

Have a good time, boys, and be 
back in time to vote. 

Charlie Askew is drumming for 
a Baltimore Drug-house. 

Battle, Tom. '80, left us a few 
days ago for his new home in Tar- 
boro, 

Cobb, C. C, '80, has settled in 
Shelby, N. C. He is a lawyer. Cov- 
ington, C. C, '79, is in business in 
Wilmington, N. C. 

Phillips, Alex, is teaching school 
in Clinton, Sampson county. 

Bobbitt, Rufus,(Darling Josie-at- 
the-Gate-Rufe) is farming in Gran 
ville, county. Is married and has 
an heir. 

Phillips, Tillie, is in the banking 
business in Tarboro. 



Williams, Dune, is in his father's 
office in Wilmington. 

Borden, Frank, is in the cotton 
business in Goldsboro, N. C. 

Boy Kin, Dave, better known as 
Hnck Finn, is teaching school in 
Sampson county. 

In the next Legislature there will 
be twenty-two alumni of the Uni- 
versity. 

Thauksgiving Day was observed 
in this place with the usual num- 
ber of turkeys, and an appropriate 
amount of cramp-colic. 

Judge Ruffin, of the Supreme 
Court, and five of the Superior 
Court Judges are our alumni, Phil- 
lips, MeKoy, Gilmer, Shipp aud 
Avery. 

Senators Ransom and Vance are 
both graduates of the University. 

Hurrah for the University! Still 
ahead, aud will continue so. 

President Battle showed us a 
l>amphlet, entitled "Premium 
List, &c, of the 5th Annual Fair 
of the West Florida Association,'' 
published by Latimer C. Voughan, 
editor and proprietor of the Mari- 
anna Courier, Mariauna, Fla. The 
pamphlet is beautifully et got up," 
and is highly creditable to the t n- 
terprise and good taste of the pub- 
lisher, who graduated here with 
the class of '80. 



b